Test Bank For Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian And New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

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Test Bank For Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian And New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

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Test Bank for Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian and New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

 

 

CHAPTER 1

UNDERSTANDING LIFE SPAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Development can best be defined as:
a. systematic changes and continuities from womb to tomb.
b. unpredictable and unenduring events from womb to tomb.
c. physical changes from womb to tomb.
d. biological and psychological deterioration from womb to tomb.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Defining development

 

  1. The fact that development often involves continuities speaks to the fact that over time, humans tend to:
a. remain the same. c. become less active.
b. become more intelligent. d. undergo orderly patterns of change.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                 DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. The three broad domains explored by developmental psychologists are:
a. motor, interpersonal, cognitive. c. personality, motor, learning.
b. physical, cognitive, psychosocial. d. interpersonal, maturational, learning.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                 DIF: Easy                 TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on childrens emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with childrens _____ development.
a. cognitive c. physical
b. maturational d. psychosocial

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Which is best categorised as being in the cognitive domain of development?
a. Physical maturation of the body c. Poor interpersonal skills
b. A changing personality d. Language acquisition

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong on a list of key aspects of physical development?
a. Change in motor ability c. Change in short-term memory
b. Change in body organ efficiency d. Change in skin tone (e.g., wrinkling)

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Traditionally, growth has been defined as:
a. physical changes that occur from conception to maturity.
b. the biological unfolding of genetic potential.
c. positive changes across the life span.
d. gains, changes, and losses at each stage of the life cycle.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. ________ ageing involves the deterioration of an organism that eventually results in death.
a. Cognitive c. Behavioural
b. Psychosocial d. Biological

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Ageing is most accurately defined as involving _________ in the maturing organism.
a. only negative changes c. both negative and positive changes
b. only positive changes d. neither positive nor negative changes

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. A socially defined age group, with culture-specific assigned roles, privileges, and
    responsibilities is referred to as:
a. an age norm.
b. an age grade.
c. a social clock.
d. an ageism.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The most diverse of all age groups in terms of physiological and psychological
    functioning are:
a. newborns. c. young adults.
b. children. d. elderly adults.

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Misunderstandings and generalisations towards an age group are known as:
a. age interpretations. c. social clock.
b. stereotypes. d. normalising.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

 

  1. A rite of passage marks a transition from one ________ to another.
a. culture c. sex
b. gender d. status

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of stereotypes?
a. They are always negative c. They can prevent access to services
b. They can lead to discrimination d. They can be directed to all age groups

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Manuel hoped to graduate from college by age 22, but finds himself enrolling for the first time at age 52. The anxiety Manuel feels because of this situation may be best explained by the concept of:
a. biological maturation. c. plasticity.
b. a social clock. d. historical change.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. In the Western context, by the seventeenth century, _________ came to be viewed as a distinct period of development.
a. childhood c. middle age
b. adolescence d. old age

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The term emerging adulthood refers to individuals from about age:
a. 11 to 17. c. 29 to 37.
b. 18 to 29. d. 38 to 46.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which description best characterises individuals in the emerging adulthood period of development?
a. Young people who are adolescents but not adults
b. Young people who are neither adolescents nor adults
c. Old people who are adults but not elderly
d. Old people who are neither adults nor elderly

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which of the following best represents the way we now understand the distinct life stage of middle age?
a. A time of crisis
b. A time of hardly any psychological change
c. A time of peak cognitive functioning
d. A time of poor health

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The median age for first motherhood in Australia in 1971 was 25.4 years. By 2010, this had _________ to _______ years.
a. increased; 40.7 years c. decreased; 19.7 years
b. decreased; 22.7 years d. increased; 30.7 years

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The question of how biological and environmental forces impact development is referred to as the _____________ issue.
a. continuitydiscontinuity c. naturenurture
b. passiveactive d. proximaldistal

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which best describes the relationship between maturation and genes?
a. Maturation is driven by a plan contained in the genes
b. Maturation is the nature side of development, and genes are the nurture side of
development
c. Maturation is the process by which genes learn
d. Genes and maturation are unrelated concepts

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which of the following represents a maturational process?
a. Being taught how to pay attention
b. Changing ones violent ways as the result of spending time in prison
c. Learning to tie your shoes
d. The development of pubic hair during puberty

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The nurture side of the naturenurture debate emphasises change in response to:
a. biological growth. c. learning processes.
b. genetic factors. d. environment.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT associated with successful ageing by the results of the
    Nun Study?
a. A healthy lifestyle c. Complex vocabulary
b. Expression of positive emotions d. Expression of negative emotions

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. If you have been told that men commit more violent crimes than women, you can most

accurately conclude that:

a. genes alone cause aggression.
b. women elicit violent behaviour in men.
c. gender roles alone cause aggression.
d. a difference in the level of a behaviour exists, but the cause may involve hereditary and/or environmental factors.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The fact that sex differences in aggression are greatest in patrilineal cultures suggests that:
a. genes for aggression most likely come from fathers.
b. cultural standards play a significant role in determining aggression.
c. boys are naturally more aggressive than girls.
d. primitive societies were likely less aggressive than modern societies.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Urie Bronfenbrenner is best associated with the ___________ model of development.
a. bioecological c. psychodynamic
b. humanistic d. cognitive

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The abusive behaviour that Crosby perpetrated on his son has definitely negatively impacted his sons development. According to the bioecological model, this impact is best explained by events occurring in the childs:
a. exosystem. c. microsystem.
b. mesosystem. d. macrosystem.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

 

 

 

  1. The mesosystem is best described as:
a. a linkage of indirect social settings. c. a linkage between two microsystems.
b. a larger cultural context. d. an immediate social environment.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The governments plan to increase tax rates results in Frank losing his house mortgage; consequently, he needs to move to a smaller home. Franks children will now have to share the same bedroom. According to Bronfenbrenners bioecological theory, this is an example of how events in the ___________ can affect child development.
a. exosystem c. microsystem
b. macrosystem d. chronosystem

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The culture in which a child is raised is best described as a:
a. microsystem. c. chronosystem.
b. macrosystem. d. mesosystem.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The fact that specific historical events (e.g., living during an economic crisis) can influence development is best explained by the influence of the:
a. mesosystem. c. microsystem.
b. exosystem. d. chronosystem.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. According to the bioecological model, researchers need to:
a. focus mainly on unconscious factors.
b. conduct research in the laboratory and not in real-life settings.
c. separate the contributions of nature and nurture.
d. consider the relationship between the person, context, time, and the process through which a person interacts with his or her environment.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Scientists ultimately strive to achieve __________ after completing their first goal of _____________.
a. explanation; description c. prediction; optimisation
b. description; explanation d. optimisation; prediction

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. The title of Dr Doublemints latest bestseller is Why Identical Twins Differ from Each
    Other!
    Given this title, it is safe to assume that Dr Doublemints primary interest is in
    the _________ goal of psychology.
a. prediction c. explanation
b. optimisation d. description

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. Vue is a developmental psychologist who is concerned with helping adolescents learn to deal constructively with divorce. Her work focuses primarily on which goal of developmental
    psychology?
a. Prediction c. Explanation
b. Optimisation d. Description

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. When making a decision on whether or not to follow the latest diet trend, Jillian focuses on what the best scientific research has to say about the topic of nutrition. This indicates that
    Jillian believes in engaging in ___________ practice.
a. speculative c. evidence-based
b. ethnocentric d. emerging

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. In the nineteenth century, scholars began to systematically record the growth and development of their own children. The published form of the observations were known as:
a. quasi experiments. c. meta-analyses.
b. time of measurement papers. d. baby biographies.

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. ___________ is often cited as the most influential of the baby biographers.
a. G. Stanley Hall
b. Charles Darwin
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Jean Piaget

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Who is most often cited as the founder of developmental psychology?
a. G. Stanley Hall
b. Charles Darwin
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Jean Piaget

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

 

 

 

  1. In his book Adolescence (1904), G. Stanley Hall put forward the notion that adolescence is a period of __________ and ___________.
a. calm and reflection. c. calm and stress.
b. storm and reflection. d. storm and stress.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Francine has just purchased a copy of G. Stanley Halls 1922 book Senescence for herself. This indicates that she is likely very interested in the topic of:
a. mental illness. c. biology.
b. language. d. old age.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Research on the effects of digital media on adolescents indicates that media use can be:
a. a vehicle for strengthening relationships.
b. negatively associated with feeling good about ones social acceptance
c. isolating.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the life span perspective?
a. Development is shaped by historical context
b. Development can take multiple directions
c. Development is independent of culture
d. Understanding development requires multiple disciplines

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Sixty-year-old Kwan has led a life filled with ups (a prosperous career) and downs (a battle with breast cancer) and continues to maintain the capacity to change in response to such experiences. A life span developmental psychologist would likely say that Kwan has:
a. a flawed social clock. c. minimal longevity.
b. great plasticity. d. maturational grief.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Which best exemplifies the concept of neuroplasticity?
a. The ability to use your arm to draw after the arm was severely broken
b. The development of thicker heart muscles in old age after beginning an aerobic exercise class
c. The production of large amounts of testosterone during puberty
d. The formation of new brain cell connections as the result of reading a book

 

 

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Physical exercise and mental stimulation can result in the development of new neurons
    in the hippocampus of the brain of:
a. adolescents but not adults.
b. adults.
c. every age group.
d. toddlers.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. According to the life span perspective, development is:
a. singularly influenced and involves a single discipline.
b. multiply influenced and involves a single discipline.
c. singularly influenced and involves multiple disciplines.
d. multiply influenced and involves multiple disciplines.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Generating ideas and testing them by making observations is the process of:
a. the scientific method. c. creating reports.
b. sampling. d. generating predictions.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. The key element of the scientific method is the belief that _________ should determine
    the merits of an idea.
a. systematic observation c. debate
b. logic d. intuition

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Dr Wells has proposed that the centre of the Earth consists of large open areas that contain air and water and may be inhabited by some life form. This proposition is best described as a:
a. fact. c. theory.
b. hypothesis. d. correlation.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. After observing the interaction between rival street gangs, Jet predicts that fighting between the gangs would decrease significantly if the existing colours (clothing) of the two gangs (one black and one red) were changed to pink and yellow. This prediction is most accurately thought of as a:
a. fact. c. theory.
b. hypothesis. d. correlation.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT describe the characteristics of a good theory?
a. Speculative c. Internally consistent
b. Supported by data d. Falsifiable

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Reba wants to examine the TV-viewing habits of 18- to 25-year-old males in New Zealand. As it is quite impossible to include all males of this age group in her study, she selects a smaller group of 18- to 25-year-old males to survey. The males included in her study are called a(n):
a. population. c. control group.
b. sample. d. age grade.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. Trojan interviews a group of 50 teen mothers to determine what sort of knowledge they hold regarding use of contraceptives prior to the time they became pregnant. He then writes an
    article where he speaks in broad terms about what teen mothers know about the use of
    contraceptives prior to becoming pregnant. In this study, the group of 50 teen mothers is called the __________, while all teen mothers are collectively called the __________.
a. control group; population c. sample; control group
b. population; sample d. sample; population

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. The major goal behind random sampling is to ensure that the:
a. data is falsifiable.
b. sample is representative of the population.
c. project will not be costly.
d. population is large.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a major shortcoming of self-reports?
a. Standardising the self-report measure results in difficulty in comparing the
responses of two different individuals who have completed the self-report
b. Respondents may give socially desirable answers so the researchers think more positively of them
c. They are difficult to use with very young children
d. Language abilities between people of different ages can make interpretation of results difficult

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Reporting

 

  1. Dr Hu is interested in childrens affective responses to studying science. She spends many hours sitting quietly and observing in elementary school classrooms during science instruction, and makes careful notes on all she observes. While observing, Dr Hu is careful not to interact with the children or to interfere with their behaviour in any way. This form of data collection is known as:
a. self-report investigation. c. structured observation.
b. naturalistic observation. d. case study analysis.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Reporting

 

  1. The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it:
a. can tell us what people do in everyday life.
b. is easily conducted in a laboratory setting.
c. readily leads to the discovery of cause-effect relationships.
d. untangles age effects from cohort effects.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Which of the following is true of ALL structured observations?
a. The data is analysed using inferential statistics
b. They take place outside of the laboratory setting
c. They measure some verbal response
d. The researcher creates a special condition to elicit a behaviour

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Dr Foreman is very interested in infants reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-old babies into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap music, and watches each babys reactions. Given this description, Dr Foreman appears to be using the __________ technique.
a. self-report investigation c. structured observation
b. naturalistic observation d. case study analysis

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Which of the following represents a physiological measure of anger?
a. Survey responses c. Non-verbal behaviour
b. Skin conductance d. Aggressive language

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

 

 

 

  1. An fMRI uses magnetic forces to measure ___________ in an active area of the brain.
a. blood flow c. dendritic expansion
b. neurotransmitter levels d. hormone output

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

  1. The main limitation of physiological measures is that:
a. responses to such measures are easy to fake.
b. they cannot be used to assess emotional reactions.
c. it is not always clear what is being assessed.
d. they cannot be used to study infants.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

  1. Which type of study always involves an in-depth examination of one specific individual or a very small number of individuals?
a. Cross-sectional study c. Longitudinal study
b. Quasi experimental study d. Case study

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: Case study

 

  1. The main limitation of the case study method is that:
a. results may not generalise to others.
b. inferential statistics must be used in its analysis.
c. it is too artificial, as it is typically conducted in the laboratory.
d. it does not provide any detail about an individuals behaviour.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Case study

 

  1. In a psychological experiment, a researcher always:
a. manipulates some aspect of the environment and then measures t

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