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Test Bank Introduction to Biotechnology 3rd Edition Thieman Palladino
Introduction to Biotechnology, 3e (Thieman)
Chapter 4 Proteins as Products
1) Which recombinant protein is widely used to digest milk proteins for making cheeses?
2) Which of the following is NOT a recombinant protein isolated from bacteria?
3) Isolating and purifying a protein from biological materials to make a biotech product is known as ________.
4) Quaternary structure of a protein refers to ________.
5) Which of the following techniques is designed for separating and analyzing proteins according to their size?
6) ________ chromatography involves separating proteins by binding them to ligands.
7) ________ involves separating proteins by differences in electrostatic charge.
8) Bioprocessing a protein often involves growing cells in carefully controlled environments using containers called ________.
9) Cheese manufacturing involves enzymatic or microbial processing of the milk protein ________ to form a coagulated mixture called curd.
10) Recombinant forms of what protease are used in laundry detergents to remove stains?
11) Which recombinant protein is used to stimulate red blood cell growth and production?
12) Alpha helices and -pleated sheets represent the ________ structure of a protein.
13) Which of the following is NOT an enzyme?
14) Adding a carbohydrate group to a protein is known as ________.
15) Adding a phosphate or sugar group to a newly made protein is an example of ________.
16) Inclusion bodies ________.
17) An advantage of using bacterial cells to express proteins is that ________.
18) A disadvantage of using bacterial cells to grow proteins is that ________.
19) Cells must be lysed to release the protein of interest if ________.
20) HPLC is ________.
21) Name and define the four levels of structure of a protein. Are all proteins required to have all four levels of structures?
Answer: Primary, which is the string of amino acids that define the protein; secondary, in which the protein folds into alpha helices and beta sheets; Tertiary, which is the binding within alpha helices and beta sheets; and quaternary, which happens when two or more proteins must associate into a final three-dimensional shape to be active.
A protein does not need all four levels; only two or more associated proteins forms a quaternary structure.
22) If you are purifying a protein from an SEC column, what fractions do you want to collect?
Answer: It depends on whether or not your protein is large or small. Large proteins elute first because they go around the beads whereas small proteins go within the beads. So, for large proteins, you collect the first set of fractions. For smaller proteins, you collect the second set of proteins.
23) Define upstream and downstream processing when producing a protein.
Answer: Upstream processing is the actual cell line expression of the protein of interest. Downstream is the purification of the protein from all the other components in the cell to ensure purity.
24) What is meant by lyophilization of proteins and why is it done?
Answer: It is the freeze-drying of a protein to prepare it to be placed into its final container. It helps to stabilize the protein in transit to the pharmacy or doctors office, and it gives the protein better long-term storage capabilities.
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