Test Bank For Research Methods, Design, And Analysis, 11Th Ed, Larry B. Christensen, R. Burke Johnson, Lisa A. Turner

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Test Bank For Research Methods, Design, And Analysis, 11Th Ed, Larry B. Christensen, R. Burke Johnson, Lisa A. Turner

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Research Methods, Design, And Analysis, 11Th Ed, Larry B. Christensen, R. Burke Johnson, Lisa A. Turner  Test Bank 

Chapter 2

Research Approaches and Methods of Data Collection

Learning objectives

To be able to

  • Describe the different types of variables used in quantitative research
  • Explain the nature of causation and how researchers attempt to establish causation.
  • Describe the key characteristics of experimental research approach as used in

psychology.

  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of experimental research
  • Describe the different settings in which experimental research is conducted and the

advantages and disadvantages associated with each setting.

  • Explain the differences between nonexperimental and experimental quantitative research

methods.

  • Compare and contrast the types of nonexperimental quantitative research
  • Define and explain the goals and characteristics of qualitative research.
  • Compare and contrast the different methods of data collection.

 

 

Multiple-choice questions

 

1) What is the main difference between descriptive and experimental research approaches?

  1. a) the former always uses qualitative data while the latter always uses quantitative data
  2. b) descriptive research is done by social scientists while natural scientists do experimental research
  3. c) descriptive research involves manipulating variables but experimental research does

not

*          d) The former does not establish cause-and-effect relationships but the latter does

 

2) The _________ variable is the presumed cause of another variable while the ________ variable is the presumed effect.

*          a) independent; dependent

  1. b) dependent; independent
  2. c) independent; extraneous
  3. d) independent; mediating

 

3) In a study designed to identify factors involved in helping behavior, a man on a crowded bus clutches his chest and falls to the floor. In one of the conditions of the study the man is clean shaven and wearing a suit; in the other condition he has a scraggly beard and is wearing a dirty t-shirt and jeans. The amount of time it takes for someone to help the man is recorded. In this example the independent variable is

  1. a) the amount of time it takes someone to help.

*          b) the appearance of the man.

  1. c) the participants in the study.
  2. d) how crowded the bus is.

 

4) In a study designed to identify factors involved in helping behavior, a man on a crowded bus clutches his chest and falls to the floor. In one of the conditions of the study the man is clean shaven and wearing a suit; in the other condition he has a scraggly beard and is wearing a dirty t-shirt and jeans. The amount of time it takes for someone to help the man is recorded. In this example the dependent variable is

*          a) the amount of time it takes someone to help.

  1. b) the appearance of the man.
  2. c) the participants in the study.
  3. d) how crowded the bus is.

 

5) A(n) ______________ variable is one that is not under the control of the researcher but that may be influencing the outcome of the experiment.

  1. a) independent

*          b) extraneous

  1. c) mediating
  2. d) moderating

 

6) A researcher is interested in the effects of teaching styles on learning. She randomly assigns students to either a lecture-based class taught at 8:00 a.m. or a discussion-based class taught at 2:00 p.m. Her results reveal that students in the discussion-based class performed better than those in the lecture-based class. In this example the time that the class is taught could be considered a(n) _________ variable, making it impossible to establish a causal connection between teaching method and classroom performance.

  1. a) independent
  2. b) dependent

*          c) extraneous

  1. d) mediating

 

7) Several recent studies have found that moderate drinkers of alcohol have lowered levels of heart disease risk than non-drinkers. It has been hypothesized that moderate drinking may reduce stress which in turn may lead to a reduction in the risk of heart disease. In this example lowered stress levels would be considered a(n) __________ variable.

  1. a) independent
  2. b) dependent
  3. c) extraneous

*          d) mediating

 

8) A(n) ___________ variable specifies how a causal relationship between two variables is different depending on a particular situation or circumstance. For example, if a researcher finds that a new experimental drug is effective in alleviating depression in young adult but not older adults.

  1. a) mediating

*          b) moderating

  1. c) extraneous
  2. d) independent

 

9) According to your text there are three conditions for making justified claims of cause and effect. Which of the following is NOT one of these conditions:

  1. a) the independent and dependent variables must be related

*          b) the dependent variable must be manipulated by the researcher

  1. c) the independent variable must precede the dependent variable
  2. d) no other plausible explanations between the independent and dependent variables

should exist

 

10) An effect is

  1. a) a reaction that a person makes
  2. b) the difference between what you want to happen and what does happen
  3. c) the difference between what does happen and what you want to happen

*          d) the difference between what would have happened in the absence of a treatment and what did actually happen

 

 

11) What does it mean to say that an observation is objective?

  1. a) the observation is empirical
  2. b) it is done by a trained, professional scientist
  3. c) the observation has a rational basis

*          d) it is unaffected by the observers personal biases

 

12) Experimental research, as opposed to qualitative and nonexperimental quantitative research, allows us to make statements about cause-and-effect relationships. Why is this so?

  1. a) Experimental research involves studying how two variables covary.
  2. b) Experimental research uses statistical analysis.

*          c)  In experimental research, we can observe the effects of manipulating variables under controlled conditions.

  1. d) Experimental research uses objective observations.

 

13) Which of the following is NOT a defining characteristic of a psychological experiment?

  1. a) it involves objective observation
  2. b) variables are manipulated in a highly controlled environment

*          c)  it always takes place in a laboratory

  1. d) one or more factors are varied while the rest are held constant

 

14) According to the text, a phenomenon that is made to occur in a psychology experiment is

  1. a) an emotion.
  2. b) a thought.

*          c)  an observable behavior.

  1. d) a natural event.

 

15) Which of the following is NOT a strength of the experimental approach?

*          a)  proving your hypothesis is correct

  1. b) inferring a causal relationship
  2. c) manipulating precisely one or more variables
  3. d) controlling extraneous variables

 

16) What is the most critical aspect of the experimental method that allows us to make statements about cause and effect based on experimental data?

  1. a) real-life setting
  2. b) operationalism
  3. c) objectivity

*          d) control

 

17) As noted in your text, one disadvantage of the experimental approach is the inability to:

  1. a) control extraneous variables
  2. b) establish cause and effect

*          c) assess the effects of variables that cannot be manipulated

  1. d) make objective observations

 

18) According to your text, what is probably the most commonly cited disadvantage of using laboratory experiments to learn about human behavior?

*          a)  because they tend to be done in highly controlled settings, their results may not be generalizable to the real world

  1. b) with their mechanistic approach to human behavior, they ignore the participants thoughts and emotions
  2. c) operational definitions reduce the abstract concept to a trivial level, making broad interpretations difficult at best
  3. d) because they tend to use other species, the results are usually irrelevant to human

behavior

 

19) Which of the following would not be considered a field experiment?

  1. a) effects of computer-based instruction on computing confidence in a teacher training

program

*          b) effects of music on memory performance among introductory psychology students

  1. c) effects of self-selected incentives on productivity among auto workers
  2. d) effects of television violence on playground aggression among kindergarteners.

 

20) What is the main difference between experimentation done in a field setting and experimentation done in a laboratory?

  1. a) in field experimentation, variables are not manipulated
  2. b) in field experimentation, no attempt is made to control extraneous variables

*          c)  in field experimentation, the setting is real life and not contrived

  1. d) in field experimentation, one can study only a small number of people

 

21) Compared with field research, which of the following is true about laboratory research?

  1. laboratory research achieves greater naturalism
  2. laboratory research allows for greater generalizability of research

*       c. laboratory research achieves a greater degree of control over extraneous variables

  1. field research does not allow for direct manipulation of variables

22) Field experiments, according to Tunnell (1977), should include:

  1. a) natural behaviors.
  2. b) natural settings.
  3. c) natural treatments.

*          d) all of the above.

 

23) An advantage of doing experiments in the laboratory over the field setting is that

  1. a) participants can be randomly assigned in the lab.

*          b) more extraneous variables can be held constant in the lab.

  1. c) variables can be manipulated in the lab.
  2. d) there is no selection bias in the lab.

 

24) Why might laboratory experiments be criticized as less than valuable and potentially problematic?

  1. a) they are subjective and that leads to a lack of confidence in results

*          b) laboratory-based results may not generalize to the real world

  1. c) without further study, knowledge gained in a lab is severely limited
  2. d) we can never really understand human behavior

 

25) An increasing number of researchers are conducting experiments over the Internet because of the advantages it affords.  Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using the Internet to conduct and experiment?

  1. a) ease of access to culturally diverse populations
  2. b) having access to a large sample of individuals
  3. c) a tremendous cost savings over other types of experiments

*          d) there can be multiple submissions by the same person

 

26) An increasing number of researchers are conducting experiments over the Internet because of the advantages it affords.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of using the Internet to conduct and experiment?

*          a) the experiment is brought to the participant instead of the participant coming to the

experiment

  1. b) there is a less experimental control
  2. c) there is a greater probability of self-selection
  3. d) there is a greater probability of dropout of participants

 

27) Nonexperimental quantitative research is particularly useful for

*          a)  developing hypotheses for new experiments.

  1. b) deciding which variable causes which effect.
  2. c) understanding more fully a persons current motivational and emotional state.
  3. d) controlling relevant environmental variables.

 

28) What is the primary weakness of a correlational study?

  1. a) an inability to determine if two variables are associated
  2. b) we cannot determine whether a relationship is direct or inverse
  3. c) correlational studies tend to be artificial

*          d) we cannot establish cause and effect with a correlational study

 

29) In chapter 1, we learned that the main objectives of scientific research are description, explanation, prediction, and control. Of all the nonexperimental research techniques studied, correlational research is particularly well suited for which objectives?

*          a)  description and prediction

  1. b) explanation and control
  2. c) prediction and control
  3. d) description, explanation, prediction, and control

 

30) The third variable issue refers to

*          a)  the possibility that two variables are correlated because  both are caused by a third

variable.

  1. b) the ambiguity introduced when doing more complex research with more than two

variables.

  1. c) not considering age as a variable when doing developmental research.
  2. d) the influence of confounding factors in quantitative experimental research.

 

31) The third variable problem refers to

  1. a) correlations that are not reliable.
  2. b) correlations that cannot be used to infer causation.

*          c) correlations that are causally link through another factor.

  1. d) correlations must include a minimum of three factors to be reliable.

 

32) Ramon determines that in his neighborhood amount of ice cream consumed and number of violent crimes are positively correlated the more ice cream consumed, the more crimes are committed. He concludes that something in ice cream leads people to commit violent crimes. What has Ramon overlooked?

*          a)  the third variable problem as some other variable could lead to an increase in both ice cream consumption and violent crime

  1. b) the reactive effect as the people in his neighborhood were probably aware that he was observing them, and altered their behavior toward what they thought he wanted to see
  2. c) his observations are qualitative and therefore inappropriate
  3. d) he collected his data only after-the-fact

 

33) If we find that two variables are correlated, which of the following conclusions would be unjustified?

*          a)  we know that changes in one of the variables cause changes in the other

  1. b) we know that we can predict to some extent the value of one variable if we know the value of the other
  2. c) we know that the two variables covary, i.e., change in value together
  3. d) we know that we have quantified a relationship between the two variables

 

34) Although we cannot establish causality from a correlational study, statistical techniques are available to help clarify established relationships. One of these is known as _________ and involves identifying multiple variables that are related to a single outcome either directly or indirectly (through mediating variables).

*          a) path analysis

  1. b) triangulation
  2. c) multiple covariance
  3. d) test of mediation

 

35) You want to conduct a study to determine whether single car accidents tend occur more frequently at a particular time of day (i.e. early morning hours). What kind of study would you be conducting?

  1. a) meta-analysis
  2. b) longitudinal

*          c)  natural manipulation

  1. d) phenomenological

 

36) In a longitudinal study of a behavior, a researcher would

  1. a) select groups of participants from each age group and study each group at one time.
  2. b) observe and participate in the behavior in question.
  3. c) measure the degree to which the behavior changed when a factor thought to influence it also changes.

*          d) study one group of similarly aged people for a long period of time.

 

37) A researcher decides to measure the development of moral reasoning from early to late childhood. At a single point in time she tests 20 four-year olds, 20 six-year olds, and 20 eight-year olds by presenting each with the same moral dilemma and recording their responses. She then compares the performance of the three groups. The researcher is using a type of design referred to as:

  1. a) longitudinal

*          b) cross-sectional

  1. c) cohort-sequential
  2. d) qualitative

 

38) Suppose a researcher used a cross-sectional research design and found that older adults tend to be more socially conservative than younger adults. He concludes that as we get older we tend to become more conservative in our thinking. Which of the following is a potential problem with this conclusion?

  1. a) the researcher cannot establish causation because this is a qualitative study
  2. b) the problem of attrition has not been addressed

*          c) an age-cohort effect could explain these findings

  1. d) we cant be sure if these findings are generalizable

 

39) A research technique that combines features of both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs testing cohorts of individuals but also retesting them over time is referred to as a __________ design.

*          a) cross-sequential

  1. b) qualitative
  2. c) repeated cross-sectional
  3. d) grouped longitudinal

 

40) For his senior thesis, Jacob is studying the development of motor coordination in monkeys from birth to old age, but only has one semester to collect his data. What kind of descriptive research design should he use?

  1. a) longitudinal
  2. b) correlational

*          c)  cross sectional

  1. d) historical

 

41) Qualitative research can be described in the following way:

  1. a) it is objective, involves multiple methods, and focuses on people in subcultures
  2. b) it is opinionated, involves two specific methods, and focuses on cultures, not people
  3. c) it is emotional, involves historical methods, and focuses on people with odd cultural

practices

*          d) it is interpretive, involves multiple methods, and focuses on people in their natural

environment

 

42) The cohort-sequential design is an alternative developmental design that

*          a)  makes multiple observations of several cohorts with overlapping ages.

  1. b) makes multiple observations of several cohorts of widely differing ages.
  2. c) makes multiple observations of a single cohort over a very long time span.
  3. d) makes single observations of multiple cohorts over a very long time span.

 

43) Qualitative research is interpretive, which involves

*          a)  extracting information from non-numerical data.

  1. b) using objective measurements.
  2. c) quantifying non-numerical data.
  3. d) observing in the natural environment.

 

44) ___________ research is primarily descriptive and useful in theory generation while _______ research is more useful in testing hypotheses.

  1. Quantitative; qualitative

*          b. Qualitative; quantitative

  1. Experimental; correlational
  2. Cross-sectional; longitudinal

 

45) Qualitative researchers use many methods in part to

  1. a) find one that produces the expected outcome.
  2. b) make the process more like an experiment.

*          c)  provide a better understanding of the phenomenon being investigated.

  1. d) verify their quantitative observations.

 

46) Which of the following could be considered a limitation of qualitative research?

  1. a) because it is typically conducted in an artificial laboratory setting the findings may not

apply to the real world

  1. b) results from qualitative research are overly objective not allowing for interpretation

of individual participants perspectives

  1. c) it is not particularly useful for generating theoretical ideas

*          d) different researchers may provide different interpretations of the same data

 

47) Phenomenologists hoping to gain an understanding of the experiences of people that have been abducted by terrorists, would rely primarily on

*         a)  face-to face interviews.

  1. b) participant observation.
  2. c) gathering of artifacts.
  3. d) collective case studies.

 

48) You would like to identify the teaching techniques and strategies used by professors whom students say are the best instructors.  One research approach that could be used to identify the strategies these professors are using is to use

  1. a) longitudinal analysis.

*          b) naturalistic observation.

  1. c)
  2. d) meta-analysis.

 

49) If a researcher joined a religious cult to see how members are recruited and why affiliation is so strong, she would be using the

  1. a) ex post facto method.
  2. b) phenomenological method.

*          c)  participant-observer method.

  1. d) experimental method.

 

50) A significant risk inherent in participant observation is

  1. a) the introduction of extraneous variables.
  2. b) the need for disguise and possible discovery.
  3. c) the need for deception.

*          d) the reactive effect.

 

Vocabulary

 

Define the following in psychological terms:

Experimental research             Descriptive research                Quantitative research

Numerical data                        Qualitative research                Non-numerical data

Variable                                   Categorical variable                Quantitative variable

Independent variable              Dependent variable                 Cause-and-effect relationship

Extraneous variable                 Mediating variable                  Moderator variable

Causation                                Cause                                      Effect

Psychological experiment       Manipulation                           Confounding variables

Causal description                   Causal explanation                  Field experiment

Laboratory experiment            Internet experiment                 Correlational research

Nonexperimental quantitative research                                   Third variable problem

Path analysis                           Direct effect                            Indirect effect

Natural manipulation research                                                Cross-sectional study

Longitudinal study                 Cohort-sequential design        Qualitative research

Triangulation                           Method of data collection      Tests

Questionnaire                          Interviews                               Focus group

Observation                             Naturalistic observation          Laboratory observation

Time-interval sampling            Event sampling                       Existing data

Documents                              Physical data                           Archived research data

 

Essay questions

 

1) Identify two non-experimental research techniques discussed in your textbook. Describe the major advantages and limitations of each.

 

2) Describe a simple experiment (do not use one discussed in your text) and identify the independent and dependent variables.

 

3) Define and distinguish mediating and moderating variables.

 

4) Explain the phrase cause and effect. Define each and then explain how determinism is important to a scientific use of the word cause.

 

5) How does your book define a psychological experiment? Discuss each of the four important components of this definition.

 

6) List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental approach.

 

7) One of the advantages of the experimental approach is the ability to control extraneous variables. What are extraneous variables? Describe a simple experiment illustrating how extraneous variables might be controlled. Why is the control of extraneous variables important?

 

8) Experiments are sometimes criticized because they often take place in highly artificial laboratory settings where the experimenter has a lot of control over the environment. Explain why this is actually an advantage in establishing a causal relationship between two variables.

 

9) How does a field experiment differ in practice from naturalistic observation? How does a field experiment differ from a laboratory experiment? What are the strengths and weaknesses associated with field experimentation?

 

10) Compare and contrast laboratory experiments, field experiments and Internet experiments. Include the relative advantages and disadvantages of each.

 

11) What is the distinguishing characteristic of nonexperimental quantitative research? Identify the methods presented in your text as examples of nonexperimental quantitative research.

 

12) Why is correlational research unable to establish causal relationships? What is the third variable problem, and why is it critical to the understanding of the misuse of correlational evidence to imply causation?

 

13) What is natural manipulation research? Explain how natural manipulation research is similar to and different from correlational research.

 

14) Describe a cohort-sequential design and explain how it is a combination of the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs. What advantages does the cohort-sequential design have over the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs?

 

15) What is qualitative research? What are the inherent limitations of this type of research?

 

16) What are the six major methods of data collection as outlined in your text? Briefly summarize some of the strengths and weaknesses of each.

 

 

Classroom exercise suggestions

 

1) One of the primary goals of this chapter is to provide students with an overview of the many different research approaches and data collection methods available to researchers. Remind students that much of the information contained in the chapter will be explored more fully in other sections of the text. To bring home the point that many topics can be explored in multiple ways you might use one of the activities below:

 

  • Ask the class to generate ideas of student behaviors that they would be interested in studying (e.g., chatting on Facebook, partying, couples holding hands etc). Lead the discussion toward a single behavior that could be researched. After a behavior is selected this should lead to a discussion of operational definitions as you define precisely the behavior that will be studied. This is a good opportunity to point out that many psychological constructs can be operationalized in multiple ways. After the target behavior has been properly defined have students think of the different research approaches presented in the chapter and how they might use these to study the behavior. Depending on the behavior chosen students should have no trouble identifying several different methods that could be used. Finally, you should also prompt them to relate each method to an objective of science (description, prediction, etc) presented in chapter 1.

 

  • As an alternative to the activity above you might provide groups of students with a simple hypothesis and ask them to brainstorm ideas of how it could be tested. Providing each group with the same hypothesis will give you (and the other students) an opportunity to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each suggested multiple research appraoches.

 

  • I use one or both of the activities above and then continue to reference them throughout the semester. As we discuss more advanced designs our original research idea becomes more and more complex.

 

2) At this point in the semester it will be difficult for most students to decipher scientific journal articles but one easy way to help them distinguish different research methods is by utilizing popular media reports of scientific research. This also encourages students to exercise their critical thinking skills an important goal of the course. There are several ways you might incorporate this in your discussion:

 

  • Have students bring to class popular media reports of scientific research (e.g., from magazines, newspapers, or from online sites like Google news). Ask students to indicate the type of research approach used (e.g., experimental or correlational), the most important results of the study, and any explicit or implied implications of the findings. In many cases students will find it difficult to determine the type of research design that was used in the original study (e.g., correlational or experimental). They may also find unwarranted implications of causality for instance when the original research design was simply correlational.

 

  • Jonathan Mueller maintains a very good website containing links to media reports (and often misrepresentations) of scientific research. In many instances research findings from correlational studies are reported in a way that implies causality. In addition to the article links this site also includes multiple student activities that would be appropriate to accompany your discussion of this chapter.

http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/100/correlation_or_causation.htm

 

  • Finally, Hall and Seery (2006) present an activity in which students compare media reporting of a research finding to the original source. They report that the activity is effective in making students more aware of the limitations of media reporting of research findings.

 

Hall, S.S. & Seery, B.L. (2006). Behind the facts: Helping students evaluate

media reports of psychological research. Teaching of Psychology, 33, 101-104.

 

3) The text points out that correlational research is helpful in accomplishing the scientific objectives of description and prediction. To extend this discussion you might describe how correlational research often stimulates hypotheses that are tested in an experimental manner thus establishing causality and accomplishing the objective of explanation. For example, correlational research finding a positive association between playing violent video games and aggressive behavior is difficult to interpret because of issues of direction of effect and potential third variables. However, these findings have stimulated a wealth of experimental research investigating the precise nature of the causal relationship. For the correlational findings below have students generate ways to test the relationship experimentally. The discussion should naturally lead to issues of random assignment and control of extraneous variables. This may also serve as a preview of ethical issues involved in using random assignment.

  • Students who sit at the front of the classroom make better grades than those that sit in the back.
  • Researchers have found a positive relationship between the degree of satisfaction couples feel experience in their relationship and the amount of time they spend together.
  • There is a negative relationship between exercise and anxiety.
  • Participation in leisure activities has been associated with a lower risk of dementia in older adults.

 

4) The site below, maintained by Alan Levine, presents simple explanations for five different research methodologies (experimental, correlational, naturalistic observation, surveys, and case studies). The site is well-done and contains summaries and quizzes for each of the five methodologies.

http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/proj/res_meth/login.html

 

5) This University of Denver site provides links to various online experiments in which students can participate. You may find this to be more appropriate for later in the course.

http://www.du.edu/psychology/methods/

Chapter 5

Measuring Variables and Sampling

 

Learning objectives

 

To be able to

 

  • Explain the meaning of measurement
  • Compare and contrast Stevens four scales of measurement
  • Explain the difference between reliability and validity
  • Describe the different types of reliability
  • Describe the different types of validity evidence and the strategies used to obtain evidence of validity
  • Explain the meaning of sampling and its terminology
  • Describe each of the random sampling techniques, including their strengths and weaknesses
  • Describe each of the nonrandom sampling techniques, including their strengths and weaknesses
  • Explain the difference between random selection and random assignment
  • Describe the considerations involved in determining the appropriate sample size
  • Describe the sampling approaches used in qualitative research

 

 

Multiple choice questions

 

1) In the context of an experiment, a variable is

*          a) any factor that can vary across participants or situations.

  1. b) any phenomenon or characteristic that can be measured.
  2. c) any phenomenon or characteristic of a participant or situation that has a specific value.
  3. d) the unknown quantity that the experiment will determine.

 

2) ___________ is the simplest scale of measurement.

  1. a) Ordinal

*             b) Nominal

  1. c) Ratio
  2. d) Interval

 

3)   Which of the following measurement scales is accurately paired with an example?

  1. a)  Intervalrankings of tennis players
  2. b)  Ratiozip codes
  3. c)  Nominaltest scores on an exam

*             d)  Ordinala professor listing his students from the best to worst

 

4)   What differentiates interval from ratio scales of measurement?

  1. a) Interval scales use rank order; ratio scales do not
  2. b) In a ratio scale equal distance on the dimension represent equal distance on the

dimension being measured; this is not true for interval

  1. c) Scores of zero are not possible on interval scales

*             d) Ratio scales include an absolute zero point indicating the absence of what is being

measured

 

5) Temperature on a Kelvin scale is an example of

  1. a) nominal measurement.
  2. b) ordinal measurement.
  3. c) interval measurement.

*          d) ratio measurement.

 

6) Which of the following would represent scores on a nominal scale?

  1. a) Attractiveness ratings on a scale of 1-5
  2. b) Coding religion as protestant = 1; catholic = 2, etc.
  3. c) Temperature on a Celsius scale
  4. d) Exam scores

 

7) ______________ refers to the consistency of results and ____________ is the extent to which you are measuring what you think you are measuring.

  1. a) Reliability; operational validity
  2. b) Validity; reliability

*          c) Reliability; validity

  1. d) Convergence; divergence

 

8) In order to establish the reliability of a measure of intelligence, Kevin administers two forms of the test to a group of students. Which of the following reliability coefficient values would indicate the most reliability for the test?

  1. a) 0.35

*          b) 0.85

  1. c) -0.85
  2. d) 2.20

 

9) Jenna would like to establish the reliability of a new measure of self-esteem but she doesnt have enough time to administer her test more than once. Which of the following methods of establishing reliability would you suggest to Jenna?

  1. a) Equivalent forms

*          b) Internal consistency

  1. c) Multidimensional
  2. d) Concurrent

 

10) If we include items assessing memory, logic, and verbal comprehension on an intelligence test as opposed to food preferences or shoe size then we have satisfied which of the following types of validity?

  1. a) Discriminant
  2. b) Convergent

*          c) Face

  1. d) Internal

 

11) Construct validity

  1. a) is not needed if you use a good operational definition.

*          b) is supported when similar results are obtained from different operationalizations of the dependent variable.

  1. c) is almost always found in published experiments.
  2. d) is determined by replicating the results of your experiment.

 

12) Which of the following illustrates reliability?

  1. a) Dean takes an IQ test and scores at the 60th percentile.
  2. b) Scores on a new test of reading comprehension correlate highly with scores on well established reading comprehension tests.
  3. c) Fred scores poorly on one schools entrance exam but does better on another.

*          d) Jacquie takes three practice GRE verbal exams and scores 548, 552, and 550.

 

13) A variable shows reliability when

  1. a) enough experimenters decide to use it in their research.
  2. b) it is accepted in the Encyclopedia of Psychology.
  3. c) other researchers demonstrate that it does measure what it is supposed to measure.

*          d) similar results are obtained each time it is measured.

 

14) The measurement of a variable has validity when

  1. a) the same results are obtained each time it is measured.
  2. b) it becomes an accepted variable in a given area of research.
  3. c) it can be measured quantitatively.

*          d) the inferences that are made from the measurement are accurate.

 

15) When conducting psychological research we want the research to be valid.  Reliability and validity are necessary ingredients of valid research.  The relationship between validity and reliability is that

  1. a) if the research is reliable you can be certain that it is valid.
  2. b) the research must be valid for it to be reliable.

*          c) the research must be reliable for it to be valid but a reliable research study is not

necessarily valid.

  1. d) the research must be valid for it to be reliable but a valid research study is not

necessarily reliable.

 

16) Suppose you have created a new method of diagnosing anxiety disorders. How could you demonstrate that your method is a construct valid?

  1. a) teach several licensed clinicians to use your method, have them use it for a year, and see if the amount of anxiety diagnosis in their practice is consistent with population norms
  2. b) use your method to diagnose the same group of participants repeatedly over the course of several years, and see if you consistently arrive at the same diagnosis for a given individual
  3. c) have several specialists read about your new technique and invite their opinions

*          d) use your method to diagnose a group of participants, then see if your diagnoses match with diagnoses taken from other, established methods

 

17) Tom wanted to assess the reliability of his measure of anxiety so he had a group of introductory psychology students complete the measure of anxiety on march 3rd and again on march 25th.  He then compared the scores that the students made on the two testing occasions using a statistical technique called correlation.  He used this quantitative index as his measure of reliability.  Tom used what method to assess reliability?

*          a) test-retest

  1. b) equivalent forms
  2. c) split-half
  3. d) Cronbacks alpha

 

18) Eduardo decided to assess the reliability of the carbohydrate craving inventory he constructed.  He had constructed two identical versions of the inventory and a group of 50 people took both versions.  Then Eduardo compared the responses of these 50 people on the two versions of the craving inventory for his assessment of the reliability of the inventory.  Eduardo used what method to assess reliability?

  1. a) test-retest

*          b) equivalent forms

  1. c) split-half
  2. d) Cronbacks alpha

 

19) Jacqueline wanted to assess the reliability of ratings made of childrens aggressive behavior so she had two students rate the degree of aggression displayed by each of 50 children while engaged in play.  She then compared the ratings made by these two students and computed the degree of agreement between them.  Jacqueline used what method of assessing reliability?

  1. a) interobserver reliability

*          b) interrater reliability

  1. c) internal consistency reliability
  2. d) test-retest reliability

 

20) Afiya wanted to assess the reliability of students observations of childrens aggressive behavior so she had two students observe 100 behaviors displayed by each of 50 children while engaged in play.  After viewing each behavior the students recorded the behavior as being aggressive or nonaggresive.  Afiya then computed the percentage of times the two students agreed on their assessment of each behavior.  Afiya used what method of assessing reliability?

*          a) interobserver agreement

  1. b) Cronbachs alpha
  2. c) internal consistency reliability
  3. d) test-retest reliability

 

21) Owen wanted to assess the internal consistency of his measure of anxiety so he measured reliability estimates by comparing items within his test. He reported a reliability estimate of .80. What measure of reliability is Owen using?

*          a) Cronbachs alpha

  1. b) path analysis
  2. c) factor analysis
  3. d) Riesens reliability estimate

 

22). Gerald is developing a measure of shyness and he determines that students scoring high on the measure also score high for introversion on a wellknown introversionextraversion scale. The outcome best illustrates

  1. a)  face validity.

*       b)  concurrent validity.

  1. c)  predictive validity.
  2. d)  construct validity.

23) Cronbachs alpha is a measure of

  1. a) face validity.

*       b) internal consistency.

  1. c) predictive validity.
  2. d) concurrent validity.

 

24) Students sometimes complain that scores on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) are not related to how well students perform in graduate school. Essentially the students are saying that the GRE does not have

  1. a) reliability.
  2. b) internal consistency.

*             c) predictive validity.

  1. d) discriminant validity.

 

25) Discriminant validity refers to

*    a) the degree to which the measure does not correlate with measures of different constructs.

  1. b) the degree to which the measure does correlate with measures of similar constructs.
  2. c) the degree to which the measure discriminants between different components of the construct.
  3. d) the degree to which the test measures a single construct.

 

26) Convergent validity refers to

  1. a) the degree to which the measure does not correlate with measures of different constructs.

*    b) the degree to which the measure does correlate with measures of similar constructs.

  1. c) the degree to which the test measures multiple constructs.
  2. d) the degree to which the test measures a single construct.

 

27) One way to assess construct validity is to establish that scores on the test in question do NOT correlate with established scales that are dissimilar or conceptually unrelated concepts.  e.g, a scale to measure depression would likely not correlate with scales designed to measure happiness.  This type of validity is called

  1. a) concurrent validity.
  2. b) convergent validity.

*          c) discriminant validity.

  1. d) predictive validity.

 

28) Suppose you have created a new method of diagnosing anxiety disorders.  How could you demonstrate that your method is valid?

  1. a) teach several licensed clinicians to use your method, have them use it for a year, and

see if the amount of anxiety diagnosis in their practice is consistent with population       norms.

  1. b) use your method to diagnose the same group of participants repeatedly over the course of several years, and see if you consistently arrive at the same diagnosis for a given

*          c) use your method to diagnose a group of participants, then see if your diagnoses match                           with diagnoses taken from other, established methods.

  1. d) have several specialists read about your new technique and invite their opinions.

 

29) A study examines scores on an employment test and job performance six months later. This study is most likely attempting to establish

*       a) criterion validity.

  1. b) face validity.
  2. c) reliability.
  3. d) construct validity.

 

30) When evaluating reliability and validity information it is important to note the __________ upon which the information was gathered.

  1. a) predictive sample

*          b) norming group

  1. c) estimate group
  2. d) peer group

 

31) Some psychological tests are designed to measure more than one construct, they are multidimensional. __________ is a statistical technique that can be used to determine the number of dimension that a particular measure is testing.

  1. a) Cronbachs alpha
  2. c) Path analysis
  3. c) Operationalization

*          d) Factor analysis

 

32) The Mental Measurements Yearbook is a good place to find

  1. a) unpublished (but probably useful) tests.

*          b) established standardized tests.

  1. c) biographies of important figures in test development.
  2. d) a list of journal articles that use psychological tests.

 

33) ___________ refers to any sampling method in which each individual has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.

*          a) Equal probability selection method

  1. b) Cluster sampling
  2. c) Stratified sampling
  3. d) Homogeneous sampling selection

 

34) A(n) __________ is a list of all members of a population.

  1. a) parameter
  2. b) norming group

*          c) sampling frame

  1. d) equal probability selection method

 

35) When using simple random sampling it is suggested that you _________ because it will lead to a more representative sample.

  1. a) sample with replacement

*          b) sample without replacement

  1. c) assign specific probabilities of selection to certain subgroups
  2. d) use a larger sample than if using a nonrandom method

 

36) A major advantage of randomly selecting participants from a population is that

  1. a) it allows you to do your study with fewer participants and still find statistical significance in your results.
  2. b) you can be more confident that it was the manipulation of the independent variable that caused the changes observed in the dependent variable..

*          c) you can be more confident that your sample is representative of the population.

  1. d) it is more likely that your sample will have the characteristics you need it to have.

 

37) In a truly random sample from a population,

  1. a) all participants will be matched on important characteristics.

*          b) all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected.

  1. c) gender distribution should be 50% male and 50% female.
  2. d) every member of the population has a 50:50 chance of being selected.

 

38) Suppose you wish to test a representative sample of people in your theology class on attitudes toward the idea of women as priests. There are 40 people in the class, 30 females and 10 males. What would be the best strategy?

  1. a) simple random sample
  2. b) cluster sample

*       c) stratified sample

  1. d) convenience sample

 

39) ____________ is to ____________ as population is to parameter.

*             a) Sample; statistic

  1. b) Statistic; sample
  2. c) Sample; element
  3. d) Random sampling; nonrandom sampling

 

40) A subset of data drawn from the larger population of interest is a

  1. a) population.

*          b) sample.

  1. c) parameter.
  2. d) quota.

 

41) To study career aspirations among high school students in Alabama, a researcher randomly selects 5% of the states school districts and gives all the students in each district a survey designed to measure career goal.  What sampling procedure is being used here?

  1. a) quota
  2. b) stratified

*             c) cluster

  1. d) EPSEM

 

42) A researcher who selects a probability sample that is 40% male and 60% female is most likely to be using __________ sampling.

  1. a) cluster

*             b) stratified

  1. c) convenience
  2. d) quota

 

43) Jim is conducting a survey to learn about student attitudes toward abortion. He passes out his survey to the first 100 students that enter the cafeteria. What sampling method is Jim using?

*          a) convenience

  1. b) cluster
  2. c) stratified
  3. d) EPSEM

 

44) Which of the following is NOT a nonrandom sampling technique?

  1. a) convenience

*          b) cluster

  1. c) snowball
  2. d) quota

 

45) Which of the following nonrandom sampling techniques would be most similar to stratified random sampling?

  1. a) convenience

*          b) quota

  1. c) cluster
  2. d) purposive

 

46) ________________ of participants is done to obtain a representative sample, and __________ of the participants is done to improve the experimental design of the study.

*          a) Random selection; random assignment

  1. b) Random selection; random sampling
  2. c) Random assignment; random selection
  3. d) Random assignment; matching

 

47) Random assignment of participants to the various groups in an experiment

  1. a) makes it more likely that extraneous variables will impact the experiment.

*          b) increases the probability that the groups are equivalent.

  1. c) is essential if you want to generalize your results to the population.
  2. d) is very difficult to do and is therefore not commonly done.

 

48) Your textbook authors suggest that if your population has fewer than 100 people you should

  1. a) use a stratified sampling method.
  2. b) use simple random selection.
  3. c) find a larger population

*          d) test everyone in the population.

 

49) Which of the following situations would NOT necessitate a larger sample size?

  1. a) if your population is heterogeneous
  2. b) if you plan to use multiple categories
  3. c) if you expect a weak effect

*          d) is you use proportional stratified sampling

 

50) Which of the following was NOT offered as a type of sampling method used for qualitative research?

*          a) purposive sampling

  1. b) extreme case sampling
  2. c) homogeneous sample selection
  3. d) maximum variation sampling

 

 

Vocabulary

 

Define the following in psychological terms:

 

biased sample                                       element

census                                                   equal probability of selection method (EPSEM)

cluster                                                   cluster random sampling

equivalent-forms reliability         &

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