Test Bank For Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen TB

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Test Bank For Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen TB

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Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen

 

1. The study of how the body functions is
  A) physiology
  B) anatomy
  C) pathology
  D) metabolism

 

 

2. The study of disease is
  A) physiology
  B) anatomy
  C) pathology
  D) metabolism

 

 

3. Which of the following would be the most suitable field of study for an anatomist?
  A) the structure of the stomach
  B) the mechanism of protein digestion
  C) stomach cancer
  D) anabolic reactions

 

 

4. Dr. L is interested in diseases of the retina. The field of study best suited to his interests is
  A) physiology
  B) anatomy
  C) pathology
  D) bowling

 

 

5. Dr. A is interested in the structure of the inner ear. The field of study best suited to her interests is
  A) physiology
  B) anatomy
  C) pathology
  D) wind-surfing

 

 

6. There are numerous levels of organization in the body.  The correct order from simplest to most complex is
  A) organ, tissue, cell, organism, system
  B) cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
  C) system, cell, organ, organism, tissue
  D) cell, system, tissue, organ, organism

 

 

7. The system that transports blood to and from the cells is the
  A) integumentary system
  B) skeletal system
  C) respiratory system
  D) circulatory system

 

 

8. The system comprised of the bones and the joints is the
  A) skeletal system
  B) nervous system
  C) immune system
  D) muscular system

 

 

9. A term for all the reactions that sustain life is
  A) anabolism
  B) catabolism
  C) metabolism
  D) cannibalism

 

 

10. A reaction in which simple compounds are assembled into more complex compounds is most accurately described as a(n)
  A) anabolic reaction
  B) metabolic reaction
  C) catabolic reaction
  D) homeostatic reaction

 

 

11. The breakdown of complex glycogen molecules into simple glucose molecules is most accurately described as a(n)
  A) anabolic reaction
  B) metabolic reaction
  C) catabolic reaction
  D) homeostatic reaction

 

 

12. Which of the following examples demonstrates the principle of positive feedback?
  A) A decrease in blood sugar stimulates the release of a hormone that increases blood sugar.
  B) A decrease in room temperature activates a thermostat, which increases heat output by a furnace.
  C) A rise in blood calcium levels stimulates the release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels.
  D) A rise in estrogen levels stimulates the production of a hormone that stimulates estrogen production.

 

 

13. Which of the following examples does NOT demonstrate the principle of homeostasis?
  A) A rise in plasma sodium stimulates the release of a hormone that increases sodium loss in the urine.
  B) An increase in plasma volume increases urination.
  C) The activation of a clotting factor stimulates the production of the enzyme that activates the clotting factor.
  D) An increase in body temperature induces sweating, which reduces body temperature.

 

 

14. A term that means farther from the midline of the body is
  A) sagittal
  B) lateral
  C) distal
  D) transverse

 

 

15. A term that describes the position of the stomach with respect to the lungs is
  A) medial
  B) anterior
  C) dorsal
  D) inferior

 

 

16. A term that describes the position of the hypogastric region of the abdomen with respect to the iliac region is
  A) medial
  B) anterior
  C) lateral
  D) dorsal

 

 

17. The term that best describes the position of the elbow with respect to the hand is
  A) medial
  B) anterior
  C) proximal
  D) inferior

 

 

18. A directional term that means nearer to the head is
  A) caudal
  B) inferior
  C) lateral
  D) cranial

 

 

19. A plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts is the
  A) sagittal plane
  B) transverse plane
  C) frontal plane
  D) coronal plane

 

 

20. A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is the
  A) sagittal plane
  B) proximal plane
  C) frontal plane
  D) midsagittal plane

 

 

21. The dorsal body cavity contains the
  A) spinal cord and lungs
  B) brain and spinal cord
  C) heart and kidney
  D) brain and reproductive organs

 

 

22. Which of the following organs is NOT in the abdominopelvic cavity?
  A) small intestine
  B) stomach
  C) lung
  D) liver

 

 

23. The urinary bladder is located in the
  A) thoracic cavity
  B) spinal cavity
  C) dorsal cavity
  D) pelvic cavity

 

 

24. The most inferior medial region of the abdomen is the
  A) epigastric region
  B) inguinal region
  C) hypogastric region
  D) umbilical region

 

 

25. The iliac region of the abdomen is also called the
  A) inguinal region
  B) right upper quadrant
  C) hypogastric region
  D) left lower quadrant

 

 

26. The number of milliliters (mL) in a liter is
  A) 2.5
  B) 1,000,000
  C) 1000
  D) 100

 

 

27. The basic unit of weight in the metric system is the
  A) pound
  B) meter
  C) gram
  D) inch

 

 

28. The volume in U.S. measurements that is closest to a liter is the
  A) quart
  B) ounce
  C) yard
  D) pint

 

 

29. 250 milligrams is equivalent to how many grams?
  A) 0.25
  B) 2.5
  C) 25
  D) 250

 

 

30. 125 centimeters is equivalent to how many millimeters?
  A) 1.25
  B) 12.5
  C) 1250
  D) 12,500

 

 

31. The metric prefix that means 1000 is
  A) kilo
  B) micro
  C) milli
  D) centi

 

 

32. The term homeo is best defined as
  A) same
  B) different
  C) increased
  D) decreased

 

 

33. A specialized group of cells make up a ________.

 

 

34. The system that takes in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide is the _______ system.

 

 

35. The skin and associated structures are called the _____________ system.

 

 

36. The system that includes the spinal cord is the ___________ system.

 

 

37. The term _________________ refers to all of the catabolic and anabolic reactions that go on within the body.

 

 

38. The energy-storing compound found in all cells is ________.

 

 

39. Fluid within the cells is called ____________________ fluid.

 

 

40. Blood and lymph are examples of ___________________ fluid.

 

 

41. The term describing a state of internal balance is ________________.

 

 

42. A term that means farther from the origin of a structure is ______________.

 

 

43. A plane that divides the body into left and right parts is the ______________ plane.

 

 

44. The frontal plane is also called the _____________ plane.

 

 

45. The muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the ________.

 

 

46. The basic unit of volume in the metric system is the ________.

 

 

47. The temperature scale used for scientific measurement is the ________.

 

 

48. The suffix logy means ______________.

 

 

49. Define metabolism and explain the difference between the two types of reactions involved in metabolism.

 

 

50. Which type of feedback (positive or negative) is used to maintain homeostasis? Use an example to illustrate your answer.

 

 

51. Describe the subdivisions and the sub-subdivisions of the ventral cavity and name an organ found in each.

 

 

52. Using your knowledge of word anatomy, define the word pathophysiology.

 

 

1. The substance that fills the cell from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane is called the ____________.

 

 

2. A long, whiplike projection from the cell used in locomotion is a(n) ______________.

 

 

3. Small hairlike projections from the cell are called ___________.

 

 

4. The organelle that contains digestive enzymes is the ____________.

 

 

5. The large organelle that is the control center of the cell is the ___________.

 

 

6. In the pairing of bases in DNA, adenine pairs with __________.

 

 

7. The substance that makes up the genes is ________________.

 

 

8. In the pairing of bases in RNA, adenine pairs with ___________.

 

 

9. The type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome is __________.

 

 

10. The process of synthesizing proteins based on an mRNA template is called ____________.

 

 

11. The period between one cell division and the next is called ________.

 

 

12. The process by which specialized cells engulf large particles is _____________.

 

 

13. The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is ______________.

 

 

14. Passage of a solution through a membrane under mechanical force is called ___________.

 

 

15. A solution that has a lower concentration than the fluid within the cell is termed ___________.

 

 

16. A cell placed in a _______________ solution will swell.

 

 

17. The percentage salt in a normal saline solution is _____________.

 

 

18. A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a(n) ______________.

 

 

19. A personal characteristic or lifestyle habit that increases ones chances of getting cancer is called a(n) ______________.

 

 

20. A prefix meaning same is ________.

 

 

21. The metric unit used for microscopic measurement is the
  A) meter
  B) micrometer
  C) centimeter
  D) kilometer

 

 

22. The microscope with the highest magnification is the
  A) scanning electron microscope
  B) transmission electron microscope
  C) compound light microscope
  D) simple light microscope

 

 

23. The plasma membrane is best described as
  A) solid
  B) permeable
  C) selectively permeable
  D) hypotonic

 

 

24. The major lipids in the plasma membrane are
  A) proteins and phospholipids
  B) carbohydrates and proteins
  C) phospholipids and cholesterol
  D) calcium salts and phospholipids

 

 

25. Which of the following membrane proteins changes shape to move substances across the plasma membrane?
  A) channel
  B) receptor
  C) enzyme
  D) transporter

 

 

26. Which of the following membrane proteins attaches cells to other cells?
  A) channel
  B) linker
  C) cell identity marker
  D) transporter

 

 

27. The small body in the nucleus that assembles ribosomes is called the
  A) nucleolus
  B) mitochondrion
  C) centriole
  D) endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

28. An organelle that produces energy for the cell is called a(n)
  A) ribosome
  B) mitochondrion
  C) Golgi apparatus
  D) nucleolus

 

 

29. Small bodies involved in the manufacture of proteins are
  A) ribosomes
  B) nucleoli
  C) mitochondria
  D) centrioles

 

 

30. If a cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to
  A) synthesize proteins
  B) synthesize RNA
  C) divide
  D) secrete proteins

 

 

31. A particular cell type specializes in breaking down harmful by-products of metabolism. This cell type would contain very high levels of
  A) lysosomes
  B) endoplasmic reticulum
  C) centrioles
  D) peroxisomes

 

 

32. Two cells vary in the amount of energy they require. One cell, a muscle cell, must generate large supplies of ATP. The other cell, a skin cell, requires very little ATP. Based solely on information provided in this question, these two cells would differ in the abundance of
  A) mitochondria
  B) lysosomes
  C) vesicles
  D) Golgi apparatus

 

 

33. A nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, a sugar unit, and a
  A) phosphate unit
  B) glycerol
  C) fatty acid
  D) protein unit

 

 

34. The RNA found in ribosomes is called
  A) rRNA
  B) mRNA
  C) tRNA
  D) sRNA

 

 

35. Ribosomes participate in the process of
  A) DNA synthesis
  B) transcription
  C) translation
  D) mutation

 

 

36. Transcription is the synthesis of
  A) RNA
  B) protein
  C) lipids
  D) carbohydrates

 

 

37. The correct order of the stages in mitosis is
  A) anaphase, telophase, metaphase, prophase
  B) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  C) prophase, anaphase, telophase, metaphase
  D) telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase

 

 

38. The phase of mitosis when the chromosomes pull apart is
  A) interphase
  B) telophase
  C) anaphase
  D) metaphase

 

 

39. The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes condense is
  A) anaphase
  B) prophase
  C) metaphase
  D) interphase

 

 

40. Droplets of fluid are taken in by the cell using the process of
  A) diffusion
  B) pinocytosis
  C) exocytosis
  D) active transport

 

 

41. What effect does diffusion usually have on the concentration gradient?
  A) increase
  B) decrease
  C) no change
  D) None of the answers are correct.

 

 

42. Which of the following processes requires ATP?
  A) osmosis
  B) diffusion
  C) active transport
  D) facilitated diffusion

 

 

43. Which of the following processes moves a substance that can freely pass through the plasma membrane?
  A) simple diffusion
  B) facilitated diffusion
  C) active transport
  D) phagocytosis

 

 

44. Cells shrink when they are placed in solutions that are
  A) isotonic
  B) hypertonic
  C) hypotonic
  D) osmotic

 

 

45. Which of the following cell populations would be considered a cancer?
  A) a cell population that reproduces excessively but does not migrate
  B) a cell population that reproduces excessively and migrates
  C) any cell population that divides in an adult
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

46. Which of the following is a risk factor for cancer?
  A) eating a high fat diet
  B) frequent exercise
  C) eating fruits and vegetables
  D) wearing sunscreen

 

 

47. The prefix pino means
  A) to eat
  B) to drink
  C) very small
  D) within

 

 

48. Based on your knowledge of word parts, what is the most likely definition of the word endosome?
  A) a body without
  B) a colored body
  C) a body within
  D) a small body

 

 

49. Name and briefly explain four different functions of membrane proteins.

 

 

50. List two functions of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane.

 

 

51. List two organelles involved in the process of translation, and briefly explain their contributions.

 

 

52. Many proteins are secreted from the cell following the process of translation. List two organelles involved in protein secretion, and briefly explain their contributions.

 

 

53. Compare and contrast simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. List one similarity and one difference.

 

 

54. Your lab partner is an exchange student from Pluto. You are investigating cell transport methods, so you decide to use one of your partners cells. Surprisingly, you notice that her cell contains some of the same substances as our cells. You quantify the concentration of these substances, and determine that the cell contains 5% glucose and 0.3% potassium. The cell is placed in a solution containing 20% glucose and 0.1% potassium. The plasma membrane of this cell is is similar to ours. It is permeable to potassium but not to glucose. That is, only potassium can cross the plasma membrane without using transporters. Use this information to answer the following questions

 

a. Will potassium move into the cell or out of the cell? Which transport mechanism will be involved?
b. Carrier proteins are present in the membrane that can transport glucose. If glucose moves down its concentration gradient, will glucose move into the cell or out of the cell? Which transport mechanism will be involved?
c. You place the cell in a new solution to study the process of osmosis. You know that sodium does not move across the alien cell membrane. You also know that the concentration of the intracellular fluid is equivalent to 5% sodium. The new solution contains 1% sodium. Is the 1% sodium solution hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
d. Will water flow into the cell or out of the cell?
e. What will be the effect of the water movement on the cell?
1. The study of how disease affects body function is called _________.

 

 

2. A(n) ____________ disease is relatively severe but of a short duration.

 

 

3. A disease that is prevalent throughout the entire world is said to be _________.

 

 

4. The percentage of the population that dies from a given disease within a period of time is called the _________.

 

 

5. A disease without a known cause is termed _________.

 

 

6. A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease is called a(n) _________.

 

 

7. Conditions of disease noted by the patient are called _________.

 

 

8. The range of a disease according to geography or particular populations is called its _________.

 

 

9. Mr. P has a suppressed immune system as a result of chemotherapy. He is afflicted with a rare skin fungus that is not observed in people with functioning immune systems. His skin fungus is an example of a(n) ___________ infection.

 

 

10. The complementary/alternative medicine approach that uses manipulation to correct musculoskeletal disorders is called _____________.

 

 

11. An insect or animal that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another is a(n) _________.

 

 

12. Yeasts are examples of a type of microorganism called _________.

 

 

13. Any organism that lives in or on a host at the hosts expense is called a(n) _________.

 

 

14. Spherical bacteria arranged in a chain are called ______________.

 

 

15. Bacteria shaped like a straight, slender rod are called ______________.

 

 

16. A bacteria that resembles a corkscrew would belong to the category ______________.

 

 

17. An infestation acquired by eating undercooked pork is ___________.

 

 

18. The process of killing every living organism in a test tube is called _________.

 

 

19. The only aseptic method that can be used on living tissues is ____________.

 

 

20. CDC is the abbreviation for the ______________________________.

 

 

21. A chemical produced by living cells that kills other organisms is called a(n) _________.

 

 

22. A common stain that turns positive microorganisms a bluish-purple color is the _________.

 

 

23. Acid-fast positive cells retain the color ___________ after staining.

 

 

24. The word part chir/o refers to _____________.

 

 

25. A __________ disease can be transmitted from one person to another.

 

 

26. A conclusion as to the nature of an illness is a
  A) prognosis
  B) diagnosis
  C) therapy
  D) syndrome

 

 

27. The term that refers to a disease that is continuously present in a population is
  A) pandemic
  B) epidemic
  C) endemic
  D) pathogenic

 

 

28. An objective evidence of disease is called a(n)
  A) symptom
  B) prognosis
  C) sign
  D) etiology

 

 

29. Mr. J has been feeling nauseous. Nausea is an example of a(n)
  A) sign
  B) prognosis
  C) etiology
  D) symptom

 

 

30. A disease that is neither severe nor very long lasting is described as
  A) chronic
  B) acute
  C) subacute
  D) iatrogenic

 

 

31. The incidence of a disease refers to its
  A) severity
  B) range of occurrence
  C) predisposing cause
  D) length of action

 

 

32. Mr. L is experiencing headaches as a result of drug therapy. The headaches are an example of a(n)
  A) iatrogenic disease
  B) idiopathic disease
  C) pandemic disease
  D) etiological disorder

 

 

33. A systemic infection is
  A) local
  B) generalized
  C) iatrogenic
  D) subclinical

 

 

34. Ms. M is attached to a machine that monitors her blood pressure. She is learning how to prevent increases in blood pressure. This technique is an example of
  A) acupuncture
  B) naturopathy
  C) biofeedback
  D) chiropractic

 

 

35. Diseases caused by Rickettsiae are most likely transmitted via
  A) insect vectors
  B) water droplets
  C) sexual contact
  D) handled objects

 

 

36. The study of all organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye is
  A) microbiology
  B) virology
  C) mycology
  D) bacteriology

 

 

37. Bacteria
  A) are always harmful
  B) are smaller than viruses
  C) are unicellular organisms that contain a nucleus
  D) include the Chlamydiae

 

 

38. Which of the following is NOT a type of protozoa?
  A) flagellates
  B) sporozoa
  C) ciliates
  D) spirilla

 

 

39. An infectious agent composed entirely of protein is called a(n)
  A) prion
  B) viroid
  C) virus
  D) rickettsiae

 

 

40. An obligate intracellular parasite lives
  A) in dead tissue
  B) only in the blood
  C) only in living cells
  D) in vectors

 

 

41. Which of the following diseases is caused by a protozoon?
  A) AIDS
  B) malaria
  C) hepatitis
  D) measles

 

 

42. A mycotic disease is caused by
  A) viruses
  B) bacteria
  C) fungi
  D) worms

 

 

43. Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a fungi?
  A) ringworm
  B) pneumonia
  C) vaginitis
  D) giardiasis

 

 

44. Which of the following diseases is caused by a virus?
  A) diphtheria
  B) typhoid fever
  C) bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
  D) polio

 

 

45. Syphilis and Lyme disease are caused by
  A) vibrios
  B) spirochetes
  C) bacilli
  D) cocci

 

 

46. The chlamydiae are responsible for
  A) AIDS and viral pneumonia
  B) trachoma and parrot fever
  C) pneumonia and tuberculosis
  D) cholera

 

 

47. Ms. L undertook a round-the-world tour. She was incredibly unlucky and returned home with Legionnaires disease and typhoid fever. Her doctor took a blood sample for viewing under the microscope. The most abundant type of bacteria would have been shaped like
  A) straight, slender rods
  B) long, wavelike cells
  C) strings of beads
  D) single beads

 

 

48. Organisms that normally live on or in the body make up the
  A) normal vectors
  B) normal pathogens
  C) spore flora
  D) normal flora

 

 

49. Round bacteria arranged in a cluster are called
  A) bacilli
  B) staphylococci
  C) vibrio
  D) streptococci

 

 

50. Which of the follo

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