Test Bank For Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers

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Test Bank For Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers

 

Chapter 1
history, theory, and research strategies

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)   The central questions addressed by the field of child development

  1. A) are primarily of scientific interest.
  2. B) have applied, or practical, importance.
  3. C) are based exclusively on research conducted by psychologists.
  4. D) involve all changes a person experiences throughout the lifespan.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.1

2)   Which of the following statements regarding the major domains of development is true?

  1. A) The domains of development are separate and distinct.
  2. B) Each period of development is made up of a new set of domains.
  3. C) The physical domain has little influence on the other domains.
  4. D) Development is divided into three broad domains.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.2

3)   During which period of development does a sense of morality become evident?

  1. A) infancy and toddlerhood
  2. B) early childhood
  3. C) middle childhood
  4. D) adolescence

Answer: B

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.2

4)   Which of the following statements about emerging adulthood is true?

  1. A) It is a period of development that spans from age 15 to 21 years.
  2. B) It is a period of development unique to underdeveloped nations.
  3. C) Although emerging adults have moved beyond adolescence, they have not yet fully assumed adult roles.
  4. D) It is a period of development mostly limited to young people in developing nations.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.2

5)   Theories are vital tools because they

  1. A) provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children.
  2. B) provide the ultimate truth about child development.
  3. C) do not require scientific verification.
  4. D) are resistant to the influence of cultural values and belief systems.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.3

6)   In what important way do theories differ from mere opinion or belief?

  1. A) They are influenced by cultural values.
  2. B) They depend on scientific verification.
  3. C) They explain all aspects of development.
  4. D) They cannot be tested using research procedures.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.3

7)   Reid believes that the difference between the immature and the mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. Reid views development as

  1. A)
  2. B) determined by nature.
  3. C)
  4. D) determined by nurture.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.3

8)   Jessica believes that development takes place in stages where children change rapidly as they step up to a new level and then change very little for a while. Jessica views development as

  1. A)
  2. B) determined by nature.
  3. C)
  4. D) determined by nurture.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 8

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.3

9)   In stage theories, development is

  1. A) a smooth, continuous process.
  2. B) gradual and ongoing.
  3. C) like climbing a staircase.
  4. D) a gradual addition of the same types of skills.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.3

10)   In her research, Dr. Rosenblum explores why shy children develop differently from their outgoing agemates. Dr. Rosenblum most likely emphasizes __________ in her research.

  1. A) the role of distinct contexts
  2. B) the naturenurture controversy
  3. C) the concept of stage
  4. D) continuous development

Answer: A

Page Ref: 8

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.3

11)   Charlene believes that her daughters ability to think in complex ways is largely the result of a built-in timetable of growth. Charlenes view emphasizes

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) early experiences.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.3

12)   Theorists who believe that children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages typically stress the importance of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.3

13)   Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that

  1. A) early experiences establish a lifelong pattern of behavior.
  2. B) heredity, rather than the environment, influences behavior.
  3. C) children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages.
  4. D) development is open to change in response to influential experiences.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 9

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.3

14)   According to research on resilience, which of the following children has an increased chance of offsetting the impact of a stressful home life?

  1. A) Luke, who is an irritable child
  2. B) Michelle, who is an emotionally reactive child
  3. C) Noah, who is a talented musician
  4. D) Sarah, who associates with rule-breaking peers

Answer: C

Page Ref: 1011 Box: Biology and Environment: Resilient Children

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.3

15)   The most consistent asset of resilient children is

  1. A) high self-esteem.
  2. B) access to high-quality child care.
  3. C) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.
  4. D) being identified as gifted.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 11 Box: Biology and Environment: Resilient Children

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.3

16)   In medieval times,

  1. A) children dressed and acted like adults.
  2. B) clear awareness existed of children as vulnerable beings.
  3. C) children were viewed as tabula rasas.
  4. D) childhood was not regarded as a distinct developmental period.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

17)   During the Reformation, the Puritans

  1. A) characterized children as innocent and close to angels.
  2. B) regarded children as fully mature by the time they were 7 or 8 years old.
  3. C) recommended permissive child-rearing practices.
  4. D) believed that children were born evil and had to be civilized.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

18)   According to John Lockes view, children begin

  1. A) with a soul tainted by original sin.
  2. B) as nothing at all.
  3. C) as noble savages.
  4. D) as evil and stubborn.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.4

19)   John Locke opposed the use of

  1. A) praise as a reward.
  2. B) negative reinforcement.
  3. C) physical punishment.
  4. D) any form of discipline.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

20)   All contemporary child development theories view children as

  1. A) naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
  2. B) passive and emotionally fragile.
  3. C) adults in training.
  4. D) active, purposeful beings.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.4

21)   Jean-Jacques Rousseau saw children as

  1. A) determining their own destinies.
  2. B) blank slates to be filled by adult instruction.
  3. C) tainted by original sin.
  4. D) passive and highly plastic.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

22)   Charles Darwins theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________.

  1. A) the normative approach; survival of the fittest
  2. B) noble savages; physical maturation
  3. C) tabula rasa; natural selection
  4. D) natural selection; survival of the fittest

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

23)   __________ is generally regarded as the founder of the child-study movement.

  1. A) John Locke
  2. B) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  3. C) Charles Darwin
  4. D) Stanley Hall

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

24)   Inspired by Charles Darwins work, G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,

  1. A) laid the modern foundations of ethology.
  2. B) developed the concept of sensitive periods in development.
  3. C) devised theories based on evolutionary ideas.
  4. D) constructed the first intelligence test.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 13

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

25)   Arnold Gesell

  1. A) was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents.
  2. B) viewed children as noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
  3. C) concluded that child development follows the same general plan as human evolution.
  4. D) constructed the first successful intelligence test, together with his colleague, Alfred Binet.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

26)   Alfred Binet and Theodore Simons intelligence test was developed as a way to

  1. A) identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes.
  2. B) accurately predict school achievement and vocational success.
  3. C) document developmental improvements in childrens intellectual functioning.
  4. D) measure individual differences in development as a function of race, gender, and birth order.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

27)   According to __________, children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.

  1. A) the normative approach
  2. B) behaviorism
  3. C) social learning theory
  4. D) the psychoanalytic perspective

Answer: D

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

28)   Sigmund Freuds psychosexual theory

  1. A) was developed through careful observations of his own children.
  2. B) emphasizes that how parents manage their childs fears is crucial for healthy sexual development.
  3. C) emphasizes five parts of the personality that become integrated during a sequence of three stages.
  4. D) was developed through having emotionally troubled adults talk freely about painful events of their childhoods.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

29)   Freuds theory was the first to stress the influence of __________ on development.

  1. A) observational learning
  2. B) rewards and punishment
  3. C) cultural norms
  4. D) the early parentchild relationship

Answer: D

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

30)   Unlike Freud, Erikson

  1. A) viewed children as taking a more active role in their own development.
  2. B) pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each cultures life situation.
  3. C) minimized the role of culture in individual development.
  4. D) primarily focused on the importance of early life experiences.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 15

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

31)   One reason that the psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development research is because

  1. A) many psychoanalytic ideas, such as ego functioning, are too vague to be tested empirically.
  2. B) psychoanalytic theorists accept the clinical method in which age-related averages represent typical development.
  3. C) modern researchers have demonstrated that personality development does not take place in stages.
  4. D) it failed to consider the early parentchild relationship, which is central to modern theories.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

32)   Dr. Faulkner believes that directly observable eventsstimuli and responsesare the appropriate focus of the study of child development. Which of the following perspectives of child development does Dr. Faulkner probably follow?

  1. A) psychosexual theory
  2. B) psychosocial theory
  3. C) behaviorism
  4. D) cognitive-developmental theory

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

33)   Ivan Pavlov taught dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by using

  1. A) operant conditioning.
  2. B) classical conditioning.
  3. C) innate reflexes.
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

34)   Consistent with Lockes tabula rasa, John Watson concluded that __________ is the supreme force in development.

  1. A) nature
  2. B) early experience
  3. C) environment
  4. D) cognition

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

35)   According to B. F. Skinner, the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of

  1. A)
  2. B) negative stimuli.
  3. C) stimulusresponse associations.
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

36)   On a few occasions, Jacks mother gave him candy to keep him quiet when she took him to the doctors office. Now every time Jack goes to the doctors office, he asks his mother for candy. This is an example of

  1. A) classical conditioning.
  2. B) operant conditioning.
  3. C) observational learning.
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

37)   Social learning theory

  1. A) emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development.
  2. B) maintains that behaviorism offers little or no effective explanation of the development of childrens social behavior.
  3. C) is criticized because it places little emphasis on how children are influenced by the behavior of their parents and peers.
  4. D) emphasizes classical over operant conditioning and relies heavily on the concepts of psychoanalytic theory.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

38)   At home, Pauls parents hit him as punishment for misbehavior. At preschool, Paul angrily hits a playmate who takes his toy. According to social learning theory, Paul is displaying

  1. A) classical conditioning.
  2. B) operant conditioning.
  3. C) behavior modification.
  4. D) observational learning.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 17

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

39)   The most recent revision of Albert Banduras theory places such strong emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people that he calls it a(n) __________ rather than a(n) __________ approach.

  1. A) observational learning; social-cognitive
  2. B) social-cognitive; social learning
  3. C) social learning; social-cognitive
  4. D) social learning; observational learning

Answer: B

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

40)   Which of the following is an example of applied behavior analysis?

  1. A) letting children with burn injuries play a virtual reality game while nurses change their bandages
  2. B) modeling quiet reading for children to teach them to sit quietly while they read
  3. C) talking with children about fears in an attempt to uncover the underlying cause of thumb sucking
  4. D) punishing a child by hitting him and then noticing that the child angrily hits a playmate in the same way

Answer: A

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

41)   Both behaviorism and social learning theory have been criticized for

  1. A) overestimating childrens contributions to their own development.
  2. B) presenting ideas that are too vague to test empirically.
  3. C) emphasizing nature over nurture.
  4. D) underestimating childrens contributions to their own development.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 18

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

42)   According to Jean Piagets cognitive-developmental theory,

  1. A) development must be understood in relation to each childs culture.
  2. B) childrens sense of self-efficacy guides their responses in particular situations.
  3. C) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.
  4. D) childrens learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adults.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

43)   The biological concept of __________ is central to Piagets theory.

  1. A) reinforcement
  2. B) adaptation
  3. C) imitation
  4. D) physical growth

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

44)   According to Piaget, __________ is the balance between internal structures and information that children encounter in their everyday worlds.

  1. A) imitation
  2. B) adaptation
  3. C) cognition
  4. D) equilibrium

Answer: D

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.5

45)   According to Piagets theory, in the sensorimotor stage, children

  1. A) can think of all possible outcomes in a scientific problem.
  2. B) organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses.
  3. C) think by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, hands, and mouth.
  4. D) can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

46)   Jamar understands that a certain amount of liquid or clay remains the same even after its appearance changes and can organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses. According to Piaget, Jamar is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.

  1. A) sensorimotor
  2. B) preoperational
  3. C) concrete operational
  4. D) sociocultural

Answer: C

Page Ref: 19

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

47)   Ms. Harpers classroom environment is based on Piagets theory of cognitive development. Ms. Harpers program probably emphasizes

  1. A) joint problem solving with older children or adults.
  2. B) reinforcing children with tokens that they may exchange for treats.
  3. C) formal mathematics and language drills.
  4. D) discovery learning and direct contact with the environment.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 20

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.5

48)   Research on Piagets cognitive-developmental theory indicates that

  1. A) he overestimated the competencies of infants and young children.
  2. B) children generally reach their full intellectual potential, regardless of education and experience.
  3. C) childrens performance on Piagetian problems can be improved with training.
  4. D) his stagewise account overemphasizes social and cultural influences on development.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 21

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.5

49)   Dr. Brewer views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows. Dr. Brewers view is consistent with

  1. A) information processing.
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) sociocultural theory.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 21

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

50)   In a research study, 10-year-old Joe was given a pile of blocks varying in size, shape, and weight and was asked to build a bridge over a river (painted on a floor map) that was too wide for any single block to span. The researcher carefully tracked Joes efforts using a flowchart. The researcher was probably applying which recent theoretical perspective?

  1. A) ecological systems theory
  2. B) evolutionary developmental psychology
  3. C) information processing
  4. D) sociocultural theory

Answer: C

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

51)   Both Piagets theory and the information-processing approach

  1. A) regard children as active beings who modify their own thinking in response to environmental demands.
  2. B) focus on the development of imagination and creativity.
  3. C) regard perception, memory, and problem solving as similar at all ages.
  4. D) emphasize the importance of equilibration in producing higher levels of thinking.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

52)   Unlike Piagets cognitive-developmental theory, the information-processing approach

  1. A) uses clinical interviews to determine a childs stage of development.
  2. B) does not divide development into stages.
  3. C) characterizes each developmental stage by qualitatively distinct ways of thinking.
  4. D) views development as a discontinuous process.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 22

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

53)   The information-processing approach has little to say about

  1. A) linear cognition.
  2. B) how children think at different ages.
  3. C) logical cognition.
  4. D) imagination and creativity.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 23

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

54)   Dr. Singh studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing childs cognitive processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine. Dr. Singh would most likely consider herself to be a(n)

  1. A)
  2. B) developmental cognitive neuroscientist.
  3. C) evolutionary developmental psychologist.
  4. D) information-processing researcher.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 23

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

55)   Dr. Langley is dedicated to uncovering the neurological bases of autismthe disrupted brain structures and networks that lead to the impaired social skills, language delays, and repetitive motor behavior of this disorder. Which of the following areas is Dr. Langley conducting research in?

  1. A) developmental cognitive neuroscience
  2. B) information processing
  3. C) developmental social neuroscience
  4. D) cognitive-developmental theory

Answer: C

Page Ref: 23

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

56)   Which of the following recent theoretical perspectives is concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history?

  1. A) information processing
  2. B) ethology
  3. C) sociocultural theory
  4. D) ecological systems theory

Answer: B

Page Ref: 24

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.6

57)   Observations of imprinting led to which of the following major concepts in child development?

  1. A) behavior modification
  2. B) observational learning
  3. C) the critical period
  4. D) the chronosystem

Answer: C

Page Ref: 24

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.6

58)   The term sensitive period applies better to human development than the strict notion of a critical period because

  1. A) its boundaries are less well-defined than are those of a critical period.
  2. B) the capacity to acquire certain skills cannot occur later than the optimal period.
  3. C) there are more sensitive periods than critical periods in human development.
  4. D) sensitive periods, but not critical periods, have been empirically tested.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 24

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

59)   Dr. McMath is an evolutionary developmental psychologist. Which of the following statements about Dr. McMath is probably true?

  1. A) He is primarily concerned with the genetic and biological bases of development.
  2. B) He wants to understand the entire personenvironment system.
  3. C) He is primarily concerned with environmental influences on development.
  4. D) He focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

60)   According to Vygotskys theory,

  1. A) todays lifestyles differ so radically from those of our evolutionary ancestors that certain evolved behaviors are no longer adaptive.
  2. B) children shape their own development during both sensitive and critical developmental periods.
  3. C) children revise incorrect ideas in their ongoing efforts to achieve equilibrium between internal structures and every-day information.
  4. D) social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communitys culture.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

61)   Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky

  1. A) emphasized childrens capacity to shape their own development.
  2. B) viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process.
  3. C) believed that children undergo certain stagewise changes.
  4. D) focused on discontinuous change.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 25

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

62)   Which of the following behaviors is consistent with Vygotskys theory?

  1. A) When his mother takes him to the grocery store, Tom is well-behaved because he knows that his mother will reward him with candy.
  2. B) When playing on the beach, Kehaulani builds the same sort of sand castle that she observed her younger sister building a few days ago.
  3. C) Yesica, a Brazilian child candy seller with no schooling, develops sophisticated mathematical abilities as a result of her work.
  4. D) When trying to solve a math equation, Otto tries several formulas before he stumbles on the correct one and solves the equation.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

63)   Research stimulated by Vygotskys theory reveals that

  1. A) heredity and brain growth contribute significantly to social development.
  2. B) the stages of cognitive development are universal.
  3. C) children in every culture develop unique strengths.
  4. D) adults begin to encourage culturally valued skills as soon as children begin school.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

64)   Ecological systems theory views the child as

  1. A) a blossoming flower, and it regards development as a maturational process, similar to blooming.
  2. B) developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
  3. C) a social being influenced primarily by observational learning, imitation, and adult modeling.
  4. D) a computer-like system that actively codes, transforms, and organizes complex information.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

65)   In Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory, the __________ consists of activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundings.

  1. A) microsystem
  2. B) mesosystem
  3. C) exosystem
  4. D) macrosystem

Answer: A

Page Ref: 26

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.6

66)   According to ecological systems theory, a parents workplace is in the

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 27

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

67)   Family chaos

  1. A) is limited to economically disadvantaged households.
  2. B) does not occur when families engage in joint activities.
  3. C) induces in children feelings of powerlessness.
  4. D) is an unavoidable byproduct of todays busy world.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 28 Box: Social Issues: Health: Family Chaos Undermines Childrens Well-Being

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

68)   __________ can help prevent escalating demands on families that give way to chaos.

  1. A) Ethnographic research
  2. B) Absence of daily structure
  3. C) Compression of family routines
  4. D) High-quality child care that is affordable and reliable

Answer: D

Page Ref: 28 Box: Social Issues: Health: Family Chaos Undermines Childrens Well-Being

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

69)   Dr. Jones believes that a childs mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. The system is constantly in motion. His view is consistent with which recent theoretical perspective?

  1. A) evolutionary developmental psychology
  2. B) sociocultural theory
  3. C) ecological systems theory
  4. D) dynamic systems perspective

Answer: D

Page Ref: 29

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.6

70)   Dynamic systems theorists emphasize that

  1. A) children are driven mainly by instincts and unconscious motives.
  2. B) different skills vary in maturity within the same child.
  3. C) sensitive periods are key to understanding development.
  4. D) development can be best understood in terms of its adaptive value.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 29

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.6

71)   Which of the following two major theories emphasize emotional and social development?

  1. A) the psychoanalytic perspective and ethology
  2. B) ethology and Vygotskys sociocultural theory
  3. C) behaviorism and the dynamic systems perspective
  4. D) ecological systems theory and social learning theory

Answer: A

Page Ref: 30

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.7

72)   Both __________ and __________ stress changes in thinking.

  1. A) behaviorism; social learning theory
  2. B) cognitive-developmental theory; information processing
  3. C) ethology; the psychoanalytic perspective
  4. D) the dynamic systems perspective; ecological systems theory

Answer: B

Page Ref: 30

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.7

73)   Both __________ and __________ emphasize many possible courses of development.

  1. A) the psychoanalytic perspective; ethology
  2. B) ethology; evolutionary developmental psychology
  3. C) cognitive-developmental theory; behaviorism
  4. D) behaviorism; social learning theory

Answer: D

Page Ref: 31

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.7

74)   A major limitation of naturalistic observation is that

  1. A) the findings cannot be generalized beyond the participants and settings in which the research was originally conducted.
  2. B) researchers cannot control the conditions under which participants are observed.
  3. C) the research may not yield observations typical of participants behavior in everyday life.
  4. D) participants may not accurately report their thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

75)   Dr. Brown observes behavior in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants. This is an example of

  1. A) the clinical, or case study, method.
  2. B) structured observation.
  3. C) naturalistic observation.
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.8

76)   A major advantage of structured observation is that it

  1. A) is useful for studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life.
  2. B) permits participants to display their thoughts in terms that are as close as possible to the way they think in everyday life.
  3. C) yields richly detailed narratives that offer valuable insight into the many factors that affect development.
  4. D) allows researchers to see the behavior of interest as it occurs in natural settings.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 34

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

77)   Dr. Kempsell combines interviews, observations, and test scores to obtain a full picture of one individuals psychological functioning. This is an example of

  1. A) naturalistic observation.
  2. B) structured observation.
  3. C) a structured interview.
  4. D) the clinical, or case study, method.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.8

78)   Dr. Bigelow is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which of the following research methods is best suited for this type of research?

  1. A) naturalistic observation
  2. B) clinical interview
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method
  4. D) structured interview

Answer: C

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.8

79)   Which of the following research methods utilizes participant observation?

  1. A) the clinical, or case study, method
  2. B) naturalistic observation
  3. C) ethnography
  4. D) structured observation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

80)   Dr. Newman spent three years in Botswana, participating in the daily life of a community there. She gathered extensive field notes, consisting of a mix of self-reports from members of the community and her own observations. Which of the following research methods did Dr. Newman most likely use in her research?

  1. A) ethnography
  2. B) structured observation
  3. C) the microgenetic design
  4. D) the clinical, or case study, method

Answer: A

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.8

81)   Compared to their agemates, adolescents from immigrant families are __________ likely to __________.

  1. A) more; commit delinquent and violent acts
  2. B) more; use drugs and alcohol
  3. C) more; have early sex
  4. D) less; commit delinquent and violent acts

Answer: D

Page Ref: 37 Box: Cultural Influence: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

82)   Immigrant parents of successful youths typically

  1. A) view school successes as less important than native-born parents.
  2. B) develop close ties to an ethnic community.
  3. C) encourage full assimilation into the majority culture.
  4. D) stress individualistic values over collectivist values.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 37 Box: Cultural Influence: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

83)   Which of the following is a limitation of the ethnographic method?

  1. A) Research may not yield observations typical of participants behavior in everyday life.
  2. B) Research does not yield as much information as naturalistic observations or structured interviews.
  3. C) Commonly used research techniques tend to ignore cultural and social influences that affect development.
  4. D) The findings cannot be assumed to generalize beyond the people and settings in which the research was conducted.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.8

84)   Two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are __________ and __________.

  1. A) observational; experimental
  2. B) correlational; experimental
  3. C) observational; correlational
  4. D) variable; observational

Answer: B

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

85)   Which of the following statements about the correlational design is true?

  1. A) Researchers gather information on individuals and make no effort to alter their experiences.
  2. B) Unlike the experimental design, it permits inferences of cause and effect.
  3. C) Researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions.
  4. D) In an experiment, the events and behaviors of interest are divided into independent and dependent variables.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

86)   One major limitation of correlational studies is that

  1. A) researchers alter the experiences of those studied.
  2. B) researchers do not gather information about everyday life.
  3. C) researchers cannot make inferences about cause and effect.
  4. D) the results cannot be generalized to other people and settings.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.9

87)   Dr. Zielkes research shows that the death of a spouse in old age is correlated with a decline in the surviving partners physical health. Which of the following conclusions is supported by this study?

  1. A) The death of a spouse causes a decline in the surviving partners physical health.
  2. B) The death of a spouse is related to a decline in the surviving partners physical health.
  3. C) A decline in a surviving partners physical health can cause the death of a spouse.
  4. D) A third variable, such as memory loss, causes a surviving partners decline in physical health.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

88)   In interpreting a correlation coefficient,

  1. A) the magnitude of the number shows the direction of the relationship.
  2. B) the sign of the number shows the strength of the relationship.
  3. C) a positive sign means that as one variable increases, the other decreases.
  4. D) a zero correlation indicates no relationship.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.9

89)   A correlation of +.55 between preschool attendance and self-esteem indicates that children who attend preschool have __________ self-esteem scores than children who do not attend preschool.

  1. A) moderately higher
  2. B) significantly higher
  3. C) significantly lower
  4. D) moderately lower

Answer: A

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

90)   In an experimental design,

  1. A) the events and behaviors are divided into two types: independent and dependent variables.
  2. B) investigators are unable to control for participants characteristics that could reduce the accuracy of their findings.
  3. C) researchers infer cause and effect by directly controlling or manipulating changes in the dependent variable.
  4. D) researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.9

91)   The independent variable is the one

  1. A) the investigator expects to be influenced by another variable.
  2. B) that is randomly assigned.
  3. C) that shows the strength of the correlational relationship.
  4. D) the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

92)   In an experiment examining whether a specific type of intervention improves the psychological adjustment of shy children, the independent variable would be the

  1. A) type of intervention.
  2. B) number of children in the subject pool who are shy.
  3. C) number of shy children who benefit from the intervention.
  4. D) measure of psychological adjustment.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3839

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

93)   In an experiment examining whether phonics instruction in preschool increases a childs reading level in third grade, the dependent variable would be the

  1. A) type of phonics instruction.
  2. B) number of children in the experiment.
  3. C) childs reading level in third grade.
  4. D) frequency of phonics instruction.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 3839

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

94)   When a researcher directly controls or manipulates changes in the independent variable by exposing participants to the treatment conditions,

  1. A) she is conducting a correlational study.
  2. B) cause-and-effect relationships can be detected.
  3. C) the correlational coefficient should be zero.
  4. D) she is using a technique called matching.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.9

95)   Dr. Riley wanted to know if adolescent computer use has an immediate effect on sustained attention. Dr. Riley assigned participants into one of two groups (computer use vs. no computer use) by flipping a coin. Dr. Riley used

  1. A)
  2. B) random assignment.
  3. C) a correlational design.
  4. D) a field experiment.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

96)   In a procedure called __________, participants are measured before the experiment on the factor in question.

  1. A) random assignment
  2. B) selection
  3. C) matching
  4. D) correlation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

97)   Professor Spinner wanted to compare how children from different family environments made friends at school. He carefully chose participants to ensure that their characteristics were as much alike as possible. Professor Spinner observed the participants in the school setting. Professor Spinner used

  1. A) a laboratory experiment.
  2. B) random assignment.
  3. C) a natural, or quasi-, experiment.
  4. D) a correlational design.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 40

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.9

98)   In __________ experiments, control over the treatment is usually weaker than in __________ experiments.

  1. A) laboratory; natural
  2. B) laboratory; field
  3. C) field; laboratory
  4. D) correlational; field

Answer: C

Page Ref: 40

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

99)   In natural, or quasi-, experiments,

  1. A) random assignment helps protect against reduction in the accuracy of the findings.
  2. B) researchers combine random assignment with the matching technique.
  3. C) cause-and-effect inferences cannot be made.
  4. D) lack of random assignment substantially reduces the precision of the research.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 40

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.9

100)  In a __________ design, participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older.

  1. A) correlational
  2. B) longitudinal
  3. C) cross-sectional
  4. D) sequential

Answer: B

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.9

101)  To examine whether participants popularity was stable or changed across the years, Dr. Cotter followed a group of children from ages 5 to 18 years. This is an example of a __________ design.

  1. A) sequential
  2. B) microgenetic
  3. C) cross-sectional
  4. D) longitudinal

Answer: D

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

102)  Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development because the investigator

  1. A) studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time.
  2. B) randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions.
  3. C) tracks the performance of each person over time.
  4. D) conducts quasi-experiments, comparing conditions that already exist.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

103)  One strength of longitudinal studies is that investigators can

  1. A) collect a large amount of data in a short time span.
  2. B) explore similarities among different aged participants at the same time.
  3. C) ensure that participants adequately represent the population of interest.
  4. D) examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

104)  Dr. Staminas longitudinal study on Native American personality styles was criticized because he failed to enlist participants who adequately represented the Native American population. This limitation is known as

  1. A) cohort effects.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) practice effects.
  4. D) biased sampling.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

105)  Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite familiar with the test over time and, as a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as

  1. A) biased sampling.
  2. B) practice effects.
  3. C) random assignment.
  4. D) cohort effects.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

106)  The most widely discussed threat to the accuracy of longitudinal findings is

  1. A) practice effects.
  2. B) cohort effects.
  3. C) selective attrition.
  4. D) biased sampling.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.10

107)  Cohort effects occur when

  1. A) participants in longitudinal studies become test-wise from repeated study.
  2. B) particular cultural and historical conditions influence participants born at the same time.
  3. C) participants in longitudinal studies move away or drop out of the research.
  4. D) participants in a study have a special appreciation for the scientific value of research.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

108)  Dr. Kirk wants to study sibling relationships at differing ages. Dr. Kirk has children with one or more siblings in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 complete his questionnaire. This is an example of a __________ study.

  1. A) cross-sectional
  2. B) longitudinal
  3. C) microgenetic
  4. D) sequential

Answer: A

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

109)  Because participants are measured only once in the cross-sectional design, researchers need not be concerned about such difficulties as __________ and __________.

  1. A) cohort effects; practice effects
  2. B) selective attrition; cohort effects
  3. C) cohort effects; biased sampling
  4. D) participant dropout; practice effects

Answer: D

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.10

110)  A disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that

  1. A) it is more inefficient and inconvenient than longitudinal research.
  2. B) it does not provide evidence about change at the individual level.
  3. C) it can be threatened by practice effects and participant dropout.
  4. D) age-related changes cannot be examined.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

111)  In an effort to overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental designs, Dr. Francisco conducted several similar cross-sectional studies at varying times. Dr. Francisco used the __________ design.

  1. A) longitudinal
  2. B) experimental
  3. C) sequential
  4. D) correlational

Answer: C

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

112)  One advantage of the sequential design is that

  1. A) researchers can find out whether cohort effects are operating by comparing participants of the same age who were born in different years.
  2. B) it permits cause-and-effect inferences by studying groups of people differing in age at the same point in time.
  3. C) it presents participants with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.
  4. D) it is especially useful for studying the strategies children use to acquire new knowledge in reading and science.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

113)  Using the __________ design, researchers observe how developmental change occurs.

  1. A) longitudinal
  2. B) cross-sectional
  3. C) sequential
  4. D) microgenetic

Answer: D

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

114)  Professor Story is interested in studying the strategies children use to acquire new knowledge in reading. The best design for Professor Story to use would be the __________ design.

  1. A) longitudinal
  2. B) microgenetic
  3. C) cross-sectional
  4. D) sequential

Answer: B

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.10

115)  One limitation of microgenetic studies is that

  1. A) participant dropout often distorts developmental trends.
  2. B) they are difficult to carry out.
  3. C) they often create ethical issues.
  4. D) cohort effects often limit the generalizability of the findings.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.10

116)  Research that combines a(n) __________ strategy with a __________ approach, with the aim of augmenting development, is becoming increasingly common because it permits both correlational and causal inferences.

  1. A) longitudinal; sequential
  2. B) experimental; longitudinal
  3. C) cross-sectional; microgenetic
  4. D) correlational; experimental

Answer: B

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Understand

Objective: 1.11

117)  An investigator wanted to speak candidly with high school students about their use of substances. He felt that the students would be more honest if their parents were unaware that they were participating in the study. If the investigator chooses to interview the students without their parents knowledge, he will violate which of the following childrens research rights?

  1. A) privacy
  2. B) protection from harm
  3. C) informed consent
  4. D) beneficial treatments

Answer: C

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.11

118)  A researcher studying the effects of a certain pain reliever on children with chronic pain gave one group of children the pain medication and gave a placebo (or sugar pill) to another group of children. After the results were recorded, the placebo group did not receive real pain medication. This violates which of the following childrens research rights?

  1. A) privacy
  2. B) beneficial treatments
  3. C) informed consent
  4. D) knowledge of results

Answer: B

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Apply

Objective: 1.11

119)  The ultimate responsibility for the ethical integrity of research with children lies with the

  1. A)
  2. B) institutional review board (IRB).
  3. C)
  4. D) childs parents.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.11

120)  Which of the following statements about debriefing is true?

  1. A) Young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures.
  2. B) It should be done with children, and usually works well, but it does not have to be done with adults.
  3. C) Researchers use it when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities.
  4. D) It involves explaining to research participants that they have the right to alternative beneficial treatments.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.11

ESSAY

121)  Identify the three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand, and briefly describe the opposing views taken on each basic issue.

Answer:   The three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand and the opposing views taken on each issue are as follows:

  1. Is the course of development continuous or development? If development is continuousa process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin withthen infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. The difference between the immature and the mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. If development is discontinuousa process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific timesthen infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving, ones quite different from adults.
  2. Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses? Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stagesqualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. Stage theorists assume that people everywhere follow the same sequence of development. At the same time, the field of child development is becoming increasingly aware that children grow up in distinct contextsunique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change. Contemporary theorists regard the contexts that shape development as many-layered and complex. Different circumstances foster different cognitive capacities, social skills, and feelings about the self and others.
  3. What are the roles of genetic and environmental factorsnature and nurturein development? The age-old naturenurture controversy asks whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in influencing development. Although all theories grant roles to both nature and nurture, they vary in emphasis.

Page Ref: 79

122)  Define resilience, and describe the factors that seem to offer protection from the damaging effects of stressful life events.

Answer:   Resilience is the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development. Four broad factors seem to offer protection from the damaging effects of stressful life events:

  1. Personal characteristics: A childs genetically influenced characteristics can reduce exposure to risk or lead to experiences that compensate for early stressful events.
  2. A warm parental relationship: A close relationship with at least one parent who provides warmth, appropriately high expectations, monitoring of the childs activities, and an organized home environment fosters resilience.
  3. Social support outside the immediate family: The most consistent asset of resilient children is a strong bond with a competent, caring adult. For children who do not have a close bond with either parent, a grandparent, aunt, uncle, or teacher who forms a special relationship with the child can promote resilience.
  4. Community resources and opportunities: Good schools, convenient and affordable health care and social services, libraries, and recreation centers foster both parents and childrens well-being.

Page Ref: 1011 Box: Biology and Environment: Resilient Children

123)  Describe the contributions and limitations of behaviorism and social learning theory to the scientific study of human development.

Answer:   According to behaviorism, directly observable eventsstimuli and responsesare the appropriate focus of study. Traditional behaviorists use classical and operant conditioning to mold childrens behavior. The most influential kind of social learning theory emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development. The most recent version of the theory places such strong emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people that it is called a social-cognitive approach.

Behaviorism and social learning theory have had a major impact on practices with children. Applied behavior analysis consists of observations of relationships between behavior and environmental events, followed by systematic changes in those events based on procedures of conditioning and modeling. The goal is to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. It has been used to relieve a wide range of difficulties in children and adults, ranging from poor time management and unwanted habits to serious problems such as language delays, persistent aggression, and extreme fears.

Nevertheless, many theorists believe that behaviorism and social learning theory offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences, which extend beyond immediate reinforcement, punishment, and modeled behaviors to childrens rich physical and social worlds. Behaviorism and social learning theory have also been criticized for underestimating childrens contributions to their own development.

Page Ref: 1718

124)  Compare and contrast the terms critical period and sensitive period, and discuss how observations of imprinting led to the development of these concepts.

Answer:   Watching diverse animal species in their natural habitats, European zoologists Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The best known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds, which ensures that the young will stay close to the mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted period of development. If the mother is absent during this time but an object resembling her in important features is present, young birds may imprint on it instead.

Observations of imprinting led to a major concept in child development: the critical period. It is a limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulating environment. A sensitive period is a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. The idea of a sensitive period applies better to human development than the strict notion of a critical period. However, its boundaries are less well-defined than are those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce.

Page Ref: 24

125)  Discuss ecological systems theory, and describe each level of the environment.

Answer:   Ecological systems theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Since the childs biologically influenced dispositions join with environmental forces to mold development, Urie Bronfenbrenner characterized his perspective as a bioecological model. He envisioned the environment as a series of interrelated, nested structures that form a complex functioning whole, or system. The microsystem concerns relations between the child and the immediate environment; the mesosytem includes connections among immediate settings; the exosystem includes social settings that affect but do not contain the child; and the macrosystem consists of the values, laws, customs, and resources of the culture that affect activities and interactions at all inner layers. The chronosystem is not a specific context. Instead, it refers to the dynamic nature of child development.

Page Ref: 2629

126)  Two types of systematic observation used in child development research are naturalistic and structured observation. Explain the benefits and limitations of each.

Answer:   Observations of the behavior of children, and of adults who are important in their lives, can be made in different ways. One approach is to go into the field, or natural environment, and observe the behavior of interesta method called naturalistic observation. The great strength of naturalistic observation is that investigators can see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain. One limitation of this research method is that not all individuals have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life. Researchers commonly deal with this difficulty by making structured observations in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants. In this approach, the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response. Structured observation permits greater control over the research situation than does naturalistic observation. In addition, the method is especially useful for studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life. A limitation of structured observation is that participants may not behave in the laboratory as they typically behave in their natural environment.

Page Ref: 3234

127)  Describe some problems that investigators face in conducting longitudinal research.

Answer:   Despite their strengths, longitudinal investigations pose a number of problems. For example, biased samplingthe failure to enlist participants who adequately represent the population of interestis a common problem. People who willingly participate in research that requires them to be observed and tested over many years are likely to have distinctive characteristics, such as a special appreciation for the scientific value of research. Furthermore, longitudinal samples generally become more biased as the investigation proceeds because of selective attrition. Participants may move away or drop out of the study for other reasons, and the ones who remain are likely to differ in important ways from the ones who do not continue. Also, from repeated study, people may become test-wise. Their performance may impr

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