Test Bank For Strategic Management Text and Cases 8th Edition by Gregory G Dess Dr.

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Test Bank For Strategic Management Text and Cases 8th Edition by Gregory G Dess Dr.



Strategic Management Text and Cases 8th Edition by Gregory G Dess Dr.
Test Bank

Chapter 01

Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages


True / False Questions

1. Hewlett-Packards failure and success under the leadership first of Carly Fiorina and then of Mark Hurd was said to be a direct result of the quality of leadership of each of these CEOs. According to the text, this would be an example of the romantic perspective of leadership.

True    False


2. Strategic management consists of the analyses, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages.

True    False


3. Strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals as stated in the vision, mission, and strategic objectives of a firm.

True    False


4. The three interrelated and principal activities of strategic management are: strategy analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation.

True    False


5. Strategic management is not concerned with how to create competitive advantage in the marketplace.

True    False


6. Management innovations such as total quality, just-in-time, benchmarking, business process reengineering, and outsourcing are important, but not enough for building sustainable competitive advantage.

True    False


7. Making trade-off decisions between effectiveness and efficiency is central to the practice of strategic management.

True    False


8. Only shareholders in a publicly held company are stakeholders because they are the only group that has a stake in the success of the organization.

True    False


9. Strategic management is only concerned with short-term perspectives.

True    False


10. Focusing on a single stakeholder is a good strategic principle for managers to follow.

True    False


11. According to Peter Senge, a leading strategic management author, creative tension results from the need to incorporate both short-term and long-term perspectives in strategic management.

True    False


12. Shareholders expect only short-term value and therefore good managers should only focus on meeting short-term performance targets.

True    False


13. Focusing on the short term and efficiency is always a bad management principle.

True    False


14. Ambidexterity refers to a managers challenge to align resources, without having to take advantage of existing product markets or to proactively explore new opportunities.

True    False


15. According to a recent study involving 41 business units in 10 multinational companies, one ambidextrous behavior exhibited by managers is that of being brokers who are always looking to build internal networks.

True    False


16. According to Henry Mintzberg, a management scholar, most firms realize their original intended strategy.

True    False


17. The final realized strategy of a firm is a combination of deliberate and emergent strategies.

True    False


18. In the Mintzberg model, organizational decisions determined only by analysis are intended strategy.

True    False


19. Strategy analysis is the study of the external environments of the firm.

True    False


20. Both the internal and external environments of a firm must be analyzed as well as the goals of the firm before managers can formulate and implement appropriate strategies.

True    False


21. Strategy formulation involves decisions made by firms regarding investments, commitments, and other aspects of operations that create and sustain competitive advantage.

True    False


22. All successful firms compete and outperform their rivals by developing bases for competitive advantage, which can be achieved only through cost leadership.

True    False


23. Business-level strategy focuses on (1) what businesses to compete in and (2) the management of the business portfolio to create synergy among its businesses.

True    False


24. Corporate-level strategy addresses how firms compete and outperform their rivals as well as achieve and sustain competitive advantages.

True    False


25. International strategy involves decisions concerning appropriate entry strategy and attaining competitive advantage in international markets.

True    False


26. Entrepreneurial activity aimed at new value creation is not a major engine for economic growth.

True    False


27. Strategy implementation involves actions that carry out the formulated strategy including proper strategic controls, organizational designs, and leadership.

True    False


28. Effective leadership can play a large role in fostering corporate entrepreneurship. Corporate entrepreneurship can have a very positive impact on the bottom line of a firm.

True    False


29. Firms must exercise either informational control or behavioral control in order to assure proper strategy implementation.

True    False


30. Leaders are responsible for creating a learning organization so that the entire organization can benefit only from the individual talents.

True    False


31. The three primary participants in corporate governance are: (1) the shareholders, (2) the management (led by the chief executive officer), and (3) the employees.

True    False


32. Decisions by boards of directors are always consistent with shareholder interests.

True    False


33. Ensuring effective corporate governance requires an effective and engaged board of directors, uninvolved shareholders, and proper managerial rewards and incentives.

True    False


34. Auditors, banks, and analysts are external control mechanisms to ensure effective corporate governance.

True    False


35. Former Chrysler vice chairman Robert Lutz observed that companies exist to serve the shareholder and create shareholder value. He insisted that the only person who owns the company is the person who paid good money for it. This is an example of a symbiotic approach to stakeholder management.

True    False


36. Stakeholders make various claims on a company. Their interests must be taken into account in the strategic management process.

True    False


37. Stockholders in a company are the only individuals with an interest in the financial performance of the company.

True    False


38. Stockholders, employees, and the community-at-large are among the stakeholders of a firm.

True    False


39. Symbiosis is the ability to recognize interdependencies among the interests of multiple stakeholders within and outside an organization.

True    False


40. Procter and Gamble developed a laundry detergent compaction technique that appeals to consumers, retailers, shipping and wholesalers, and environmentalists. This is an example of stakeholder symbiosis.

True    False


41. Partnering with governments, communities, suppliers, customers, and rivals is a way to manage conflicting stakeholder interests.

True    False


42. The Higgs Index enables companies to compare environmental performance outcomes in order to improve their environmental impact and is an example of how rivals work together to resolve complex problems.

True    False


43. As a stakeholder group, creditors are interested in taxes and compliance with regulations.

True    False


44. As a stakeholder group, customers are interested in dividends and capital appreciation.

True    False


45. As a stakeholder group, communities are interested in good citizenship behavior.

True    False


46. Social responsibility is the idea that organizations are not only accountable to stockholders but also to the community-at-large.

True    False


47. What constitutes socially responsible behavior changes over time.

True    False


48. Shell, NEC, and Procter and Gamble have been measuring their performance according to what has been called a triple bottom line. This technique involves an assessment of financial, social, and environmental performance.

True    False


49. Demands for greater corporate responsibility are decreasing today.

True    False


50. A key stakeholder group that appears to be particularly susceptible to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives is customers.

True    False


51. There is a positive influence of CSR on the consumer evaluation of companies and their purchasing decisions, according to recent studies.

True    False


52. Environmental sustainability is a value embraced by the most competitive and successful multinational companies.

True    False


53. For many successful firms, environmental values are not central to the company culture and management processes.

True    False


54. Sustainability is being increasingly recognized as a source of cost efficiencies and revenue growth.

True    False


55. The ROIs on sustainability projects are often very difficult to quantify because the data necessary to calculate ROI accurately are often not available when it comes to sustainability projects.

True    False


56. Many of the benefits from sustainability projects are intangible, making it difficult to calculate the ROI.

True    False


57. The intangible benefits of sustainability projects, such as reducing risks, staying ahead of regulations, pleasing communities, and enhancing employee morale, are substantial even when they are difficult to quantify.

True    False


58. Sustainability projects often require shorter-term payback windows than other projects.

True    False


59. Sustainability initiatives rarely have difficulty making it through the conventional approval process within corporations because managers are not concerned about their return on investment.

True    False


60. The ROI on a sustainability project generally is easy to quantify.

True    False


61. Strategic management requires managers at all levels of the organization to take a segregated view of the organization.

True    False


62. The strategic management process should be addressed only by top-level executives. Mid-level and low-level employees are best equipped to implement the strategies of the organization.

True    False


63. To develop and mobilize people and other assets, leaders are needed throughout the organization.

True    False


64. In the strategic management process, only local line leaders and executive leaders are needed.

True    False


65. Internal networks have great positional power and formal authority.

True    False


66. Local line leaders have little profit-and-loss responsibility.

True    False


67. Executive leaders champion and guide ideas.

True    False


68. Local line leaders are key in setting the tone for the empowerment of employees.

True    False


69. Richard Branson, the founder of the Virgin Group, is well known for creating an inclusive organizational structure in which anybody in the organization can be involved in generating and activating upon new business ideas.

True    False


70. To inculcate a strategic management perspective, managers must often make a major effort to effect transformational change.

True    False


71. To effect transformational change in an organization, managers must communicate extensively and provide incentives, training, and development.

True    False


72. Nancy Snyder, corporate vice president of Whirlpool, shifted the reputation of the firm to that of an innovator by investing financially in capital spending.

True    False


73. Successful executives do not reward honesty and input and do not show their interest in learning what others are thinking.

True    False


74. According to the CEO of IDEO, Tim Brown, spotting and promoting at any level in the firm is important.

True    False


75. There are few benefits to having broad investment throughout the organization in the strategic management process.

True    False


76. Showing interest in learning what others are thinking is a leadership weakness.

True    False


77. The vision of an organization is the top level of its hierarchy of organizational goals. The vision statement should be massively inspiring, overarching, and long term.

True    False


78. Strategic objectives are more specific than vision statements.

True    False


79. According to the text, a mission statement is an overarching statement that is massively inspiring, long term, and only discusses the purpose of the company.

True    False


80. A mission statement encompasses both the purpose of the organization as well as its basis of competition, and the basis of its competitive advantage.

True    False


81. Strategic objectives should be measurable, specific, appropriate, and realistic, but not constrained by time deadlines.

True    False


82. Much research has supported the notion that individuals work much harder when they are asked to do their best rather than when they are striving toward a specific goal.

True    False


83. Objectives in organizations should be clear, stated, and known by employees throughout the organization.

True    False


84. Strategic management should only include short-term objectives. Long-term objectives are covered in the vision statement of the organization.

True    False


85. Organizational goals and objectives should be vague in order to allow for changes in strategy.

True    False


86. An idealistic vision can arouse employee enthusiasm and therefore is a good vision.

True    False


87. One of the reasons a vision fails is that too much focus can lead to missed opportunities.

True    False


88. Visions need to be anchored in reality in order to be successful.

True    False


89. Effective mission statements incorporate the concept of stakeholder management, suggesting that organizations must respond to a single constituency.

True    False


90. A good mission statement, by addressing each principal theme, must communicate why an organization is special and different.

True    False


91. When formulating strategic objectives, managers need to remember that too many objectives can result in a lack of focus and diminished results.

True    False



Multiple Choice Questions

92. The text addresses two perspectives of leadership as well as their implications. These two perspectives are

A. romantic and unromantic.


B. romantic and internal control.


C. external control and unromantic.


D. romantic and external control.


93. A CEO made a lot of mistakes in assessing the market and the competitive conditions and improperly redesigning the organization into numerous business units. Such errors led to significant performance declines. According to the text, this example illustrates the __________ perspective of leadership.

A. external control


B. romantic


C. internal mechanism


D. operational


94. According to the external control view of leadership, which of the following factors would not be considered an external factor that might positively or negatively affect a firms success?

A. economic downturns


B. governmental legislation


C. outbreak of war


D. company employee morale


95. Melvin Alexander, executive director of Principled Solutions Enterprise, a management consulting firm specializing in health care, suggests that environmental changes oblige firms to make strategic changes in order to survive. Which of the following is one of the strategic changes he foresees will occur in the next three to five years?

A. changes in the behavior of the health care consumers


B. reduction in the number of available medical doctors


C. increases in the number of locations of health care facilities


D. decreases in information technology investment


96. According to the text, the strategic management process entails three ongoing processes. They are

A. analyses, actions, and synthesis.


B. analyses, decisions, and actions.


C. analyses, evaluation, and critique.


D. analyses, synthesis, and decisions.


97. Management innovations such as total quality, benchmarking, and business process reengineering cannot lead to sustainable competitive advantage because

A. companies that have implemented these techniques have lost money.


B. there is no proof that these techniques work.


C. they cost too much money and effort to implement.


D. every company is trying to implement them.


98. The organizational versus the individual rationality perspective suggests that objectives that are

A. good for a functional area are always good for the overall organization.


B. good for the overall organization are always best for a functional area.


C. best for a functional area may not be best for the overall organization.


D. best for one functional area will never be best for all functional areas.


99. The four key attributes of strategic management include the idea that strategy must

A. be directed toward overall organizational goals and objectives.


B. be focused only on long-term objectives.


C. be focused on only one specific area of an organization.


D. focus only on competitor strengths.


100. The four key attributes of strategic management include all of the following except

A. including multiple stakeholder interests in decision making.


B. incorporating both short-term and long-term perspectives.


C. recognizing the trade-offs between effectiveness and efficiency.


D. emphasis on the attainment of short-term objectives.


101. Effectiveness is often defined as

A. doing things right.


B. stakeholder satisfaction.


C. doing the right thing.


D. productivity enhancement.


102. In choosing to focus on stakeholders, which of the following will not lead to success for a manager?

A. shareholders and employees


B. employees and suppliers


C. customers and the community at large


D. customers only


103. In strategic management, both the short-term and long-term perspectives need to be considered because

A. shareholder value is only measured by short-term returns.


B. shareholders only care about long-term returns.


C. long-term vision precludes the analysis of present operating needs.


D. the creative tension between the two forces managers to develop more successful strategy.


104. Strategic management involves the recognition of trade-offs between effectiveness and

A. cost.


B. value.


C. return on investment.


D. efficiency.


105. All of the following are ambidextrous behaviors except

A. taking initiative and being alert to opportunities beyond the job description.


B. being cooperative and seeking opportunities to combine personal efforts with that of others.


C. intensely focusing on the responsibilities of one individual and maximizing the output of the department in the organization in which that individual works.


D. being brokers, always looking to build internal linkages.


106. Ambidextrous behaviors in individuals illustrate how a dual capacity for _______ can be woven into the fabric of an organization at the individual level.

A. alignment and adaptability


B. alignment and transparency


C. alignment and internal linkages


D. alignment and efficiency


107. According to Henry Mintzberg, the final realized strategy of a firm is

A. a combination of deliberate and emergent strategies.


B. a combination of deliberate and differentiation strategies.


C. not deliberate.


D. a result of unrealized intended strategy.


108. __________ may be considered the advance work that must be done in order to effectively formulate and implement strategies.

A. Goal setting


B. Corporate entrepreneurship


C. Strategy analysis


D. Organizational design


109. Strategy analysis is the starting point of the strategic management process and consists of the

A. analysis only of the vision, mission, and objectives of the firm.


B. analysis of the relevant internal and external environmental factors only.


C. analysis of relevant competitors only.


D. matching of vision, mission, and objectives with the relevant internal and external environmental factors.


110. Strategy formulation at the business level addresses best how to compete in a given business:

A. to attain competitive advantage


B. to reduce costs


C. to decrease buyer power


D. to thwart entry of new rivals


111. Corporate level strategy focuses on what businesses to compete in and

A. how business can be managed to achieve synergy.


B. how business can be managed to reduce synergy.


C. how the firm can work as a stand-alone entity.


D. how the firm can create more value by operating alone.


112. Corporate-level strategy looks at how to manage the ______ of its businesses to create synergies.

A. portfolio


B. stock prices


C. competitors


D. market pricing


113. Entering foreign markets requires firms to ascertain foremost how they will attain

A. market share.


B. low costs.


C. competitive advantage.


D. low returns on investment.


114. New value creation is a major engine for economic growth and is the main focus of _______________ strategy.

A. portfolio


B. corporate-level


C. business-level


D. entrepreneurial


115. Two types of strategic control that firms must exercise for good strategy implementation are

A. informational and confrontational.


B. confrontational and behavioral.


C. behavioral and financial.


D. informational and behavioral.


116. Effective organizational design means that firms must have ________ that are consistent with their strategy.

A. designs and plans


B. organizational structures and designs


C. adopters and designs


D. adopters and plans


117. Learning organizations permit the entire organization to benefit from ____________ talents.

A. internal and external


B. individual and collective


C. internal and collective


D. external and individual


118. Effective leaders set a direction and develop an organization so that it is committed to excellence and ___________ behavior.

A. performant


B. strategic


C. ethical


D. positive


119. Strategies should be formulated that enhance foremost the ____________ capacity of a firm.

A. innovative


B. learning


C. implementation


D. business-level


120. The three participants in corporate governance are the shareholders,

A. board of directors, and employees.


B. labor unions, and employees.


C. board of directors, and management.


D. banks and lending institutions, and management.


121. While working to prioritize and fulfill their responsibilities, members of the board of directors of an organization should

A. represent their own interests.


B. represent the interests of the shareholders.


C. direct all actions of the CEO.


D. emphasize the importance of short-term goals.


122. Members of boards of directors are

A. appointed by the Securities and Exchange Commission.


B. elected by the shareholders as their representatives.


C. elected by the public.


D. only allowed to serve one term of four years.


123. An organization is responsible to many different entities. In order to meet the demands of these groups, organizations must participate in stakeholder management. Stakeholder management means that

A. interests of the stockholders are not the only interests that matter.


B. stakeholders are second in importance to the stockholders.


C. stakeholders and managers inevitably work at cross-purposes.


D. all stakeholders receive financial rewards.


124. Stakeholders are

A. a new way to describe stockholders.


B. individuals, groups, and organizations who have a stake in the success of the organization.


C. creditors who hold a lien on the assets of the organization.


D. attorneys and their clients who sue the organization.


125. Procter and Gamble has perfected a technique for compacting cleaning powder into a liquid concentration. Consumers, retailers, shipping and wholesalers, and environmentalists all have benefited from the resulting change in consumer shopping habits and the revolution in industry supply-chain economics. According to the text, this is an example of

A. zero-sum relationship among stakeholders.


B. stakeholder symbiosis.


C. rewarding stakeholders.


D. emphasizing financial returns.


126. There are several perspectives of competition. One perspective is zero-sum thinking. Zero-sum thinking means that

A. all parts of the organization gain at no loss.


B. in order for someone to gain others must experience no gain or benefit.


C. one can only gain at the expense of someone else.


D. everyone in the organization shares gains and losses equally.


127. Managers should do more than focus on short-term financial performance. One concept that helps managers do this is stakeholder symbiosis. This means that

A. stakeholders are dependent on each other for their success.


B. stakeholders look out for their individual interests.


C. one can only gain at the expense of someone else.


D. all stakeholders want to maximize shareholder returns.


128. Employee stakeholders are concerned with

A. taxes, warranties, and regulations.


B. wages, benefits, and job security.


C. good citizenship behavior.


D. dividends.


129. Stockholders as a stakeholder group are interested primarily by

A. payment of interest and repayment of principal.


B. value and warranties.


C. dividends and capital appreciation.


D. taxes and compliance with regulations.


130. The Sustainable Apparel Coalition accounts for more than one-third of the global

A. apparel and washing product industry.


B. consumer product industry.


C. refinery industry.


D. apparel and footwear industry.


131. Wall Street executives have received excessive bonus pay in the past. This concerns which of the following stakeholder groups most directly?

A. government


B. suppliers


C. creditors


D. stockholders


132. Supplier stakeholders are concerned with

A. assurance of a continued relationship with the firm.


B. employee benefits.


C. safe working conditions.


D. capital appreciation.


133. Community stakeholders are concerned primarily with

A. product warranties.


B. corporate citizenship behavior.


C. capital appreciation.


D. repayment of principal.


134. Firms must be aware of goals other than short-term profit maximization. One area of concern should be social responsibility, which is the

A. expectation that business will strive to improve the overall welfare of society.


B. idea that organizations are solely responsible to local citizens.


C. fact that court costs could impact the financial bottom line.


D. idea that businesses are responsible for maintaining a healthy social climate for their employees.


135. According to the text, the triple bottom line approach to corporate accounting includes which three components?

A. financial, environmental, and customer


B. financial, organizational, and customer


C. financial, environmental, and social


D. financial, organizational, and psychological


136. Demands for greater corporate responsibility have accelerated today. They focus on issues such as

A. labor standards and environmental sustainability.


B. taxation.


C. product benefits.


D. service benefits.


137. A key stakeholder group that is particularly susceptible to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives is

A. suppliers.


B. rivals.


C. government agencies.


D. consumers.


138. According to the Corporate Citizenship poll conducted by Cone Communications, most Americans say they would be likely to switch brands to one associated with a good cause, if there are similarities between

A. price and availability.


B. availability and quality.


C. price and quality.


D. price and durability.


139. According to a CEO survey by Accenture, __________________ are not mutually exclusive corporate goals.

A. quality and profitability


B. sustainability and profitability


C. ROI and quality


D. availability and ROI


140. The Clorox Green Works line of plant-based cleaning materials captured 42 percent of the natural cleaning products market in its first year. This is an example of the benefit of

A. sustainability efforts.


B. cost reduction efforts.


C. marketing programs.


D. process management.


141. Northrup Grumman saved $2 million in energy costs at a single facility by installing reflective roofs and fluorescent lighting, replacing old equipment, and making minor temperature and humidity-level adjustments. This is an example of the benefit of

A. increasing revenue efforts.


B. marketing programs.


C. sustainability efforts.


D. process management.


142. The Fairmont Royal York in Toronto invested $25,000 in an energy conservation program to replace leaky steam traps and fix leaks, which resulted in an annual savings of over $200,000. This is an example of a sustainability effort to

A. increase innovation.


B. decrease revenue.


C. lower costs.


D. increase customers.


143. The ROI on sustainability efforts can be difficult to quantify because

A. an excess of necessary data for accurate calculation is readily available.


B. benefits from such projects are tangible.


C. the payback period is on a different time frame.


D. the payback period is on the same time frame.


144. Sustainability programs often find their success beyond company boundaries, thus ______ systems and _____ metrics cannot capture all of the relevant numbers.

A. external; bio


B. internal; process


C. external; external


D. internal; internal


145. Traditional financial models are built around relatively easy-to-measure, monetized results; whereas, the benefits of sustainability projects involve

A. clear tangibles.


B. clear intangibles.


C. fuzzy tangibles.


D. fuzzy intangibles.


146. The case for sustainability projects needs to be made on the basis of a more holistic and comprehensive understanding of all the _____________ benefits.

A. measurable and unmeasurable


B. financial and physical


C. tangible and intangible


D. measurable and physical


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