Test Bank For Public Health Science And Nursing Practice By Christine Savage,Joan Kub

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Test Bank For Public Health Science And Nursing Practice By Christine Savage,Joan Kub

Description

WITH ANSWERS

 

Public Health Science And Nursing Practice By Christine Savage,Joan Kub

Chapter 1: Public Health and Nursing Practice

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The public health nurse (PHN) knows that he must approach a public health problem with an understanding of the related underlying risk factors in order to develop effective nursing interventions. He must also consider that these risk factors can be either ____ based or ____ based.
A. Disease; individual
B. Intervention; Government
C. Epidemic; population
D. Individual; population

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 6. Identify the key roles and responsibilities of public health nurses (PHNs).

  1. 1-2

Heading: Introduction to Public Health

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Assessment; Promoting Health; Critical Thinking

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A His approach cannot be disease based, as diseases can affect populations in multiple locations but the risk factors can be different.
B Interventions occur after the public health event, and governments can only follow the evidence of public health studies.
C An epidemic is an occurrence of a disease and has the same limitations as a disease-based approach.
D Nurses may work with patients to assess risk and intervene on a one-to-one, situational basis or as part of a larger health problem within a population.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Assessment | Promoting Health | Critical Thinking

 

  1. A nursing student is studying public health. She learns that, according to C.E.A. Winslows definition, some of the goals of public health are disease prevention, promoting health, control of communicable infections, and ____.
A. Risk assessment for disease
B. Birth control
C. Education on personal hygiene
D. Governmental safety regulations

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 2

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > What Is Public Health?

Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Infection; Nursing Roles; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Risk assessment is considered a part of disease prevention.
B Birth control is not considered to be one of the goals of public health.
C Health education and the promotion of healthy lifestyles are essential parts of public health.
D The goal of public health is to guide governmental policy but not to create regulations.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Infection | Nursing Roles | Promoting Health

 

  1. If the international medical community was working to contain several worldwide pandemics, they would look to the World Health Organization (WHO), which is
A. The public health arm of the United Nations
B. Working to improve health and well-being for the global population
C. Working with nurses to promote public health interventions
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 1-2

Heading: Introduction to Public Health

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Promoting Health; Health-Care System; Management; Safety

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A The World Health Organization (WHO) is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system.
B The WHO has the capability to monitor global epidemiological situations.
C The WHO brings resources and knowledge to nurses who are working directly with patients in order for them to make informed decisions.
D This is correct. The WHO is the public health arm of the United Nations and works toward both of the above mentioned goals.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Promoting Health | Health-Care System | Management | Safety

 

  1. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) stated in their report, The Future of the Publics Health, that there are three core functions that society carries out to collectively support the optimum conditions for public health. Which one of the following is not one of these functions?
A. Prevention
B. Assessment
C. Policy development
D. Assurance

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 2

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > What is Public Health?

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Assessment; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Prevention is not considered a core function of public health, as assessment, policy development, and assurance have prevention as an implied goal of each function.
B Assessment focuses on analysis and collection of data, as well as the monitoring of health problems and needs.
C Policy development uses the acquired knowledge from assessments to create useful public health policies.
D Assurance creates trust in health-care agencies to provide necessary services that are in line with public health goals.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Assessment | Promoting Health

 

  1. A nursing instructor is giving a lecture on public health and the importance of maintaining a population-focused perspective when administering care. Which of the following statements might a nursing student hear from the instructor?
A. Individual health occurs within the context of the population.
B. Individual health occurs within the context of the environment surrounding the individual.
C. Individuals achieve health at the individual level through individualistic actions.
D. Both 1 and 2

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 1-2

Heading: Introduction to Public Health

Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Evidence-Based Practice; Nursing Roles; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

 

  Feedback
A Individual health occurs within the context of both the population and the environment surrounding the individual.
B Individual health occurs within the context of both the population and the environment surrounding the individual.
C Individuals do not achieve health at the individual level through uninformed, individualistic actions. Instead, individual health occurs within the context of the population and the environment surrounding the individual.
D Individual health occurs within the context of the population and the environment surrounding the individual.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Evidence-Based Practice | Nursing Roles | Promoting Health

 

  1. With aging, there is an increase in noncommunicable (chronic) illness. The PHN recognizes that an example of a noncommunicable illness is
A. Heart disease
B. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
C. Hepatitis
D. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 2. Compare and contrast the terms commonly used within the context of public health.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Immunity; Infection; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Heart disease cannot be transmitted between humans, so it is a noncommunicable disease.
B Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted between humans through body fluids.
C Hepatitis is transmitted between humans through blood exchanged in transfusions and needle sticks.
D Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is transmitted between humans through respiratory fluids in coughing and sneezing.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Immunity | Infection | Promoting Health

 

  1. A PHN would like to use the Dahlgren-Whitehead model to help herself and other local practitioners understand health in populations. She understands that the Dahlgren-Whitehead ecological model assumes that
A. There are multiple determinants of health and thus, multiple strategies are needed.
B. A population and environmental approach is essential.
C. Linkages and relationships are crucial.
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Cognitive Level: Analysis [Analyzing]

Concept: Evidence-Based Practice; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  Feedback
A Location and social systems are two of many determinants in the ecology of a public health problem.
B This model asserts that the environment of the affected population is a key component in assessing risk factors.
C Social systems, families, and communities play a role in the health or lack of health for an individual or a population.
D The Dahlgren-Whitehead model is key to understanding the layers of influence and relationships regarding population health and how important environment is to said health. Thus, all of the answer choices together are correct.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Evidence-Based Practice | Promoting Health

 

  1. The obesity rate in a local neighborhood is the product of a poor quality grocery store and a lack of dedicated venues for exercise. This is an example of upstream determinants of public health determining the ecology of a communitys health downstream. The PHN understands that upstream determinants include social relations, neighborhoods and communities, institutions, and ____.
A. Social and economic policies
B. Availability of medicine
C. Nursing interventions
D. Government programs

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Promoting Health; Economics

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A Upstream refers to determinants of health that are somewhat removed from the more downstream biological and behavioral bases for disease. Upstream determinants can include social and economic policies.
B Availability of medicine is not an example of an upstream determinant of health.
C A nursing intervention is not an example of an upstream determinant of health.
D Government programs do not represent their own category in the upstream determinants of health.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Promoting Health | Economics

 

  1. A nursing instructor is giving a lecture on community participation in an ecological public health system. She teaches that the benefits of this collaboration for participants in the communitys public health are that their efforts increase effectiveness and productivity, empower the participants, strengthen social engagement, and ____.
A. Decrease disease rates
B. Ensure accountability
C. Increase the number of medical facilities
D. Monitor childhood illnesses

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing Roles; Promoting Health; Collaboration

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Decreased disease rate is a definite sign that the ecology of a health population is improving. Community collaboration efforts are a good way to achieve this.
B Ensuring accountability among members of a community to stay healthy and for the health care providers to provide good care is possible through collaboration, but the end result is better health for all, as in the form of decreased disease rates.
C More facilities are not an assurance that health care will improve. Collaboration in the community ensures that the environment drives good public health.
D Avoiding childhood illnesses, not monitoring their onset, is one of the goals of community collaboration.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing Roles | Promoting Health | Collaboration

 

  1. The PHN recognizes that which of the following scenarios is not an example of community collaboration?
A. A local service group working to organize disaster relief for tornado victims
B. A city council passing an ordinance to stop smoking in restaurants
C. An advocacy group working to improve health care for the mentally ill
D. A school working with the local health department to start a school clinic

 

 

ANS:  B

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Promoting Health; Collaboration

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A This collaboration benefits the communitys public health after a natural disaster.
B Community collaboration is considered non-governmental. A nongovernmental group can effect change in government but not legislate.
C A volunteer group can offer valuable services to enhance the lives of people suffering from mental illness.
D This institution is an example of a social system that can work with a health department to use each others strengths to produce a meaningful project.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Promoting Health | Collaboration

 

  1. The PHN understands that which layer of government is responsible for issuing quarantines?
A. Federal
B. State
C. Local
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 4-8

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Organization and Management

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Health-Care System

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A The Constitution did not provide for such an agency, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does public health research. Still, quarantines are mostly managed at the local level.
B State constitutions empower the states to establish state boards of health. Their duty is to protect the citizens, but quarantines are mostly managed at the local level.
C Quarantines are mostly managed at the local level.
D All levels of government are not needed or agile enough to handle local health crises.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Health-Care System

 

  1. The nursing student is taught correctly that local health departments do not oversee
A. The surveillance of disease
B. Investigation of disease outbreaks
C. Licensing of local hospitals
D. Public sanitation and water supply

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 4-8

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Organization and Management

Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nursing Roles; Health-Care System

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Local agencies protect the health of the citizens that live in their county, municipality, or township. They are watchful for conditions that might spawn disease.
B Once there is a disease outbreak, local health departments work to contain it.
C Hospitals are licensed by state and federal agencies, not local health departments.
D Local agencies monitor waste disposal and the water supply to assure quality.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nursing Roles | Health-Care System

 

  1. The PHN recognizes that environmental science, epidemiology, biostatistics, biomedical sciences, and ____ form the foundational subjects of public health.
A. Economics
B. The humanities
C. Social and behavioral sciences
D. Anthropology

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 9-10

Heading: Public Health as a Component of Nursing Practice Across Settings and Specialties > Health From a Population Perspective

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Evidence-Based Practice; Nursing

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A Although economics could be a useful tool to assess the impact of a health program, it is not considered one of the foundational subjects.
B The humanities are not considered a key component of public health.
C Many branches of social and behavioral sciences are useful for analysis of public health issues.
D The study of man and his development is nonessential to public health.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Evidence-Based Practice | Nursing

 

  1. As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), an example of a health promotion intervention is ____ whereas a health promotion, risk reduction is ____.
A. A health fair; funding a school health library
B. Giving a free exercise class; offering coupons at a restaurant for healthy food
C. A free antibiotic giveaway; a diet class for teenagers
D. A tour of a hospital; a relaxation technique class

 

 

ANS:  B

Objective: 2. Compare and contrast the terms commonly used within the context of public health.

  1. 10-11

Heading: Health Promotion, Risk Reduction, and Health Protection

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Promoting Health; Nutrition; Sleep, Rest, and Activity

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Both of these options are health promotions because they create opportunities to improve health through participation.
B This is correct. A health promotion intervention creates an opportunity to improve health through participation, while a risk reduction refers to actions taken to reduce a persons risk for disease.
C A free antibiotic is a health benefit only to those who have an infection.
D While the relaxation techniques class would reduce risk for disease, the hospital tour is educational, but not promotional.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Promoting Health | Nutrition | Sleep, Rest, and Activity

 

  1. According to ODonnells definition of health promotion, how could a public health nurse advise a company to encourage its employees to work toward good health?
A. Lower insurance premiums for good health habits
B. Have employee exercise classes or discounted health club memberships
C. Have incentives for healthy eating
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 3. Discuss current issues related to health promotion and health protection.

  1. 10-11

Heading: Health Promotion, Risk Reduction, and Health Protection

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nutrition; Sleep, Rest, and Activity; Promoting Health; Health-Care System

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A Financial benefits or savings would promote behavioral change.
B Health club memberships would facilitate the employees ability for change.
C Encouraging a good diet through incentives would promote healthy behavior.
D All of the options listed above promote good health and reduce the risk for illness.

 

 

 

PTS:   1

CON:  Nutrition | Sleep, Rest, and Activity | Promoting Health | Health-Care System

 

  1. According to Issel, when planning a health intervention in a diverse community concerning improving diet, the factor that must be evaluated (which includes shared geographic origin, language and dialect, religious faith, folklore, and food preferences) is termed ____.
A. Race
B. Culture
C. Ethnicity
D. Custom

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 2. Compare and contrast the terms commonly used within the context of public health.

  1. 11-13

Heading: Health Promotion, Risk Reduction, and Health Protection > The Context of Health

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Diversity; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A Race refers to the physical appearance of a group and has to do more with genetics.
B Culture refers to beliefs, values, and norms shared across a group of people.
C Ethnicity includes shared geographic origin, language and dialect, religious faith, folklore, and food preferences.
D Customs are common rituals attributed to a group of people.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Diversity | Promoting Health

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Globalization, which is a new challenge for public health, includes which of the following problems?

Select all that apply.

A. Greater disparities between rich and poor
B. Environmental degradation
C. Greater need for newer technology
D. Greater distribution of tobacco and alcohol
E. Emergence or re-emergence of communicable diseases

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, E

Objective: 1. Describe public health in terms of current frameworks and organization from a local to a global perspective.

  1. 3-4

Heading: Introduction to Public Health > Public Health Frameworks: Challenges and Trends

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Addiction; Promoting Health; Economics; Safety

Difficulty: Easy

 

Feedback
1. The problem is that for the growing number of poor people, there is less access to adequate health care, clean drinking water, and nutritious food. This creates even greater health disparities between rich and poor.
2. With increased urbanization and pollution, the human body ingests an increased amount of toxic chemicals.
3. In public health, better strategies for managing health care and current resources are needed more than newer technology.
4. The widespread availability of tobacco and alcohol increases the abuse of these substances and the problems that accompany it.
5. Some of the diseases that have emerged or re-emerged as a result of globalization are HIV, AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, hepatitis, malaria, diphtheria, cholera, and Ebola. There is a need for planning for these possible pandemics using limited resources.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Addiction | Promoting Health | Economics | Safety

 

  1. Several nurses who work in the emergency room of an urban hospital notice that a sizable number of children in a certain ethnic population have come in with an illness, all presenting with similar symptoms. The nurses, who are not public health specialists, can intervene in the health of a community through their work with individuals by doing which of the following?

Select all that apply.

A. Increasing antibiotic therapy availability
B. Identifying characteristics of the disease
C. Grouping patients by diagnosis
D. Giving classes on how to avoid infections
E. Assessing the environment of the patients

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D, E

Objective: 4. Investigate the role of environment and culture in the health of populations.

  1. 14

Heading: Health Promotion, Risk Reduction, and Health Protection > Population-Focused Care Across Settings and Nursing Specialties

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Infection; Assessment; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Feedback
1. Antibiotics may not be a necessary route of treatment for the diagnosis.
2. It would be important to note and compare symptoms, onset, and other information to ascertain whether this is the same illness.
3. Grouping the patients according to diagnosis will allow the health-care team to give better care and help create a care map.
4. Once the problem has been diagnosed, a class on avoiding infections would be a proper intervention.
5. Evaluating the environment of the patients may create an understanding of why the illness occurred and prevent a re-occurrence of the illness.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Infection | Assessment | Promoting Health

 

  1. The regulatory activities of public health nursing include which of the following?

Select all that apply.

A. Interpreting public health laws, regulations, and policies
B. Monitoring regulated entities such as nursing homes
C. Writing new regulations for health care and legislating them
D. Taking part in health policy debates
E. Educating the public

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, E

Objective: 6. Identify the key roles and responsibilities of public health nurses (PHNs).

  1. 19-22

Heading: Public Health Nursing as a Specialty > Public Health Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Regulations; Legal

Difficulty: Easy

 

Feedback
1. This is one of the regulatory activities of public health nursing and also includes identifying and implementing public health laws, regulations, and policies.
2. This is one of the regulatory activities of public health nursing and also includes inspecting these entities.
3. PHNs can help develop laws but not enact them.
4. PHNs can participate in discussions about health care and bring valuable input.
5. An important part of regulation is making sure the public understands the laws.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Regulations | Legal

 

  1. If a PHN had the capabilities required in the domains of the PHN Core Competencies, he or she would be able to do which of the following?

Select all that apply.

A. Develop policy for handling a local quarantine.
B. Understand the dietary restrictions of new immigrants.
C. Create a financial plan for a clinic and manage the budget.
D. Function as a medical doctor at a clinic if there is none.
E. Work with corporations to create an emergency response program to bioterrorism.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E

Objective: 6. Identify the key roles and responsibilities of public health nurses (PHNs).

  1. 19-22

Heading: Public Health Nursing as a Specialty > Public Health Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Infection; Nutrition; Diversity; Violence; Nursing Roles

Difficulty: Easy

 

Feedback
1. Policy development/program planning is an essential skill for a PHN.
2. In order to reach a population that might not receive adequate health care, cultural competency and communication skills are needed to overcome any barriers.
3. Financial and management skills are needed to maintain the sustainability of programs.
4. PHNs have basic public health science to assist in the welfare of the public but are limited by their professional constraints.
5. One of the new challenges PHNs face is preparing the public for sudden, catastrophic health events, such as bioterrorism.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Infection | Nutrition | Diversity | Violence | Nursing Roles

 

Chapter 3: Epidemiology and Nursing Practice

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. John Snow, considered the founder of epidemiology, realized the source of the Londons cholera epidemic through:
A. A residential pattern of death
B. Mapping of the food supply
C. Interviewing the families of the sick
D. Performing autopsies

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 7. Explain behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that have an impact on health.

  1. 59

Heading: Introduction > Historical Beginnings

Integrated Processes: N/A

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Safety; Infection

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Snow developed a frequency distribution of the number of human deaths by placing hash marks on a city street map and realized a cluster of deaths occurred near the Broad Street water pump.
B Snow developed a frequency distribution of the number of human deaths and found that they were clustered around the Broad Street water pump, not the food supply.
C Snow developed a frequency distribution of the number of human deaths; he did not interview the families of the sick.
D Snow developed a frequency distribution of the number of human deaths; he did not perform autopsies.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Safety | Infection

 

  1. The history and development of epidemiology has gone through several developmental phases. The public health nursing student learns that these phases came about in history in what order?
A. Risk factor phase, infectious disease phase, and sanitary phase
B. Infectious disease phase, risk factor phase, and sanitary phase
C. Sanitary phase, infectious disease phase, and risk factor phase
D. Agent phase, host phase, and environment phase

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 7. Explain behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that have an impact on health.

  1. 59

Heading: Introduction > Historical Beginnings

Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Infection; Safety

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A The first phase, the sanitary phase, was due to the theory that sanitation needed to be improved to aid health. During the next phase, the infectious disease phase, germ theory was developed and antibiotics came into production. The third phase, the risk factor phase, turned to reducing risk for disease and prevention.
B The first phase, the sanitary phase, was due to the theory that sanitation needed to be improved to aid health. During the next phase, the infectious disease phase, germ theory was developed and antibiotics came into production. The third phase, the risk factor phase, turned to reducing risk for disease and prevention.
C The first phase, the sanitary phase, was due to the theory that sanitation needed to be improved to aid health. During the next phase, the infectious disease phase, germ theory was developed and antibiotics came into production. The third phase, the risk factor phase, turned to reducing risk for disease and prevention.
D The agent, host, and environment model is the Epidemiology Triangle, which is the model used to explaining the occurrence of disease.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Infection | Safety

 

  1. A public health nurse (PHN) is asked by the hospital administration to find out why there are so many pediatric asthma patients coming to the ER for treatment and to develop a plan to reduce admissions by 10%. The nurse needs to untangle the multiple risk factors involved in order to determine what type of intervention should be developed, so he or she uses:
A. Descriptive data analysis
B. The ecological model
C. Demography
D. The web of causation

 

 

ANS:  D

Objective: 7. Explain behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that have an impact on health.

  1. 63

Heading: Introduction > Web of Causation

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Oxygenation; Critical Thinking; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A Descriptive data analysis is the first step in the analysis of demographic data. It analyses the accuracy of the data, but does not look at risk factors.
B The ecological model is used to design health promotions to maintain and improve health and evaluate behaviors. It is not used to visualize risk factors.
C Demography is the population-level study of person-related variables or factors. It is used to understand population-level patterns related to health phenomena. This may be helpful, but it does not consider the other levels of risk factors.
D The web of causation is a framework that demonstrates the complexity of the multiple factors of illness, injury, and disease, which are determined by multiple causes.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Oxygenation | Critical Thinking | Promoting Health

 

  1. If a nurse takes the number of new cases of a disease or illness among the contacts of initial (primary) cases and divides it by the number of people in the population at risk, he or she is calculating the:
A. Prevalence
B. Incidence
C. Secondary attack rate
D. Attack rate

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective: 5. Apply basic biostatistical methods to analyze epidemiological data.

  1. 65-70

Heading: Tools of Epidemiology: Demography and Biostatistics > Biostatistics

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Assessment; Infection

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A The prevalence is the total number of accumulated cases of a disease or illness, both new and preexisting, at a given time.
B Incidence is the number of new cases of a disease of illness at a specific time or over a specific period of time.
C Secondary attack rate is calculated this way. It is essentially the number of contacts of the initially ill who are now ill.
D Attack rate is calculated by placing the total number of ill or diseased people in the numerator and dividing by the total number of ill plus well people in the susceptible population.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Assessment | Infection

 

  1. A public health official reports that the weekly influenza rate for a city in Oregon is 12.5%. This rate does not take into account smoking status, so it is a(n):
A. Independent rate
B. Mortality rate
C. Dependent rate
D. Morbidity rate

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 5. Apply basic biostatistical methods to analyze epidemiological data.

  1. 65-70

Heading: Tools of Epidemiology: Demography and Biostatistics > Biostatistics

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Assessment; Infection

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A An independent rate is a statistical rate that is considered apart from other statistics.
B Mortality refers to the number of deaths within a given population.
C A dependent rate is a statistical rate that is considered with other statistics.
D Morbidity refers to the number or proportion of individuals experiencing a similar disability, illness, or disease.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Assessment | Infection

 

  1. When comparing the body mass index (BMI) of obese women in two cities, it would be an erroneous assumption for the nurse to think that, based on these averages, since the average BMI of City A was higher than that of City B, a woman in City A will have a higher BMI than a woman in City B. This assumption is referred to as:
A. An odds ratio
B. An ecological fallacy
C. A causality
D. Relative risk

 

 

ANS:  B

Objective: 5. Apply basic biostatistical methods to analyze epidemiological data.

  1. 70

Heading: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Nutrition; Assessment; Evidence-Based Practice; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A The odds ratio is defined as the odds of someone among the exposed having a disease or condition compared with the odds of someone among those who were not exposed having the disease or condition.
B Ecological fallacy is the erroneous assumption that one can draw conclusions for individuals based on group findings, which occurs when the researcher draws conclusions at the individual level based solely on the observations made at the group level.
C Causality is a finding in a study that actually proves the cause of the reason for the study and doesnt just establish a relationship between variables.
D Relative risk is determined by comparing the incidence rate in the exposed group with the incidence rate in the not exposed group.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Nutrition | Assessment | Evidence-Based Practice | Promoting Health

 

  1. A nurse conducts a survey within several months to determine which children in a certain school have parents that smoke in order to study their risk for asthma. This type of study is called a(n):
A. Case-control study
B. Cross-sectional study
C. Cohort study
D. Outbreak investigation

 

 

ANS:  B

Objective: 6. Differentiate cohort and case-control study design and select appropriate measures of effect.

  1. 70

Heading: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Addiction; Oxygenation; Promoting Health; Assessment

Difficulty: Easy

  Feedback
A The case-control study design allows the epidemiologist to compare the rate of disease in those exposed to a risk factor to the rate in those who were not exposed to a risk factor.
B A cross-sectional study examines risk factors and disease using data collected at the same point in time.
C Cohort studies are studies that follow a specific population, subset of the population, or group of people over a specified period of time.
D An outbreak investigation occurs in response to elevated levels of a disease or illness within the defined population, including exposure to toxic agents.

 

 

PTS:   1                    CON:  Addiction | Oxygenation | Promoting Health | Assessment

 

  1. A control or no disease group is needed for study of oral cancer. The nurses conducting the study decide to use a group of patients with skin cancer because these patients are at the same facility, and the likelihood of developing oral cancer with skin cancer is low. However, this variable could still cause the disease being studied, as well as potential limitations in the study. This variable would be called a(n):
A. Confounder
B. Right censoring
C. Case-control
D. Odds ratio

 

 

ANS:  A

Objective: 5. Apply basic biostatistical methods to analyze epidemiological data.

  1. 70

Heading: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Cellular Regulation; Evidence-Based Practice; Critical Thinking; Promoting Health

Difficulty: Moderate

  Feedback
A Confounders are variables that could make it difficult to establish a clear causal link unless adjustments are made for their effects.
B Right censoring is subject attrition or discontinued participation in a study.
C The case-control study design allows the epidemiologist to compare the rate of disease in those exposed to a risk factor to the rate in those who were not exposed to a risk factor.
D The odds ratio is defined as the odds of someone among the exposed having a disease or condition compared with the odds of someone among those who were not exposed having the d

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