Test Bank For Sensation and Perception 9th Ed.By Goldstein

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Test Bank For Sensation and Perception 9th Ed.By Goldstein

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Sensation and Perception 9th Ed.By Goldstein

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Test BankChapter 1: Introduction to Perception

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Perceiving machines that can negotiate the environment with humanlike ease
a. were developed by computer scientists in the 1960s.
b. were developed by computer scientists in the 1970s.
c. were developed by computer scientists in the 1990s.
d. have yet to be developed.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Introduction to Perception              MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is an application of perception research?
a. Developing speech recognition systems. c. Devising robots that can see.
b. Treating hearing problems. d. All of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Why Read Book                             MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is a reason for studying perception?
a. To become more aware of your own perceptual experiences.
b. To provide information that may help with a future career.
c. To apply perception to everyday problems, such as highway sign visibility.
d. All of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Why Read Book                             MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The study of perception can overlap with
a. medicine. c. philosophy.
b. computer science. d. all of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Why Read Book                             MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a category of the stages in the perceptual process?
a. Stimuli c. Serendipity
b. Neural Processing d. Behavioral Responses

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Perceptual Process                          MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The process of transforming energy in the environment into electrical energy in the neurons is called
a. refraction. c. reduction.
b. transduction. d. construction.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Receptor Processes/Transduction   MSC:  Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. ______ is the step in the perceptual process that is analogous to an ATM withdrawal  (pressure from button press becomes electrical energy then becomes a mechanical response resulting in the dispensing of money).
a. Knowledge c. Action
b. Transference d. Transduction

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Receptor Processes/Transduction   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The specific term for the stimulus on the receptors in visual processing is the
a. transduced image. c. visual image.
b. environmental stimulus. d. perception.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Stimuli           MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The image projected on the retina is best described as a ______ of the actual stimulus.
a. representation. c. replication.
b. environmental stimulus. d. scale model.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Stimuli           MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which brain structure is responsible for creating perceptions and producing other high level functions such as language, memory, and thinking?
a. Brain stem c. Hypothalamus
b. Cerebral cortex d. Occipital lobe

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Neural Processing                           MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Visual form agnosia is a problem of the ______ step of the perceptual process.
a. action c. transduction
b. attention d. recognition

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Behavioral Responses                               MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the steps of the perceptual process?
a. The steps are unidirectional, starting at the environmental stimulus and ending at perception.
b. The steps are unidirectional, starting at the environmental stimulus and ending at knowledge.
c. The steps are unidirectional, starting at transduction and ending at recognition.
d. The sequence of steps is dynamic and constantly changing.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Behavioral Responses                               MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. If a person sees the unambiguous rat stimulus, and then views the ambiguous rat-man figure, the person will most likely report seeing
a. a rat, because of the effect of knowledge.
b. a man, because we tend to see things that match our species.
c. a rat, because of the effect of action.
d. a rat or a man equally.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Knowledge    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Justin forgot to wear his glasses to class so the writing he sees on the chalk board is blurry. Even so, he is sure it says Pop Quiz! because he knows that there are pop quizzes in the class and he can see read the P and the Q. What allows him to read the board?
a. Bottom-up processing c. Top-down processing
b. Oblique processing d. Compression

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Knowledge    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. ________ processing is based on the stimuli reaching the receptors.
a. Bottom-up c. Top-down
b. Oblique d. Receptor

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Knowledge    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Trying to read a note written by someone with poor handwriting involves
a. only top-down processing.
b. only bottom-up processing.
c. both top-down and bottom-up processing.
d. only data-based processing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Knowledge    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The physiological level of analysis involves the relationship between
a. stimulus-and-physiology.
b. physiology-and-perception.
c. stimulus-and-perception.
d. both stimulus-and-physiology and physiology-and-perception.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Approach Study of Perception       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Kimmy is casting shadows on the wall and watching whether her cat Tiger jumps at the shadows or not. She uses different hand motions to see if there is a difference in whether Tiger jumps or not. Kimmy is informally studying which relationship?
a. the stimulus-physiology relationship c. the stimulus-perception relationship
b. the physiology-perception relationship d. all of these

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Approach Study of Perception       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Cognitive influences affect the _______ level of analysis.
a. physiological c. both physiological and psychophysical
b. psychophysical d. neither physiological and psychophysical

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Approach Study of Perception       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The psychophysical method in which stimuli of varying intensities are presented in ascending and descending orders in discrete steps is called the method of
a. limits. c. searching.
b. constant stimuli. d. scaling.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When using the method of limits, the absolute threshold is determined by calculating
a. the stimulus intensity detected 50% of the time.
b. the stimulus intensity detected 75% of the time.
c. the stimulus intensity detected 100% of the time.
d. the average of the cross-over points.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The difference between the method of limits and the method of adjustment is that, in the method of adjustment, stimulus intensity is changed in a _______ manner.
a. stepwise c. continuous
b. bivariate d. discrete

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Of the three classical psychophysical methods, the method of constant stimuli
a. is most accurate, but takes the most amount of time.
b. is least accurate, but is the fastest.
c. is the fastest and most accurate method.
d. is the least accurate and takes the most amount of time.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. As used in the textbook, the DL is the abbreviation for
a. detection level. c. descending limit.
b. differenze limen. d. determinant logarithm.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Using Webers Law, if the DL for a 100 gram weight standard is 2 grams, then the DL when using a 200 gram standard would be ____ grams.
a. 0.02 c. 4
b. 2 d. 50

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Webers fraction for electric shock is _____, and ______ for light intensity.
a. 0.01; 0.08 c. 0.02; 0.02
b. 0.08; 0.01 d. 0.08; 0.08

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Table 1.1 Weber Fractions              MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The S in the Weber fraction stands for:
a. sensation c. standard stimulus
b. synapse d. somatic

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Factual

 

 

 

  1. Demetri is a participant in an auditory detection study using the method of constant stimuli. He never detects the 10 unit tone. He detects the 20 unit tone 25% of the trials. He detects the 30 unit tone 50% of the trials. He detects the 40 unit tone 80% of the trials. He detects the 50 unit tone 95% of the trials. His threshold for hearing tones would be taken as the
a. 15 unit tone. c. 30 unit tone.
b. 20 unit tone. d. 55 unit tone.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A soup company wants to develop a reduced-salt version of their traditional minestrone. Which of the following would be the best first step to take?
a. find taste-testers who have agnosia
b. measure the amount of cross-talk using the method of adjustment
c. determine the absolute threshold for salty taste using the method of limits
d. determine the Webers fraction for salty taste

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Determining Threshold                   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following methods are used to measure the quantitative relationship between the stimulus and perception?
a. description c. reflection
b. the phenomenological method d. classical psychophysical methods

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Measuring Thresholds                    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Fechners psychophysical methods
a. are important from a historical perspective,  but are no longer used in contemporary research.
b. were developed in the early 1960s.
c. showed that mental activity cannot be measured quantitatively.
d. are currently used to test a persons hearing and vision.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Measuring Thresholds                    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The first step in the procedure for ____________ is to present the participant a standard stimulus and assign a numerical value to that stimulus.
a. the method of limits c. the method of adjustment
b. the method of constant stimuli d. magnitude estimation

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Response __________ in a magnitude estimation experiment when doubling the stimulus intensity LESS than doubles the subjective magnitude of the stimulus.
a. accretion c. regression
b. compression d. expansion

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Factual

 

 

 

 

  1. To double the perceived brightness of a light, you need to multiply the physical intensity of the light by about 9. This is an example of response
a. compression. c. linearity.
b. expansion. d. inversion.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Stevenss Power Law is so named because
a. it is the best psychophysical law that has ever been theorized.
b. the law explains why electrical power in the brain is responsible for perception.
c. it explains how electrical signals in the retina are involved in transduction.
d. the stimulus intensity is raised to a specific exponent to predict perceived magnitude. ** (page 16-17; conceptual)

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Stevenss Power Law
a. accurately describes vision, but not any other modality.
b. accurately describes audition and vision, but not the skin senses.
c. can describe the relationship between stimulus and perceived magnitude in all senses.
d. is valid, but not reliable.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The human response to electric shock demonstrates response expansion. This is important because it can explain why people
a. will withdraw even from weak shocks. c. will give shocks to other people.
b. can have a high pain threshold. d. will receive shocks from other people.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Estimating Magnitude                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Nelia is riding in a car and notices that stationary objects closer to her move faster than stationary objects that are further. Nelia is using which method of measuring perception?
a. detection c. phenomenological method
b. search d. magnitude estimation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Beyond Thresholds                        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Trying to find your friends face in a crowd is related to the method of
a. visual search. c. constant stimuli.
b. limits. d. adjustment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Beyond Thresholds                        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The major dependent variable used in the visual search method is
a. color. c. attention span.
b. reaction time. d. brightness level.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Beyond Thresholds                        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In a detection experiment, Randy says yes to 90% of the trials, and Perry says yes to 70% of the trials. Our best conclusion from this study is
a. Randys threshold is higher than Perrys.
b. Perry is more sensitive than Randy.
c. response criterion may be different for Randy and Perry.
d. Randy and Perry are equally sensitive.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Something to Consider                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The theory that accounts for response criterion in a detection experiment is
a. signal detection theory. c. balance theory.
b. evolutionary theory. d. gateway theory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Something to Consider                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss four reasons why it is important to study perception.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the five categories of the perceptual process.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain why the action step of the perceptual process is vital to an organisms survival.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

  1. (a) Define top-down and bottom-up processing.

(b) Discuss how the rat-man demonstration is used to exemplify the distinction between these two types of processing.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

  1. Name and describe three classical psychophysical methods.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

  1. (a) Draw a graph of log magnitude estimate as a function of log stimulus intensity for perceiving (1) brightness of a light; (2) line length; and (3) electric shock.

(b) Discuss how the slopes of the lines of the log/log plot relate to the concepts of response compression and response expansion.

(c) State how these slopes relate to Stevenss Power Law.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

 

 

  1. What is meant by a response criterion? How might this affect the outcome of a detection experiment?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided.

 

Test BankChapter 3: Neural Processing and Perception

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Hartline et al. (1956) selected the Limulus to demonstrate lateral inhibition because
a. it was possible to illuminate a single receptor without illuminating its adjacent receptor.
b. it was a non-verbal species.
c. the Limulus eye contained more cones than rods.
d. the Limulus has excellent color vision.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Lateral Inhibition in the Limulus    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A receptor array in the Limulus is connected by the lateral plexus. Receptor A is located 5 receptors to the left of Receptor B. What stimulation will result in the greatest firing rate recorded from A?
a. stimulate A with 10 units of illumination
b. stimulate A with 10 units of illumination and stimulate B with 10 units
c. stimulate A with 10 units of illumination and stimulate B with 20 units
d. stimulate A with 5 units of illumination and stimulate B with 20 units.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Lateral Inhibition in the Limulus    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. _________: Limulus :: ________: human retina.
a. Horizontal cells; amacrine cells
b. Amacrine cells; horizontal cells
c. Lateral plexus; horizontal and amacrine cells
d. Lateral plexus; rods

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Lateral Inhibition in the Limulus    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Human lateral inhibition is most likely accomplished by
a. end-stopped cells. c. bipolar cells.
b. extrastriate cells. d. dissociative cells.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Lateral Inhibition in the Limulus    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Lateral inhibition has been used to explain
a. the Hermann Grid.
b. Mach bands.
c. simultaneous contrast.
d. the Hermann Grid, Mach bands, and simultaneous contrast.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Lateral Inhibition and Perception    MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The gray intersections in the Hermann Grid
a. are physically present.
b. are explained by dark adaptation.
c. support the claim that perception is not the same as the physical stimulus.
d. are best explained by feature detectors.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Herman Grid: Seeing Spots at Intersections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In Hermanns grid, gray areas appear at the intersections because
a. the amount of inhibition right at the intersections is twice as great as the inhibition between each square.
b. the amount of inhibition right at the intersections is much less than the inhibition between each square.
c. the superior colliculus responds maximally as you move your eye from intersection to intersection.
d. moving the eye creates a blur at all the intersections.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Herman Grid: Seeing Spots at Intersections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In Mach bands, the darker area sends _____ lateral inhibition to the lighter area than the lighter area sends to the darker area.
a. less c. the same amount of
b. more d. no

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Mach Bands: Seeing Borders More Sharply

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. You can create a version of the ________ by illuminating a light-colored surface with a desk lamp and casting a shadow with a piece of paper.
a. Hermann Grid c. Benary Cross
b. Mach bands d. illusory square

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Creating Mach Band Shadows        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the simultaneous contrast effect, gray squares of equal intensities are surrounding by either a dark background or a lighter background. The square on the dark background looks _______ than the square on the lighter background.
a. darker c. the same as
b. lighter d. more colorful

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Simultaneous Contrast                    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Whites illusion is an example of a perceptual effect that can be explained by the principle of
a. belongingness. c. spatial summation.
b. lateral inhibition. d. convergence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Display Not Explained by Lateral Inhibition

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

  1. The inability of lateral inhibition to explain Whites illusion suggests that some contrast effects are based in
a. the retina. c. the lateral plexus.
b. the cortex. d. the macula.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Display Not Explained by Lateral Inhibition

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The area on the retina that influences the firing rate of the neuron is called the
a. receptive field. c. divergence area.
b. amacrine region. d. inverted fovea.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Responding of Single Fibers in Optic Nerve

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A neuron with an excitatory center- inhibitory surround receptive field will respond most when we stimulate
a. only the center. c. both the center and surround together.
b. only the surround. d. part of the surround.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Responding of Single Fibers in Optic Nerve

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Most of the signals travel from the retina to the ______ via the optic nerve.
a. temporal cortex c. the superior colliculus
b. lateral geniculate nucleus d. the visual homunculus

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Chad is reading when he sees an insect land on the corner of his book. He then makes an eye movement to look at the insect. The structure of the visual system that is most likely responsible for making this eye movement is
a. the superior colliculus. c. the optic chiasm.
b. the extrastriate cortex. d. the parietal cortex.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Neurons in the LGN have __________ receptive fields.
a. center-surround c. ill-defined
b. side-by-side columnar d. ambiguous

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The flow of information in the LGN is best described as
a. unidirectional, with signals going from the retina to the LGN.
b. unidirectional, with signals going from the LGN to the retina.
c. unidirectional, with signals going from the LGN to the cortex.
d. bi-directional, with signals coming from the retina and the cortex to the LGN.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The flow of information from the ___ to the ____ is the greatest amount of information flow.
a. LGN; cortex c. LGN; retina
b. retina; LGN d. cortex; LGN

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Nobel Prize winners who conducted the pioneering research on the physiology of striate cortex neurons were
a. White and Benary. c. Mathers and Marshall.
b. Hubel and Wiesel. d. Libby and Rizzutto.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Rational for Studying Receptive Fields

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Graphing the response of a simple cortical cell results in the
a. response compression curve. c. response expansion curve.
b. orientation tuning curve. d. motion-directive sensitivity function.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Unlike simple cells, complex cells respond best to
a. stationary spots of light. c. moving stimuli.
b. small spots of light. d. stationary lines of any orientation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. ______ cells fire to moving lines of a specific length or to moving corners or angles.
a. Complex c. End-stopped
b. Simplex d. Edge

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. As we travel farther from the retina, neurons fire to
a. more complex stimuli. c. more intense stimuli.
b. less complex stimuli. d. less intense stimuli.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

MSC:  Factual

 

 

  1. The different types of cortical cells are also called
a. inhibitory cells. c. direct circuits.
b. feature detectors. d. signal detectors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A stimulus that contains alternating black and white bars is called a
a. grating. c. Boolean array.
b. grid. d. Moire pattern.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Measuring Selective Adaptation to Orientation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The difference in intensity between the light bars and the dark bars is called
a. orientation. c. phase.
b. wave form. d. contrast.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Measuring Selective Adaptation to Orientation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. To measure _________, the experimenter decreases the intensity difference between the light bars and the dark bars until an observer can just barely detect the difference between the dark bars and the light bars.
a. Mach bands c. phase continuity
b. contrast threshold d. brightness constancy

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Measuring Selective Adaptation to Orientation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The results of experiments of selective adaptation to gratings with specific orientations can be related to the __________ of ________ cells.
a. lateral inhibition; simple cortical c. tuning curves; amacrine
b. lateral inhibition; end-stopped d. tuning curves; simple cortical

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Selective Adaptation                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When you stare at a grating of wide bars for 55 seconds, then look at a grating with narrow bars, the narrow bars will
a. seem to be thinner than they actually are. c. seem to change orientation.
b. seem to be wider that they actually are. d. be unaffected by the adaptation period.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Selective Adaptation                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. _________ refers to the fact that the response properties of neurons can be shaped by an animals or persons perceptual experience.
a. Selective adaptation c. Sensory integration
b. Neural plasticity d. Perceptual analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Selective Rearing                            MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Selective rearing refers to
a. raising an organism in an environment that only contains certain types of stimuli.
b. genetically manipulating the organism pre-natally.
c. genetically manipulating the organism in the first month after birth.
d. presenting an array of stimuli to the organism in the first month after birth.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Selective Rearing                            MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When a kitten is exposed to an environment of just horizontal lines, the kitten
a. would pay attention only to vertical lines.
b. would pay attention only to horizontal lines.
c. would have cortical cells that only respond to vertical lines.
d. would have cortical cells that respond to horizontal lines, but none to vertical lines.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Selective Rearing                            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Grandmother cells are mostly closely associated with _______ coding.
a. specificity c. olfactory
b. distributed d. invasive

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Responding of Single Fibers in Optic Nerve

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Neurons in the ________ respond to complex stimuli, but not simple stimuli such as straight lines.
a. LGN c. IT cortex
b. Striate cortex d. Retina

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Higher-Level Neurons                    MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following proposed representational systems is the least likely to actually be in place in the human visual system?
a. Sparse coding
b. Specificity coding
c. Representation by a small number of neurons
d. Distributed coding

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Sensory Code                                            MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. An advantage of ___________coding of visual object representation is that a large number of stimuli can be signaled by a few neurons.
a. specificity c. extrastriate
b. distributed d. retinal

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