Test Bank For Mastering Competencies Family Therapy 2nd Edition By Gehart

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Test Bank For Mastering Competencies Family Therapy 2nd Edition By Gehart

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Mastering Competencies Family Therapy 2nd Edition Gehart

 

Mastering Competencies in Family Therapy

Chapter 1: Competency in Theory in Family Therapy

 

  1. The key to mapping a successful therapeutic journey involves which of the following?
    1. Labeling clients into groups such as depressed clients or clients with anxiety
    2. Understanding each clients life as one-of-a-kind journey
    3. Honing in on the small picture of the clients life
    4. Conceptualizing the clients situation without the help of theory

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Mapping a Successful Therapeutic Journey (p. 4)

 

  1. Therapists can rule out possible medical issues and identify psychiatric issues by doing which of the following with their client?
    1. A treatment plan
    2. Case management
    3. Mental status exam
    4. A therapeutic inventory

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Mapping a Successful Therapeutic Journey (p. 4)

 

  1. When working with clients, therapists should create a preferred path or general set of directions for the course of therapy. This document is known as which of the following?
    1. Road map
    2. Clinical assessment
    3. Treatment plan
    4. Case management file

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Mapping a Successful Therapeutic Journey (p. 4)

 

  1. When working with clients in therapy, it is very important to make sure the plan is working and that you and the client are sticking with the plan. It is recommended if the client is not making progress, the therapist do all of the following EXCEPT?
    1. Always stick to the original treatment plan.
    2. Reassess the accuracy of the treatment plan.
    3. Make improvements where needed on the treatment plan.
    4. Assess the clients perspective of their progress.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Mapping a Successful Therapeutic Journey (p. 4)

 

  1. It is important for therapists to leave a trail of where they have been when working with a client. The trail serves what purpose?
    1. Getting paid by third party-payers
    2. Avoiding lawsuits
    3. Helping therapist to find their way back if they get lost
    4. All of the above

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Mapping a Successful Therapeutic Journey (p. 4)

 

  1. Which of the following is the primary tool therapists use to help their clients?
    1. A theory
    2. A hammer
    3. A treatment plan
    4. A supervisor

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 5)

 

  1. According to the author, why do theories matter in therapy?
    1. They provide a means for dominating clients.
    2. They allow therapists to target specific thoughts, behaviors, or emotional processes for change.
    3. They help clients to explain their presenting problems.
    4. They allow therapists to select the proper medications for clients.

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 5)

 

  1. How can all the talk about competency in family therapy help you to better serve your clients?
    1. It clearly defines what therapists should know to be able to help their clients.
    2. It ensures that students know how to meaningfully apply the knowledge and skills of their given profession.
    3. Both A and B.
    4. Neither A nor B.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (pp. 5-6)

 

  1. To be a competent therapist, you are required to do all of the following EXCEPT?
    1. Figure out what worked best in your personal therapy and apply it to your clients.
    2. Get outside your comfort zone and learn what works for you.
    3. Learn a wide range of theories and techniques.
    4. Understand which of the many possible approaches will be most effective for the client.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 6)

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the role of diversity in the therapy process is FALSE?
    1. Diversity factors include age, gender, race, ethnicity, ability, and language.
    2. Diversity factors of the client should not be considered when selecting theory.
    3. Everything you think, do, or say as a professional should be informed by diversity factors.
    4. Effectively responding to diversity is not easily learned and can be messy.

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 7)

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE about a therapist who is considered as competent working with and acknowledging diversity issues in the counseling relationship?
    1. A therapist who admits that handling diversity issues is a career-long struggle and journey adding depth to the person-of-the-therapist.
    2. A therapist who says, I dont have any culture so they cannot help with diversity issues.
    3. A therapist who reports being from a diverse or marginalized group makes them an expert in diversity issues.
    4. A therapist who assumes because they have read about topics in diversity they are competent in diversity issues.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 7)

 

  1. A competent therapist should do what with the research-related material in their mental health field?
    1. Avoid the research literature altogether to prevent confusion.
    2. Stop reading the research literature upon graduation.
    3. Use the research literature to inform clinical decisions and treatment planning throughout their career.
    4. Learn at least one evidenced-based treatment and implement it with all clients.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 7-8)

 

  1. Being a competent therapist requires which of following specific personal characteristics?
    1. The ability to exude empathy, compassion, and charisma to connect with clients
    2. The ability to ignore personal emotions and reactions when working with clients
    3. The ability to avoid personal issues in order to build therapeutic relationships
    4. The ability to use personal bias to pathologize clients

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Competency and Theory: Why Theory Matters (p. 8)

 

  1. When thinking about family therapy theories, the author of the text suggests which of the following to make the most of your theoretical education?
    1. Pick your favorite theory and stick with it because it is likely to meet the needs of all of your clients just by the nature of being in this book.
    2. Appreciate that every theory is universally useful.
    3. Theories are generally equally effective because they are simply different modes for delivering the same factors.
    4. All of the above.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Suggested Uses for This Text (p. 12-13)

 

Mastering Competencies in Family Therapy

Chapter 3: Philosophical Foundations of Family Therapy Theories

 

  1. To some degree or another, all schools of family therapy have been influenced by which two closely related philosophical traditions?
    1. Systems theory and Freudian psychology
    2. Systems theory and social constructionism
    3. Freudian psychology and social constructionism
    4. Rogerian ideology and social constructionism

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Lay of the Land (p. 37)

 

  1. The Macy Conferences gave birth to which two theories that ultimately describe how biological, social, and mechanical systems operate?
    1. Intergenerational theory and external-generational theory
    2. Negative feedback theory and cybernetic systems theory
    3. General systems theory and cybernetic systems theory
    4. Postmodern theory and cognitive theory

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 38)

 

  1. The term cybernetic hints at the functional principles of cybernetic systems, which are _________________ and able to steer their own course.
    1. self-destructing
    2. self-directive
    3. self-correcting
    4. none of the above

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 39)

 

  1. The unique set of behavioral, emotional, and interactional norms that create stability for the family or other social group is known as which of the following?
    1. Dependence
    2. Balance
    3. Dynamic
    4. Homeostasis

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 39)

 

 

  1. The idea that no new information or more of the same feedback is in the system refers to which of the following?
    1. Negative feedback
    2. Positive feedback
    3. Universal feedback
    4. General feedback

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 39-40)

 

  1. New information or news experienced in a system is referred to as which of the following?
    1. Negative feedback
    2. Positive feedback
    3. Universal feedback
    4. General feedback

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 39-40)

 

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding positive feedback?
    1. Positive feedback is news that things are within expected parameters.
    2. Positive feedback can be experienced as a problem or crisis.
    3. Positive feedback can be experienced as good news.
    4. Positive feedback can result in a return to former homeostasis or create a new homeostasis.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 39-40)

 

  1. During the early stages of counseling, shifts in family structure  that seem like radical change, but the underlying family rules remain the same refer to what?
    1. Radical change
    2. Expected change
    3. First-order change
    4. Second-order change

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 40)

 

  1. In therapy, you are working with parents and their 11-year-old daughter. In the beginning, both parents want their daughter to take more responsibility for getting her homework and chores done; however, their daughter does not want to give up her childhood assume personal responsibility. In the early stages of therapy, a shift occurs, and suddenly you notice the daughter pulling away from her parents and doing more things on her own while her parents begin lamenting the days when their daughter needed them more. This is an example of what?
    1. Radical Change
    2. Expected change
    3. First-order change
    4. Second-order change

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 40)

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes the process of a system restructuring its homeostasis in response to positive feedback?
    1. Cybernetics
    2. Feedback loop
    3. Second-order change
    4. Systemic response

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 40)

 

  1. The phrase one cannot not communicate refers to which of the following concepts?
    1. We do not want to communicate.
    2. We just cannot communicate.
    3. We are always communicating.
    4. We lovingly communicate.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 40-41)

 

  1. The elements of a communicated message include __________ (content) and __________ (relationship).
    1. stories and truths
    2. definitions and data
    3. primary and secondary
    4. report and command

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 41)

 

  1. Each of the following statements about metacommunication is TRUE EXCEPT?
    1. Metacommunication is the literal meaning of the statement.
    2. Metacommunication is the communication about how to interpret the communication.
    3. Metacommunication helps to define the relationship between two people.
    4. In therapy, it often helps to move the discussion directly to the metacommunication level.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 41)

 

  1. Batesons double-bind theory of schizophrenia reconceptualized psychotic behavior as a familys attempt to meaningfully respond in a family system characterized by double-bind communications. Which of the following is required for a double-bind communication?
    1. Two people are in an intense relationship.
    2. A primary injunction and a simultaneous, contradictory secondary injunction.
    3. The receiver of the injunction cannot escape the contradictions without threatening the relationship.
    4. All of the above.

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 41-42)

 

  1. A child commands play with me to her sister, and when her sister sits down to play, the child will not share her toys. This is an example of which of the following?
    1. Command
    2. Double bind
    3. Feedback loop
    4. Self-correction

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 41-42)

 

  1. Which of the following is an accurate reflection of a symmetrical relationship?
    1. Partners have an unequal relationship in the system.
    2. Partners have evenly distributed abilities and roles in the system.
    3. Partners have distinct, separate roles that balance the system.
    4. Partners have roles that result in a hierarchy for the system.

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 42-43)

 

  1. Select the best example of common complementary dynamics.
    1. Visionary/planner
    2. Apple/oranges
    3. Pursuer/distancer
    4. Cooker/baker

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 42-43)

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE when viewing the family as a system?
    1. One single person in the family orchestrates the interactional patterns.
    2. One single person can be blamed for family distress.
    3. All behavior makes sense in context.
    4. Personal characteristics are independent of the system.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 43)

 

  1. __________ is the study of knowledge and the process of knowing.
    1. Systems theory
    2. Epistemology
    3. Cybernetics
    4. Complementarity

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 43)

 

  1. Family therapists pay careful attention to the familys epistemology. What does this mean?
    1. Understanding the operating premises that underlie family actions and cognitions.
    2. Assuming that what families believe to be true is true.
    3. Disregarding how the observer and the observed reciprocally affect each other.
    4. Relying on assumptions to understand families.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 43)

 

  1. In second-order cybernetics, which of the following statements about the therapist involved with the client system is TRUE?
    1. The therapist can be neutral.
    2. The therapist is an unbiased observer.
    3. The therapist remains outside the client system as an observer.
    4. The therapist becomes an active participant in creating what is observed.

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 44).

 

  1. Systemic counselors view the presenting problem not as an individual problem but a __________one, specifically an interactional one, even if the counselor is working with an individual.
    1. relational
    2. pathological
    3. independent
    4. dysfunctional

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Systemic Foundations (p. 44)

 

  1. Of the various postmodern schools, which of the following philosophies were family therapists the first to embrace?
    1. Constructivist
    2. Social constructionist
    3. Structuralist
    4. Poststructuralist

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 44-45)

 

  1. It is said that systemic and postmodern therapies have more shared views than differences. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about their shared assumptions?
    1. A persons lived reality is relationally constructed.
    2. Personal identity and an individuals symptoms are related to the social systems of which they are a part.
    3. Changing ones language and descriptions of a problem alters how it is experienced.
    4. An objective outsider perspective is the only way to determine truths.

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 45)

 

  1. According to postmodernism, the construction of reality is a complex process that involves four levels including which one of the following levels?
    1. Linguine Level
    2. Professional Level
    3. Rational Level
    4. Societal Level

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 46)

 

  1. According to postmodern therapists, the meaning a person gives to a particular behavior, haircut, job, sex act, or religious view is developed through __________.
    1. language
    2. relationships
    3. action
    4. construction

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 47)

 

  1. When a group of people coordinate meanings and values to coordinate social action or to get along with each other, this is referred to as what?
    1. Culture
    2. Interaction
    3. Chaos
    4. Relationships

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 47)

 

  1. Postmodern philosophy heightens awareness of diversity issues. How so?
    1. Postmodernists define what is normal.
    2. Postmodernists accept singular truths.
    3. Postmodernists see multiple realties and multiple truths.
    4. Postmodernists know what a good life is for their clients.

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 48)

 

  1. Which of the following descriptions best captures the postmodern spirit?
    1. When a couple comes in for therapy with entirely different perspectives of the same problem, the therapist works to weave the stories together.
    2. When a couple comes in for therapy with entirely different perspectives of the same problem, the therapist works to figure out who is right.
    3. When a couple comes in for therapy with entirely different perspectives of the same problem, the therapist works to build a hierarchy.
    4. When a couple comes in for therapy with entirely different perspectives of the same problem, the therapist is interested in figuring out who is wrong.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Social Constructionist Foundations (p. 48)

 

  1. According to the author of the textbook, philosophical foundations of family therapies are divided into four main categories including each of the following EXCEPT?
    1. Modernist
    2. Humanistic
    3. Systemic
    4. Realistic

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 50)

 

  1. __________ is founded on the assumption that there is an external and knowable Truth.
    1. Modernism
    2. Humanism
    3. Systems
    4. Postmodernism

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 50)

 

  1. Which of the following family therapies illustrates a humanistic philosophical stance?
    1. Cognitive behavioral therapy
    2. Satirs communication approach
    3. Strategic therapy
    4. Narrative therapy

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 51)

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects humanistic assumptions?
    1. All people naturally tend toward growth and strive for self-actualization, a process of becoming authentically human.
    2. The therapist is an expert who assumes the primary responsibility for identifying pathology, problems, and goals, often assuming the role of teacher or mentor.
    3. An individuals behavior and symptoms always make sense in the persons broader relational contexts.
    4. What a person experiences as real and believes to be true is shaped primarily through language and relationships.

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 51)

 

  1. No one individual unilaterally controls behavior in a system. Thus, no one person can be blamed for problems in a couple or family relationship; instead, problematic behavior is viewed as emerging from the interactions between members of the system. This statement fits with which philosophical stance?
    1. Modernist
    2. Humanistic
    3. Systemic
    4. Postmodernist

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 52-53)

 

  1. __________ therapies are based on the premise that objective truth can never be fully known because it must always pass through subjective and intersubjective filters.
    1. Modernist
    2. Humanistic
    3. Systemic
    4. Postmodernist

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 53)

 

  1. As you master one theoretical approach and deepen your understanding of its underlying __________ assumptions, you are able to understand other theories at a greater depth as well as effectively incorporate a wider range of practices within a coherent approach to therapy.
    1. dark
    2. truthful
    3. philosophical
    4. false

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Eeny, Meeney, Miny, Moe and Other Strategies for Choosing a Theory (p. 54)

 

Mastering Competencies in Family Therapy

Chapter 13: Case Conceptualization

 

  1. The author of the text suggests that the first step in therapy is for the therapist to map the territory. To develop a good map, therapists need to master the art of __________, which in a talking profession like therapy refers to knowing where to focus your attention while listening.
    1. painting
    2. viewing
    3. watching
    4. asking

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Step 1: Mapping the Territory (p. 517)

 

  1. Case conceptualization starts by identifying the most salient demographic features that relate to treatment as well as which of the following?
    1. Who the client is
    2. What the client had for dinner
    3. Where the client lives
    4. How the client lives

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Introduction to Client and Significant Others (p. 519)

 

  1. When eliciting descriptions of the presenting concern/problem in couples or family therapy, it is important to get a description from whom?
    1. Each client in the room
    2. Extended family
    3. Broader systems
    4. All systems /parties involved in therapy

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Presenting Concern (p. 519-520)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT recommended that the family therapist include when obtaining a description of the presenting problem?
    1. The reason each client states he or she or seeking therapy
    2. Information from the referring agent and his or her description of the problem
    3. A brief history of the problem and the family
    4. Descriptions of the failures the family has had when trying to solve the problem on their own

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Presenting Concern (p. 520)

 

  1. The collaborative language systems approach maintains that each person who is talking about the problem is part of the ________________; therefore, each persons description of a situation should be considered when conceptualizing the problem.
    1. somatic-generating system
    2. solution-generating system
    3. problem-generating system
    4. behavior-generating system

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Presenting Concern (p. 520)

 

  1. Obtaining background information about the problem is an important part of case conceptualization. Which of the following would NOT be considered background information or the necessary facts of the case?
    1. History of trauma and abuse
    2. Substance use and abuse
    3. Precipitating events
    4. Nine generation family history

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Background Information (p. 521)

 

  1. The author of the text recommends client strengths and resources be assessed in which stage of therapy?
    1. First thing in the assessment
    2. Mid-way through treatment
    3. When therapy is about to terminate
    4. At no stage because client strengths and resources are not relevant to treatment

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Strengths and Diversity Resources (p. 522)

 

  1. To conceptualize client strengths and resources, therapists can think of strengths at several levels, including all of the following EXCEPT?
    1. Personal/individual
    2. Relational/social
    3. Therapeutic
    4. Spiritual

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Strengths and Diversity Resources (p. 522)

 

  1. What are the two general categories of personal/individual strengths?
    1. Abilities/self acceptance
    2. Abilities/personal qualities
    3. Personal qualities/traits
    4. Personal qualities/self-acceptance

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Strengths and Diversity Resources (p. 522-523)

 

  1. For what purpose should a family therapist assess a clients spiritual resources?
    1. To enforce spirituality and religion as a part of the solution to the clients problems
    2. To access beliefs that may transform how the client feels, thinks, and responds to difficult situations
    3. To promote spiritual and religious tolerance among therapists
    4. All of the above

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Strengths and Diversity Resources (p. 524-525)

 

  1. Assessment of family structure often begins by indentifying the client or familys stage in the __________.
    1. family circus
    2. family room
    3. family life cycle
    4. family plan

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Family Structure (p. 527)

 

  1. Most commonly associated with structural family therapy, boundaries are the rules for negotiating interpersonal __________ and __________.
    1. closeness; intimacy
    2. relationships; distance
    3. relationships; intimacy
    4. closeness; distance

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Family Structure (p. 528)

 

  1. When a couple begins to over-value togetherness at the expense of respecting the individuality of each other, their boundaries become _________ and the relationship becomes ______________.
    1. diffuse; enmeshed
    2. disengaged; diffused
    3. rigid; disengaged
    4. None of the above

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Family Structure (p. 528)

 

  1. Each of these terms refers to a similar process in relationships: tension between two people resolved by drawing in a third person or thing to stabilize the original dyad. Which of the following terms do NOT fit this description?
    1. Subsystem
    2. Triangle
    3. Covert coalition
    4. Cross-generational coalition

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Family Structure (p. 529)

 

  1. When assessing the parental hierarchy in parent and child relationships, what is the healthy or appropriate hierarchical structure?
    1. Excessive
    2. Insufficient
    3. Permissive
    4. Effective

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Family Structure (p. 530)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a survival stance in Satirs communication stances?
    1. Placating
    2. Ironic
    3. Blaming
    4. Superreasonable

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Family Structure (p. 530-532)

 

  1. John Gottmans Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are considered key variables for assessment in couple functioning. Which of the following is considered one of the Horsemen?
    1. Criticism
    2. Daringness
    3. Courage
    4. Sky falling

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Family Structure (p. 532)

 

  1. One of the hallmarks of family therapy is the ability to assess the familys __________ related to the presenting problem.
    1. structural patterns
    2. behavior modification
    3. interaction patterns
    4. interpersonal relationships

 

ANS:         C

REF:          Problem Interaction Patterns (p. 533)

 

  1. A therapist says, A childs symptom of school failure forces the couple, the childs parents, to work together and distracts the couple from their distressful marital relationship. The therapist has developed what about this family?
    1. A systemic hypothesis
    2. An interaction pattern
    3. An intergenerational map
    4. A communication configuration

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Problem Interaction Patterns (p. 535)

 

  1. Assessing for intergenerational patterns is easiest when a therapist uses which of the following?
    1. A guide
    2. A model
    3. A survey
    4. A genogram

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Problem Interaction Patterns (p. 536)

 

  1. Monica is a family therapist completing an assessment with a family. She says to the family, What have you done on your own to try and solve this problem of Jesses school failure? What have you tried that was not as successful as you had hoped? What is Monica looking for?
    1. Solutions that did work
    2. Solutions that did not work
    3. Solutions that she can try in therapy
    4. Unique outcomes

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Solution-Based Assessment (p. 538)

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered common dominant discourses that inform a clients life?
    1. Culture, race, ethnicity, and immigration
    2. Gender, sexual orientation, and sexual preferences
    3. Stories of divorce, death, and loss of significant relationships
    4. All of the above

 

ANS:         D

REF:          Solution-Based Assessment (p. 540-541)

 

  1. When a clinical case conceptualization is complete, it is appropriate and helpful for the therapist to do which of the following?
    1. Hand the entire case conceptualization over to the client(s).
    2. Discuss key findings with the client(s).
    3. Shield the client(s) from the content of the case conceptualization.
    4. Discount the client(s) perspective when conceptualizing treatment.

 

ANS:         B

REF:          Client Perspectives (p. 551-542)

 

  1. Therapists CANNOT rely simply on __________ descriptions of behavior in assessment. They must consider the broader culture norms, which may include more than one set of ethnic norms as well as local neighborhood cultures, school contexts, sexual orientation subcultures, religious communities, and so forth.
    1. objective
    2. absolute
    3. pre-defined
    4. All of the above

 

ANS:         A

REF:          Case Conceptualization, Diversity, and Sameness (p. 542)

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