Test Bank For Gangs in America Communities 2nd Edition Test Bank C. Howell

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Test Bank For Gangs in America Communities 2nd Edition Test Bank C. Howell

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Gangs in Americas Communities 2nd Edition Test Bank C. Howell  Test Bank 

 

Gangs in Americas Communities

James C. Howell

Elizabeth Griffiths

Chapter 2: Myths and Realities of Youth Gangs

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the common myths promoted about gangs?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Throughout whole chapter; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gangs of the same name are connected.
  2. Children are joining gangs at younger and younger ages.
  3. Gangs spend most of their time planning and committing crimes.

*d. Gangs are key players in firearms trafficking.

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY: The authors use the term myths rather than fallacy to describe beliefs about gangs because

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 23; Question Type: MR

 

  1. They are synonyms, and either term is acceptable, but myths was chosen to keep the language consistent.

*b. It is more inclusive.

*c. There are exceptions to each gang myth.

  1. Fallacy is a term reserved for the physical sciences.

 

  1. Which of the following gang activities is NOT an example of the false coral snake phenomenon described by Felson (2006)?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 24; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Wearing only red to look like a Blood

*b. Dealing on a street corner

  1. Flashing a hand sign
  2. Painting gang graffiti

 

  1. Which of the following myths promoted in broadcast media would gang members be most likely to promote themselves?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 24; Question Type: MC

 

*a. Violence is pervasive.

  1. Gangs are an urban problem.
  2. There is very little diversity in the types of gangs that exist.
  3. Gangs are trying to spread throughout the country.

 

  1. Most gangs do not meet the criteria for organized crime because they are not well _______________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 25; Question Type: MC

 

*a. structured

  1. armed
  2. funded
  3. diversified

 

  1. Gangs set spaces are _______.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 26; Question Type: MC

 

  1. larger than neighborhoods
  2. the same size as neighborhoods
  3. unknown in size

*d. smaller than neighborhoods

 

  1. Exceptions to the myth that gangs of the same name are connected are most commonly found among ______ gangs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 26; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Black
  2. prison

*c. transnational

  1. female

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. The following reflect traits of gang shot callers:

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 25-26; Question

 

*a. They are the equivalent of leaders in gangs.

*b. They reflect the informal division of labor in gangs.

  1. They are always permanent positions.

*d. The person in the position may change from one gang activity to the next.

Type: MR

 

  1. Which of the following phrases reflects the process whereby gangs promote their own myths about their dangerousness?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 23; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Fallacy

*b. Big gang theory

  1. Crime reporting wave
  2. Gang suppression

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a source of gang myths?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 23, 24; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Broadcast media
  2. Gang members themselves

*c. Prison officials

  1. Legislators

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following gangs represent exceptions to the myth that gangs of the same name are connected?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 26; Question Type: MR

 

  1. Crips

*b. Gangster Disciples

*c. 18th Street

*d. Mara Salvatrucha

 

  1. What is the most common sub-myth of the gang migration myth?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 26; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gangs migrate to advance firearm trafficking goals.

*b. Gangs migrate to set up drug trafficking operations.

  1. Gangs migrate to avoid prosecution.
  2. Gangs migrate to war with other gangs.

 

  1. It is implied that ____________ largely responsible for spreading the myth that MR-13 and 18th Street presence are growing throughout the country.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 27; Question Type: MC

 

  1. local police departments are

*b. the FBI is

  1. Maras are
  2. the broadcast media is

 

  1. The real reason behind much of so-called gang migration implies that:

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 27; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gang members are more connected to their gangs than their friends and families.
  2. Gang members are interested in establishing transnational criminal networks.

*c. Gang members are more connected to their families and friends than their gangs.

  1. Gang members are interested in conducting recruitment efforts away from their home base.

 

  1. Which of the following gang myths is hard to prove given the inability to distinguish general immigration patterns from gang membership patterns?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 27; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gangs of the same name are connected.
  2. Gang members are a new wave of super-predators.
  3. Gangs were actively involved in the crack epidemic.

*d. The MR-13 and 18th Street gangs are spreading across the United States.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of big gang theory?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 28; Question Type: MC

 

*a. Gangs recruit students in the public school system.

  1. Gangs migrate.
  2. Gangs are involved in drug trafficking.
  3. Gangs are inevitably violent.

 

  1. Which is NOT an example of a characteristic common to drug gangs?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 29; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A 54-year-old member.
  2. One defined leader.
  3. A mandate of loyalty.

*d. Rivalries between gangs.

 

  1. Curry, Decker, and Egely (2002) found that, among youth who reported never having been in a gang, _______ had reported engaging in gang-related behavior.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 30; Question Type: MC

 

*a. about half

  1. equal to
  2. about twice as many
  3. unknown in relation to

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common myth told about gangs in the broadcast media?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 30; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gangs, drugs, and violence are inexorably linked.

*b. Children are joining gangs at younger and younger ages.

  1. Gangs spend most of their time planning and committing crimes.
  2. Gangs of the same name are always connected.

 

  1. All of the following are components of the reality relating to the age that individuals join gangs except:

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer location: Pgs. 30-31; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Blessed-in children are the exception to the myth.
  2. The child gangs that Thrasher found were really just childrens playgroups.

*c. The gang initiation phase usually takes place between middle school and high school.

  1. Gang recruitment depends in large part on children feeling alienated from their parents.

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following reflect reasons why children are actually not joining gangs at younger and younger ages?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pgs. 30-31; Question Type: MR

 

*a. Children below a certain age are not sufficiently exposed to gangs.

*b. Teenagers and young adults in gangs prefer not to hang out with children.

  1. Children do not develop negative stereotypes about law enforcement until later.
  2. Most gang members join gangs after getting their first minimum wage job.

 

  1. All of the following are components of gang-related crime except:

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 16; Question Type: MC

 

*a. It refers to crimes committed on behalf of a gang.

  1. It is different from gang-motivated crime.
  2. It is more general a measure than gang-motivated crime.
  3. It encompasses a wide variety of crimes.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of an urban myth told about gangs?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pgs. 16-17; Question Type: MC

 

*a. They mimic or imitate the signs and symbols of larger gangs to seem more menacing.

  1. They randomly find victims for their violent acts.
  2. They engage in weird initiation rituals.
  3. Adult gang members act almost like pedophiles in their attempts to stealthily recruit new members.

 

  1. _________exercise the greatest influence in determining whether or not an individual joins a group.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 37; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Parents
  2. Older social influencers

*c. Peers

  1. Broadcast media

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of a crime reporting wave?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 35; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Gathering data from police departments

*b. Journalists making bonuses for being the first to report on a crime story

  1. Repetition of one news outlets story by another one
  2. The embellishment of a new story as it gets added to

 

  1. Fallacy is a synonym for myth.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 23; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Broadcast media and gang members themselves are the primary sources of myths about gangs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 23; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The popular media implies that gangs and gang members are ethnically and racially diverse.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 24; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. There is an inverse relationship between gangs public images and their set spaces in reality.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 26; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Gangs are structured similarly to corporations.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 25; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Law enforcement agencies are not prone to promote myths about gangs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 25; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. The myth that gang members reflect a new wave of super-predators is one of the most complex gang myths.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 28, 34; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Street gang members are most likely to be involved in the drug market via their involvement in street sales.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 29; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Law enforcement personnel attribute the majority of gang violence to gang migration.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 28; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. The bulk of drug-related gang violence is due to fighting over market control of the drug market.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 29, 37; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Type: E

  1. What are the key differences between organized crime syndicates and gangs?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 25; Question Type: SA

 

*a. Answer: Organized crime syndicates are well-structured and have defined leadership roles, a code of loyalty, serious consequences for those who do not abide by the code, and the business savvy required to engage in large-scale drug trafficking activities. Gangs, on the other hand, are often much less organized, with frequently changing membership and hierarchies that act with a very informal division of labor and do not have the entrepreneurial skills to lead drug-trafficking operations.

 

Type: E

  1. What is a moral panic, and how is the term related to myths about gangs?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 40; Question Type: SA

 

*a. Answer: A moral panic is a phenomenon in which myths and stereotypes lead a diverse range of societal leaders, including social and political leaders, to view a whole group of people as a threat to our values and norms. In the context of gangs, growing gang myths in the 1980s and 1990s led to a moral panic in which leaders responded by advancing punitive gang suppression legislation.

 

Type: E

  1. Summarize a recent anti-gang piece of legislation or policy that you are familiar with and then evaluate it in relation to the extent and number of myths implied by the policy. How could you strengthen the legislation to more accurately address realities of gangs and their activities?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: For the above example, see pg. 37; Question Type: ESS

 

*a. Answer: Varies. Students should first identify a public policy directed at suppressing gang activity, such as the CRASH unit in Los Angeles, which involved the raiding and arresting of nearly 1,500 suspected gang members in a street sweeping operation. This program was based on a number of gang myths, primarily the myth that a sole reliance on law enforcement efforts will help ameliorate gang problems. The CRASH unit also implied a number of other myths about gangs, such as the myth that gangs, drugs, and violence are inexorably linked, and that gang members spend the preponderance of their time planning on committing crimes. It appears that this program was not based on research indicating wholly aggressive intervention efforts do not work in wiping out gang activity, and that treatment goals should be set instead that focus on preventing gang membership and the commission of serious crimes, since so few of the individuals arrested in the CRASH sweeps were ever prosecuted.

 

Gangs in Americas Communities

James C. Howell

Elizabeth Griffiths

                             Chapter 6: Girls and Gangs

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. It is implied that early misconceptions about the participation of females in gangs are based on ___________ assumptions about gangs in general.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain:  Analysis; Answer Location: Pgs. 123-124; Question Type: MS

 

  1. racist
  2. classist

*c. sexist

*d. over-simplistic

 

  1. Which of the following refers to the belief that macrostructural changes from the 1940s to the 1970s fundamentally shifted the role of women in gangs so that they assumed more autonomous criminal roles?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 124; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Conflict resolution

*b. Liberation hypothesis

  1. Beyond risk
  2. Rite of passage

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a key theme uncovered by seminal studies on female gang members in the 1970s and 1980s?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 124-125; Question Type: MC

 

  1. They acted at least in part independently from boys.
  2. They were engaged in violent conflicts.

*c. They served largely as sex objects.

  1. They participated in serious crime.

 

  1. Moores research (1978, 1991) implies the activities of female gang members _________________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 125; Question Type: MC

 

*a. became more similar to the activities of male gang members over time

  1. became less like the activities of male gang members over time
  2. have not changed over time
  3. were unknown to researchers prior to the early 1990s

 

  1. The Denver Youth Survey found that ______________ of gang members were females.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 126; Question Type: MC

 

  1. More than zero but less than one sixth

*b. more than one sixth but less than one half

  1. more than one half but less than three fourths
  2. more than three fourths

 

  1. In which of the following studies was the high end of the estimated proportion of female youth reporting gang membership the largest?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 125-126; Question Type: MC

 

*a. Denver Youth Survey

  1. Seattle Social Development Project
  2. Rochester Youth Development Study
  3. Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Project

 

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following have been found about the relationship of female gang involvement to other forms of delinquency and criminality?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 127; Question Type: MS

 

*a. Gang involvement among females facilitates delinquency involvement above and beyond the effect of association with non-gang-involved delinquent peers.

  1. Females involved in gangs are more likely to engage in prostitution than non-gang-involved females.
  2. Female gang members today are less likely to engage in serious, violent crimes than forty years ago.

*d. Females involved in gangs are more likely to experience substance abuse than non-gang-involved females.

 

  1. Which of the following offenses did Ebensen et al. (2010) find to be LEAST prevalent among females?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 128; Question Type: MC

 

*a. Robbing someone

  1. Hitting someone
  2. Shooting at someone
  3. Participating in gang violence

 

  1. According to Ebensen et al. (2010), it is implied that the value of Individual Offending Rates (IOR) are _________________ offense prevalence percentages.
  2. the same as
  3. about twice as large as
  4. about half as large as

*d. about one-tenth as large as

Learning objective number: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Pg.

Question Type: MC

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Under what circumstances are girl members of gangs found to be MOST likely to engage in violence?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 129; Question Type: MS

 

  1. As the proportion of females in a gang increases
  2. As the age of females in a gang increases

*c. As the proportion of males in a gang increases

*d. As the level of organization of a gang increases

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a characteristic of an organized gang?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 129; Question Type: MC

 

  1. A gang that requires its members to wear all red in public
  2. A gang that requires a jump in to become a member
  3. A gang that that commits burglaries

*d. A gang that has no designated leader

 

  1. It is uncommon for girls violent acts to involve ____________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 129; Question Type: MC

 

*a. firearms

  1. knives
  2. fists
  3. multiple offenders

 

  1. Valdezs (2007) term beyond risk is another way of saying _________________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 130; Question Type: MC

 

  1. no risk
  2. low risk
  3. moderate risk

*d. extreme risk

 

  1. Valdez (2007) found which of the following detrimental family conditions to be most commonly reported among female respondents who later became gang associates?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 130; Question Type: MC

 

*a. Family member drug use

  1. Family member alcohol abuse
  2. Witnessing domestic violence
  3. Sexual abuse by a family member

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a behavior common to hoodrats?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 131; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Frequently attending parties with male gang members
  2. Using both marijuana and cocaine

*c. Marrying a gang member

  1. Drinking a six-pack of beers every night

 

Type: MR

  1. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following is a risk factor for girls gang joining?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pgs. 131-132; Question Type: MS

 

*a. Early problem behaviors

  1. Immigration status

*c. Neighborhood characteristics

*d. Family environments

 

  1. Due to differences in the origins and implications of _______________, different interventions are proposed for gang-involved females and males.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 133; Question Type: MC

 

  1. the liberation hypothesis
  2. extreme risk

*c. risk factors

  1. sexism

 

  1. The ____________________ is an example of a CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) intervention for gang involvement.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 135; Question Type: MC

 

*a. SNAP Girls program

  1. Movimiento Ascendencia

*c. Female Intervention Team

  1. Safe Dates

 

  1. ___________________ refers to a therapeutic model that allows girls to explore common problems in their lives and to develop a sense of self-worth through intimate communication with others.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pgs. 135-136; Question Type: MC

 

  1. CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
  2. Mediation

*c. Strengths-based

  1. Cultural awareness

 

  1. Which of the following female-specific programs starts serving girls at the earliest age?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 135-136; Question Type: MC

 

*a. SNAP program

  1. Movimiento Ascendencia
  2. FIT (Female Intervention Team)
  3. Safe Dates

 

  1. The treatment model of Safe Dates implies that the same treatment models that help reduce the likelihood of sexual victimization would also be helping in reducing ___________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 136; Question Type: MC

 

  1. joining a gang
  2. the average amount of time spent in a gang
  3. drug use within gang contexts

*d. violent victimization in gang contexts

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a gender-neutral gang intervention service?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 136-137; Question Type: MC

 

  1. G.R.E.A.T. program
  2. ART program

*c. Movimiento Ascendenica

  1. BSFT

 

  1. Which of the following female-specific gang interventions is affiliated with a law enforcement agency?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 136; Question Type: MC

 

  1. SNAP program
  2. CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

*c. FIT (Female Intervention Team)

  1. Safe Dates

 

  1. It is implied that most gang programs that receive the designation of being gender-neutral are named as such because they ________________________.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 137; Question Type: MC

 

  1. dedicate equal amounts of time to female- and male-specific topics

*b. have proven to be equally effective for both female and male participants

  1. have equal proportions of female and male program staff
  2. do not mention gender in any of their materials

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem behavior that would be targeted by Brief-Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for prevention or intervention?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pg. 137; Question Type: MC

 

  1. Heroin use
  2. Teen pregnancy

*c. The incarceration of a parent

  1. Truancy

 

  1. Which of the following refers to an alternative to residential treatment, incarceration, or hospitalization for adolescents who have problems with chronic antisocial behavior, emotional disturbance, and delinquency?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 117; Question Type: MC

 

*a. MTFC (Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care)

  1. MST (Multisystemic Therapy)
  2. (Brief Strategic Family Therapy) BSFT
  3. Comprehensive Gang Program Model

 

  1. Coverage during the first media crime wave largely characterized female criminals as ethnic and racial minorities.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 124 Answer: False; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. It is implied that mixed-methods approaches, such as those employed by Moore (1978, 1991), are ideal for exploring the role of girls in gangs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 125; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Modern studies on girls in gangs that followed Moores (1978, 1991) landmark studies largely used longitudinal study designs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 125; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. There is consensus among researchers that female gang members are increasingly involved in more serious and violent offenses.

@ Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pgs. 126-127; Answer: False; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Studies on gang gender composition suggest that there is an inverse relationship between the proportion of males in a gang and the amount of violence perpetrated by the gang.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 129; Answer: False; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

  1. Ebensen and colleagues (1999) found that gangs with female members were slightly more organized than gangs without female members.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Knowledge; Answer Location: Pg. 129; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Each of Valdezs (2007) non-gang typologies of females includes an assessment of the groups level of involvement in gang-related activities.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 130; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Females exposed to gangs are more likely to be victims of sex crimes and other types of violent offenses.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 131; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Risk factors refer to conditions that serve as antecedents to gang joining.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pgs. 131-133; Answer: True; Question Type: TF

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The female-responsive and what works treatment and intervention philosophies are the same.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 133; Answer: False; Question Type: TF

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss Moores (1978, 1991) key research findings about female gang members and how her studies advanced scholarship on the topic of girls in gangs.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Comprehension; Answer Location: Pg. 125; Question Type: SA

 

*a. Answer: Moores key research findings include the discovery that female gang members became more involved in criminal activities and more independent over time, and that there were more female gang members than had been expected by prior research. This last finding was particularly important for advancing scholarship on girls in gangs, as many other researchers sought to empirically test this conclusion.

 

Type: E

  1. Indicate two reasons why the data source for the National Youth Gang Survey may influence estimates that only 10% of gang members are female.

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pg. 127

 

*a. Answer: The National Youth Gang Survey is the only nationally representative annual survey of gang membership in the United States. Data is collected by law enforcement agencies, which may influence the finding that only 10% of gang members are female for the following reasons: (1) Girls leave gangs earlier than boys and are thus less prevalent as offenders in street crimes; and (2) law enforcement personnel tend to pay less attention to younger gangs since they are less responsible for serious crimes than older gangs.

 

Type: E

  1. Discuss the evolution of research on the involvement of girls in gangs. Why did the development of research on male and female gang members differ so substantially?

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Analysis; Answer Location: Pgs. 123-126; Question Type: ESS

 

*a. Answer: Varies. Students should first indicate that up until very recently, inaccurate and overly simplistic depictions of female gang members dominated, which were largely influenced by sexist notions of female capacities in contrast to those of men. These depictions largely reduced female gang members to the equivalent of second-class gang citizens, relegated to auxiliary roles in gangs, which were largely circumscribed around their gendered presentation to make gang members as either tomboys or sex objects. After charting the history of depictions of female gang members, students should describe landmark studies that broke the mold, by presenting findings that challenged the notion that female gang members never acted independently or engaged in criminal activities relating to their gang involvement. For example, students could note the pioneering contributions of Adler (1975a, 1975b) and the liberation hypothesis and other early research from the 1970s and 1980s that began to challenge the notion that women serve only subservient roles in gangs, and in doing so, also asserted that they partook in more serious crime than was previously believed. Students should also mention the more recent contributions of Moore (1991) and subsequent empirical tests of her core proposition that participation in female gangs had grown over time. These tests were largely confirmatory of her initial findings and led researchers to understand that female gang members increasingly participate in gang activity, and do so more independently than they used to.

 

Type: E

  1. Imagine that you are creating a female-specific gang prevention program after reviewing best practices. What would be the key elements of your program, what programs would they be based on, and how would they aim to reduce gang membership among females? (Hint: Be sure to discuss risk factors of female gang membership and which risk factors your program addresses.)

@ Learning objective: N/A; Cognitive Domain: Application; Answer Location: Pgs. 131-136; Question Type: ESS

 

*a. Answer: Varies. Students should indicate that the somewhat unique risk factors associated with gang involvement among females mean that there are some reasons to suggest that at least some degree of female-specific programming would be beneficial in deterring young girls and women from joining gangs. For example, students should detail the risk factors discussed in the chapter (including their definitions and examples), such as early problem behaviors (e.g., sexualized behaviors), neighborhood characteristics (disorganized neighborhoods), family environment (e.g., child abuse), negative peers (e.g., peers who are delinquent), and school problems (e.g., behavioral trouble at school). Students could then say, for example, that based on the Safe Dates model, a new program would use CBT (as SNAP Girls Connection) to help give females positive self-images of what relationships they wish to have moving forward with family members, peers, and romantic partners.

 

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