Test Bank for American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear Michael D. Reisig George F. Cole

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Test Bank for American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear Michael D. Reisig George F. Cole


The Prison Experience


1. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to:
a. control an institutions drug trade.
b. control gambling and extortion within the institution.
c. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.
d. all of these.

ANS: D REF: 282 OBJ: 2

2. The process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of the prison society and learns to adapt to the environment is known as:
a. prisonization.
b. socialization.
c. integration.
d. assimilation.

ANS: A REF: 273 OBJ: 1

3. According to Sykes, the greater the degree of solidarity among inmates within the inmate social system, the:
a. more severely the pains of imprisonment are felt.
b. less severely the pains of imprisonment are felt.
c. greater the influence rehabilitative programs will have on inmates.
d. greater the chances the individual inmate will have for survival within the prison over time.

ANS: B REF: 272 OBJ: 1

4. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:
a. institutional code.
b. informal code.
c. prison code.
d. inmate code.

ANS: D REF: 272 OBJ: 1

5. The number of items that a prisoner may purchase or receive through legitimate channels ____________from state to state and from facility to facility:
a. is similar
b. is constitutionally determined
c. differs
d. are the same

ANS: C REF: 272 OBJ: 2

6. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as:
a. jailing.
b. gleaning.
c. hustling.
d. doing time.

ANS: D REF:275 OBJ: 1

7. Which of the following is a reward associated with the jailing lifestyle?
a. increased acceptance by prison officials
b. fewer problems with those prisoners who are known politicians
c. increased prestige within the inmate social system
d. greater power among treatment officials

ANS: C REF:275 OBJ: 1

8. Which of the following statements is true about the prison commissary?
a. The usual stock does not satisfy inmates needs.
b. Prices are low enough for inmates to afford.
c. Commissary privileges are a right for all inmates.
d. All of these.

ANS: A REF: 279 OBJ: 2

9. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is:
a. narcotics.
b. cigarettes.
c. bug juice.
d. sex.

ANS: B REF: 279 OBJ: 2

10. The sociological theory known as the subculture of violence argues that violence is primarily found in the __________ subculture.
a. lower class
b. youth
c. white
d. gang

ANS: A REF: 281 OBJ: 3

11. Each year approximately ___________ correctional staff members are assaulted by inmates.
a. 18,000
b. 5,000
c. 10,000
d. 25,000

ANS: A REF: 285 OBJ: 3

12. For many victims of prison violence, the only way for the administration to guarantee them safety is to:
a. place them with a gang.
b. place them in protective custody unit.
c. transfer to another prison.
d. all of these.

ANS: B REF: 283 OBJ: 3, 4

13. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:
a. negotiate between gang members.
b. place gang members in solitary confinement.
c. transfer gang members to another institution.
d. all of these.

ANS: C REF: 282-3 OBJ: 4

14. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?
a. protection
b. extortion
c. religion
d. camaraderie

ANS: C REF: 282 OBJ: 1, 3

15. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:
a. a gang leader
b. correction officer
c. elderly
d. not affiliated with a gang

ANS: D REF: 284 OBJ: 3

16. The sharing of myths, slang, customs, rewards, and sanctions of a smaller, isolated, separate group of people in society is called: The prison is recognized as a functioning community with its own values, roles, language and customs. This is also known as a prison ____________.
a. cliques.
b. gangs.
c. culture.
d. subculture.

ANS: D REF:272 OBJ: 1

17. Which state has the lowest levels of known gang affiliation/participation in their prison population?
a. Pennsylvania
b. Georgia
c. Montana
d. Colorado

ANS: C REF: 282 OBJ: 3,1

18. In prison terminology the fish is a(n):
a. career criminal.
b. newcomer.
c. gang member.
d. elderly inmate.

ANS: B REF: 270 OBJ: 1

19. Most prison violence which occurs on a regular basis is between inmates and _________.
a. psychologists
b. medical personnel
c. inmates
d. guards

ANS: C REF: 281 OBJ: 1, 3

20. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:
a. cable TV.
b. programming.
c. the yard.
d. an underground economy.

ANS: D REF: 279 OBJ: 2

21. Men between which ages are more prone to violence?
a. 1624
b. 2532
c. 2029
d. all men

ANS: A REF: 281 OBJ: 3

22. The term ___________ refers to programs which educate gang members and eventually encourage them to renounce their gang membership.
a. jumping out
b. deganging
c. gang removal
d. antiganging

ANS: B REF: 282 OBJ: 3, 4

23. Racist __________ have become part of the inmate code and is sometimes forced upon inmates merely by association.
a. attitudes
b. education
c. rehabilitation
d. affiliation

ANS: A REF: 281 OBJ: 1

24. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:
a. gather national statistics on prison rape.
b. make prison rape illegal.
c. honor a rape victim.
d. support prisoners rights.

ANS: A REF: 284 OBJ: 3, 4

25. The relationship between prison crowding and violence is:
a. obvious.
b. determined.
c. unclear.
d. nonexistent.

ANS: C REF: 287 OBJ: 3, 4


1. One factor in the prison inmate code is not interfering with other inmates interests.

ANS: T REF: 272 OBJ: 1

2. The presence of gangs organized along racial lines contributes to violence in prison.

ANS: T REF: 281 OBJ: 1, 3

3. Most prisoner-officer violence that occurs is organized and completed within large groups.

ANS: F REF: 285 OBJ: 3

4. Adaptive roles help inmates cope with prison and survive behind bars.

ANS: T REF: 275 OBJ: 1

5. One strategy used by prison administration to weaken gang influence includes conducting strip searches.

ANS: T: REF: 283 OBJ: 4

6. John Irwin and Donald Cressey suggest that prison subculture encompasses three subcultures including a convict, a thief and a straight.

ANS: T REF: 274 OBJ: 1,3
7. Some inmates upon incarceration decide to withdraw from others as well as isolate themselves as a form of coping with the inmate society.

ANS: T REF: 275 OBJ: 1

8. Real money is prohibited in prison.

ANS: T REF: 280 OBJ: 2

9. Inmates who are doing time see prison as a long term stay and continue their criminality while incarcerated.

ANS: T REF: 275 OBJ: 1

10. Correctional officers carry deadly weapons.

ANS: F REF: 285 OBJ: 4


1. The __________________ is not able to develop the role orientation of doing time, gleaning, or jailing.

ANS: Disorganized criminal
REF: 275 OBJ: 1

2. The prison diet and daily routine is _____________.

ANS: monotonous
REF: 278 OBJ: 2

3. A ______________ in the prison inmate culture considered to an aggressive inmate who pursues his own interests at others expenses.

ANS: Gorilla or Wolf
REF: 273 OBJ: 1

4. ____________ ______________ are norms and values developed within the prison social system.

ANS: Inmate code
REF: 272 OBJ: 1

5. Prison gangs are also referred to as ____________________.

ANS: security threat groups
REF: 282 OBJ: 3

6. An inmate that falls into the fish category is known as a ______________________.

ANS: New comer
REF: 270 OBJ: 1

7. Inmates who choose _________ cut themselves off from the outside and generally become key figures in the politics and economy of the joint.

ANS: jailing
REF: 275 OBJ: 1, 2

8. Inmates unable to develop a role orientation are referred to as _________________, meaning they cannot adjust to prison life.

ANS: disorganized criminals
REF: 275 OBJ: 1, 3

9. A _________________ is someone who squeals or sells out to the authorities.

ANS: Rat
REF: 273 OBJ: 1

10. A ___________ is known in the prison subculture as a passive homosexual.

ANS: punk
REF: 273 OBJ: 1


Match each item to the phrase or sentence listed below.
a. Prison newcomer f. Method of learning the prison subculture
b. Cigarettes g. Construct a life within the prison with little connection to society
c. Values and norms of the prison social system h. Take advantage of prison programs
d. Goods and services not allowed by prison authorities i. Main source of inmate violence
e. Where prisoners may purchase certain items j. semiautonomous institutions

1. Inmate code
2. Unit management
3. Gleaning
4. Jailing
5. Prisonization
6. Fish
7. Commissary
8. Contraband
9. Informal prison money
10. Gangs

1. ANS: C REF: 272
2. ANS: J REF: 282
3. ANS: H REF: 275
4. ANS: G REF: 275
5. ANS: F REF: 273
6. ANS: A REF: 270
7. ANS: E REF: 278
8. ANS: D REF: 279
9. ANS: B REF: 280
10. ANS: I REF: 282


1. Explain and justify the prisonization process through your research and readings. After explaining the research aspect of this question, respond from your own perspective as to if you were a prisoner would you adapt a particular persona or would you remain as you are? How does this affect inmates upon their release and is this a factor in recidivism?

ANS: Answers will vary OBJ: 1, 2, 3

2. What is an underground economy and why does one develop inside each penal institution? How does it function inside a prison? What role/s does it play in the prison society?

ANS: Answers will vary OBJ: 2

3. List several of the adaptive roles as you have read through your textbook. Upon identifying several (2 or more) roles, consider If you were a prison inmate, which adaptive role would you adopt and why? How would you handle the potential for prison violence?

ANS: Answers will vary OBJ: 1

4. What qualities make prisons a perfect recipe for violence? List at least four and discuss how each one helps to foster violence. What are some management steps that can be taken? What would you do to limit violence in a given institution?

ANS: Answers will vary OBJ: 3

5. Is a prison a society unto itself? What does it mean to say that there is a prison subculture? What types of characteristics make up this subculture? Where do the values of prison society come from? Discuss the various elements that comprise a prison societymembers, norms, language, etc.

ANS: Answers will vary OBJ: 1

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