Test Bank For Microbiology An Evolving Science 4th Edition by John W. Foster

<< Test Bank For Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen TB Test Bank For Genetics and Genomics for Nursing 1st Edition By Carole A. Kenne >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Test Bank For Microbiology An Evolving Science 4th Edition by John W. Foster

Description

WITH ANSWERS
Microbiology An Evolving Science 4th Edition by John W. Foster  
Test Bank 

 

CHAPTER 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Viruses are
a. infectious agents that infect exclusively multicellular organisms.
b. noncellular particles that take over the metabolism of a cell to generate more virus particles.
c. pathogens that replicate in complex growth media.
d. cellular particles that belong to the archaea domain.
e. microbes that consist of lipid membraneenclosed genomes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe | 1.1b List examples of microbes

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Analysis of DNA sequences reveals
a. the ancient convergence of two cell types (i.e., prokaryotes and eukaryotes).
b. that prokaryotes and eukaryotes evolved from a common ancestral cell.
c. that bacteria share a common ancestor with archaea but not with eukarya.
d. that prokaryotes are cells with a nucleus.
e. that the genome of Haemophilus influenzae has about 2 billion base pairs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1d Explain the implications of microbial genome sequencing

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of these groups are considered to be microbes but NOT considered to be cells?
a. viruses d. protists
b. bacteria e. filamentous fungi
c. archaea

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe | 1.1c Describe some problems with the definition of a microbe           MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. A microbe is commonly defined as a ________ that requires a microscope to be seen.
a. virus d. multicellular eukaryote
b. bacterium e. living organism
c. single-cellular prokaryote

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe                           MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which one of the following statements regarding microbial cells is FALSE?
a. Microbial cells acquire food, gain energy to build themselves, and respond to environmental change.
b. Most single-celled organisms require a microscope to render them visible, but some bacterial cells are large enough to be seen with naked eyes.
c. Microbes function as individual entities.
d. Many microbes form complex multicellular assemblages.
e. Viruses are not considered microbial cells.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe                           MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. A genome is the total genetic information contained in an organisms chromosomal DNA.
b. If a microbes genome includes genes for nitrogenase, that microbe probably can fix nitrogen.
c. By comparing DNA sequences of different organisms, we can figure out how closely related they are.
d. Fred Sanger developed the first applicable DNA sequencing method.
e. Fred Sanger completed the sequences of Haemophilus influenzae.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1d Explain the implications of microbial genome sequencing

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The first cellular genomes to be sequenced were those of
a. humans. d. prions.
b. bacteria. e. fungi.
c. viruses.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1

OBJ:   1.1d Explain the implications of microbial genome sequencing

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The environment of early Earth may have contained all of the following EXCEPT
a. ferrous iron. d. oxygen.
b. methane. e. hydrogen gas.
c. ammonia.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Special Topic 1.1

OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe                           MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The development of the theory of the RNA world resulted from the discovery of
a. archaea. d. ribozymes.
b. prions. e. endosymbionts.
c. bacteria.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6b Explain how studies on microbes fostered our knowledge of DNA function and enhanced DNA technology           MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. What is the evidence that living cells existed on Earth up to 3.8 billion years ago?
a. microfossils d. Martian folded rock formations
b. 16S ribosomal RNA e. diatom shells
c. Miller and Ureys experiments

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Special Topic 1.1

OBJ:   1.5a Explain why microbes can be challenging to classify taxonomically | 1.5b Outline how microbial classification has changed over time                   MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. What did van Leeuwenhoek discover using microscopic observations before and after drinking hot beverages?
a. Heat did not kill microbes.
b. Heat killed microbes.
c. Heat did not kill algae.
d. Caffeine in coffee killed microbes.
e. The existence of spiral-shaped microbes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2b Explain why the microscope is an important tool in the field of microbiology | 1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                             MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. Tyndalls spontaneous generation experiments occasionally failed due to
a. nutrient chirality. d. lack of oxygen.
b. dust. e. endospores.
c. fermentation.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2d Compare and contrast Spallanzanis, Pasteurs, and Tyndalls experiments that tested spontaneous generation                           MSC:             Analyzing

 

  1. The discovery of microbes occurred in the ________ century?
a. seventeenth d. twentieth
b. eighteenth e. twenty-first
c. nineteenth

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2b Explain why the microscope is an important tool in the field of microbiology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Robert Koch won the Nobel Prize for his contribution to medical bacteriology regarding
a. Escherichia coli. d. rabies.
b. Bacillus subtilis. e. smallpox.
c. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3                 OBJ:   1.3b List Kochs postulates

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How did European invaders to North America kill much of the native population?
a. tuberculosis d. HIV
b. leprosy e. bubonic plague
c. smallpox

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2a List both positive and negative impacts that microbes have had on human history

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Florence Nightingale
a. is best known as the founder of professional nursing.
b. was the first to use disinfectant to demonstrate the significance of aseptic technique.
c. developed the pie chart of mortality data during the Crimean War.
d. performed the first controlled experiment on the chemical conversion of matter, known today as chemotherapy.
e. argued that the environment of early Earth contained mainly reduced compounds.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2a List both positive and negative impacts that microbes have had on human history | 1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                             MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Who developed the concept of medical statistics?
a. Francis Crick d. Louis Pasteur
b. Florence Nightingale e. Alexander Fleming
c. Edward Jenner

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The first person to visualize individual microbial cells was
a. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. d. Lady Montagu.
b. Robert Hooke. e. Edward Jenner.
c. Louis Pasteur.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Semmelweis and Lister noted that many of their patients deaths were due to
a. fungi. d. pathogen transmission by doctors.
b. Escherichia coli. e. Staphylococcus.
c. chlorine.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3a Describe what constitutes a pure culture and how to obtain one

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is the standard sterilization method for the controlled study of microbes?
a. boiling d. autoclaving
b. pasteurization e. irradiation
c. filter sterilization

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How does the Winogradsky column differ from Kochs plate media?
a. Kochs media creates a gradient from oxygen-rich conditions at the surface to highly reduced conditions below.
b. The Winogradsky column is used for culturing viruses.
c. The Winogradsky column is used for growing extremophiles.
d. The Winogradsky column uses the kinds of nutrients that feed humans.
e. The bacteria that Winogradsky isolated can grow only on inorganic minerals.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4a List Winogradskys contributions to microbial culture technique | 1.4b Define what distinguishes lithotrophs from other organisms                                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Suppose Pasteurs swan-necked flasks containing boiled broth became cloudy twenty-four hours after boiling. Which choice could best explain the turbidity or cloudiness in the broth without supporting spontaneous generation?
a. Endospores in the broth survived boiling and grew after the broth cooled.
b. Contaminating organisms in the broth killed by boiling became alive again after the broth cooled.
c. Chemicals in the broth came together to form living organisms.
d. The broth allowed light to pass through it with less interference after boiling.
e. Solid material in the broth dissolved during boiling.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall | 1.2d Compare and contrast Spallanzanis, Pasteurs, and Tyndalls experiments that tested spontaneous generation                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered to be an extremophilic condition for bacteria?
a. high alkalinity d. high nutrients
b. high salinity e. high temperature
c. high acidity

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4c Explain the role of microbes in geochemical cycling, especially that of nitrogen

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The use of agar as a more robust gelling agent in solid media was suggested by
a. Robert Koch. d. Louis Pasteur.
b. Ignaz Semmelweis. e. Richard Petri.
c. Angelina Hesse.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3a Describe what constitutes a pure culture and how to obtain one | 1.3c Assess some of the practical obstacles in applying Kochs postulates                              MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. It took the advent of the polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the causative agent for which disease?
a. anthrax d. rabies
b. tuberculosis e. smallpox
c. AIDS

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3c Assess some of the practical obstacles in applying Kochs postulates | 1.3f Describe how viruses were discovered                          MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. The word vaccination is derived from the Latin word vacca, which means
a. inject. d. cow.
b. smallpox. e. pustule.
c. immunize.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3d Recall the contributions of various individuals to the discovery and implementation of vaccination | 1.3e Compare the roles of immunization, antiseptics, and antibiotics in human disease treatment and prevention             MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. What was the basis for the original smallpox vaccine?
a. chickenpox virus d. smallpox virus
b. cowpox virus e. anthrax
c. rabies virus

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3d Recall the contributions of various individuals to the discovery and implementation of vaccination           MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Penicillin was first used to save the lives of many people during which war?
a. the U.S. Civil War d. World War I
b. the Korean War e. World War II
c. the Vietnam War

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3e Compare the roles of immunization, antiseptics, and antibiotics in human disease treatment and prevention                                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How do many animal endosymbionts grow?
a. on the surface of the host d. on inorganic minerals
b. on low nutrients e. in biofilms
c. by reducing iron oxide

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4d Compare the roles of animal endosymbionts and plant endosymbionts

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. All of the following are true about penicillin EXCEPT that it
a. was discovered by Alexander Fleming.
b. was an accidental discovery.
c. is produced by a bacterium.
d. was the first antibiotic used by humans.
e. was purified by Florey and Chain.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3e Compare the roles of immunization, antiseptics, and antibiotics in human disease treatment and prevention                                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding viruses is FALSE?
a. Most are too small to be seen by a light microscope.
b. They are filterable agents that can pass through porcelain filters that have a pore size that blocks microbes.
c. Their genomes could be composed of DNA or RNA.
d. They are smaller than plasmids and prions.
e. Viral particles, when pure enough, can be crystallized.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3f Describe how viruses were discovered                               MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. You have isolated a bacterium that you believe to be the causative agent of a new disease in frogs. How would you test the third of Kochs postulates?
a. Determine the shape of the bacterial cells.
b. Inject the bacteria into a healthy frog.
c. Isolate the bacterium from a sick frog.
d. Show that the bacterium is not present in healthy frogs.
e. Grow a pure culture of the bacterium outside the frog.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.3                 OBJ:   1.3b List Kochs postulates

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. How did Sergei Winogradsky grow lithotrophs?
a. enrichment culture d. endosymbiosis
b. organic media e. chain of infection
c. pure culture

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4a List Winogradskys contributions to microbial culture technique | 1.4b Define what distinguishes lithotrophs from other organisms                                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Organisms that live symbiotically inside a larger organism are known as
a. organelles. d. endosymbionts.
b. cyanobacteria. e. chloroplasts.
c. mitochondria.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4d Compare the roles of animal endosymbionts and plant endosymbionts

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Animal microbiomes are NOT significant in
a. digesting plant fibers. d. converting ammonia to nitrate.
b. bioluminescence. e. providing nutrients to the host.
c. protection from pathogens.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.4

OBJ:   1.4d Compare the roles of animal endosymbionts and plant endosymbionts

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Carl Woeses discovery replaced the classification scheme of five kingdoms with a scheme of three
a. phyla. d. orders.
b. domains. e. genera.
c. classes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5b Outline how microbial classification has changed over time | 1.5d Describe the importance of DNA sequencing in classification                                 MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. The gene expression machinery of archaea is MOST similar to
a. monera. d. eukaryotes.
b. prokaryotes. e. mitochondria.
c. bacteria.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5e Compare and contrast archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In the three-domain model, the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria derives from ancient
a. fungi. d. archaea.
b. cyanobacteria. e. protists.
c. respiring bacteria.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5c Appraise endosymbiosis as an explanation for mitochondria and chloroplasts

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following organelles are thought to be of prokaryotic origin?
a. chloroplast d. chloroplast and mitochondria
b. mitochondria e. chloroplast and nucleus
c. nucleus

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5c Appraise endosymbiosis as an explanation for mitochondria and chloroplasts

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In the three-domain model, the bacterial ancestor of chloroplasts derives from ancient
a. fungi. d. archaea.
b. cyanobacteria. e. protists.
c. proteobacteria.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5c Appraise endosymbiosis as an explanation for mitochondria and chloroplasts

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which commonly used microbial classification advancement led to the tree by Carl Woese in 1977?
a. comparative genomics d. protein sequencing
b. microscopy e. 16S rRNA sequencing
c. X-ray diffraction

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.5

OBJ:   1.5b Outline how microbial classification has changed over time | 1.5d Describe the importance of DNA sequencing in classification                                 MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. Electron microscopes use what to focus the beam of electrons?
a. electromagnets d. X-ray diffraction
b. a condenser lens e. glass
c. light rays

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6a Describe the roles of the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge in advancing our knowledge of cell structure and function         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. Peter Mitchell and Jennifer Moyle discovered the ________ theory in the 1960s.
a. germplasm d. DNA synthesis
b. evolution e. polymerase chain reaction
c. chemiosmotic

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6a Describe the roles of the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge in advancing our knowledge of cell structure and function         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. The X-ray diffraction studies by which of the following scientists concluded that DNA was a double helix?
a. James Watson d. Maurice Wilkins
b. Rosalind Franklin e. Kary Mullis
c. Francis Crick

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6a Describe the roles of the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge in advancing our knowledge of cell structure and function         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. What feature of bacteria facilitated the DNA revolution in the 1970s?
a. They are very small. d. All of their genes were known.
b. They readily recombine DNA. e. They do not cause disease.
c. They have very large genomes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6b Explain how studies on microbes fostered our knowledge of DNA function and enhanced DNA technology           MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. This scientist first discovered the process of transformation.
a. Francis Crick d. Louis Pasteur
b. Robert Koch e. Frederick Griffith
c. Edward Jenner

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6b Explain how studies on microbes fostered our knowledge of DNA function and enhanced DNA technology           MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Taq polymerase forms the basis of a technique for
a. comparative genomics. d. DNA amplification.
b. recombinant DNA. e. protein synthesis.
c. X-ray diffraction.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6c State some uses of microbes in medicine and industry

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In 1975, scientists held a conference at Asilomar to regulate and restrict the field of
a. recombinant DNA. d. DNA amplification.
b. comparative genomics. e. forensic microbiology.
c. DNA sequencing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6c State some uses of microbes in medicine and industry

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The study of and cause of disease in humans, animals, and plants is called
a. microbiology. d. epidemiology.
b. phylogeny. e. forensics.
c. genomics.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6c State some uses of microbes in medicine and industry

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The ultracentrifuge is a high-speed centrifuge ideally suited for separating individual
a. cellular proteins and nucleotides. d. secondary metabolites.
b. microbial cells. e. base pairs.
c. mold spores.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.6

OBJ:   1.6a Describe the roles of the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge in advancing our knowledge of cell structure and function         MSC:             Understanding

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is the MOST recent evidence suggesting that all life on Earth shares a common ancestry?

 

ANS:

Many genomes have now been sequenced, and those sequences are available in databases for comparison. This field is referred to as comparative genomics. Comparisons have revealed that there is a set of core genes shared by all organisms.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.1 | 1.5

OBJ:   1.1d Explain the implications of microbial genome sequencing | 1.5b Outline how microbial classification has changed over time    MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. How are prokaryotes and eukaryotes different?

 

ANS:

A prokaryote lacks a nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles, whereas a eukaryote has a nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   1.1 | 1.5         OBJ:   1.1a Recall the definition of a microbe

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How do microbes help in the extraction of minerals?

 

ANS:

Several lithotrophic bacteria help in the rapid oxidation of minerals, which generates strong acids that expedite the breakdown of mineral ore. Currently, approximately 20% of the worlds copper, as well as some uranium and zinc, is produced by bacterial leaching.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2a List both positive and negative impacts that microbes have had on human history

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek worked as a cloth draper, inspecting the quality of cloth. How did this lead to his interest in microscopy?

 

ANS:

His work introduced him to magnifying lenses. He began the hobby of grinding lenses, ultimately making a microscope that enabled him to observe single-celled microbes.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What was the major complaint about Lazzaro Spallanzanis experiment to disprove spontaneous generation, and how did Louis Pasteurs swan-neck flasks overcome this?

 

ANS:

Spallanzanis flasks were plugged so as not to let organisms accidentally enter the boiled medium. Opponents argued that no growth was observed simply due to the lack of oxygen. Pasteurs swan-neck flasks did not allow organisms to enter the flask but did allow oxygen to enter. Growth was still not observed.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Describe the discoveries of Louis Pasteur while working with the French beer and wine manufacturers in assessing alcohol versus vinegar production during fermentation.

 

ANS:

Previously, it was believed that the conversion of grapes and grain to wine and beer was a spontaneous chemical process. Pasteur discovered that this fermentation was caused by living yeast, which did not require oxygen for growth. He also discovered that when the grapes or grain are contaminated with bacteria instead of yeast, acetic acid is produced instead of alcohol.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                     MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Describe the effects of three microbial diseases that have significantly affected human populations throughout history.

 

ANS:

Answers may vary. Some examples include bubonic plague, which killed one-third of Europes population in the fourteenth century; tuberculosis, which was common in the nineteenth century; AIDS, which affects many people today; and smallpox, which killed a large number of native North Americans.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.2

OBJ:   1.2a List both positive and negative impacts that microbes have had on human history | 1.2c Identify the contributions of the following individuals: Nightingale, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, and Tyndall                             MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Why did it take so long for humans to determine that microbes cause infectious diseases?

 

ANS:

Microbes are too small to be seen with the naked eye, so until powerful-enough microscopes were invented, humans did not know that microbes existed. Even after humans were aware of the presence of microbes, they did not suspect them of causing disease until people such as Joseph Lister and Ignaz Semmelweis performed experiments that showed antiseptics decrease the incidence of infection.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.2 | 1.3

OBJ:   1.2b Explain why the microscope is an important tool in the field of microbiology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Robert Kochs postulates have not been used to prove HIV as the causative agent of AIDS. Why not?

 

ANS:

Answers may vary, but a major reason is that humans cannot be injected with HIV to see if they develop AIDS, and a suitable animal host doesnt exist for testing.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3c Assess some of the practical obstacles in applying Kochs postulates

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Define attenuation and describe some mechanisms used to attenuate pathogens.

 

ANS:

Attenuation results in a weakened organism that will not produce full-blown disease but will generate immunity. Answers for mechanisms may vary, but heat treatment or aging for various periods or natural attenuation in the host are mentioned in the chapter.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3d Recall the contributions of various individuals to the discovery and implementation of vaccination | 1.3e Compare the roles of immunization, antiseptics, and antibiotics in human disease treatment and prevention             MSC:              Applying

 

  1. What is the significance of the work of Ignaz Semmelweis and Joseph Lister?

 

ANS:

They showed that use of antiseptics on doctors hands and medical instruments drastically reduced the mortality rate of hospital patients. They made these observations before Robert Kochs germ theory of disease.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   1.3

OBJ:   1.3e Compare the roles of immunization, antiseptics, and antibiotics in human disease treatment and prevention                                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. How would you use Robert Kochs postulates to prove that a specific organism causes a new disease in mice?

 

ANS:

See Figure 1.17 in the textbook:

(1)  The suspected organism is found in all diseased mice, but is absent from healthy mice.

(2)  The suspected organism is isolated from the diseased mice and grown in pure culture.

(3)  When the suspected organism is introduced into a healthy mouse, the same disease occurs.

(4)  The same strain of microbe is obtained from the newly diseased mouse.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   1.3                 OBJ:   1.3b List Kochs postulates

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Explain why the organisms that were studied by Sergei Winogradsky could not be grown on Robert Kochs plate media containing agar or gelatin.

 

ANS:

The organisms studied by Winogradsky were lithotrophs, which feed solely on inorganic substances.

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here