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*Business Statistics, 9e ***(Groebner/Shannon/Fry)**

**Chapter 2 Graphs, Charts and TablesDescribing Your Data**

** **

1) For the same data, a graph of a relative frequency distribution will look exactly the same as a graph of the frequency distribution.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: graph, relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

2) When choosing class boundaries for a frequency distribution, classes such as 60-70, 70-80, 80-90 would be acceptable.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency distribution, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

3) Recently a survey was conducted in which customers of a large insurance company were asked to indicate the number of speeding tickets they had received in the past three years. The data in this case would most likely be analyzed using a frequency distribution with the data grouped into classes such as 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, etc.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

4) Recently a survey was conducted in which customers of a large insurance company were asked to indicate the number of speeding tickets they had received in the past three years. The minimum value in the data was zero and the largest was six tickets. If you wished to illustrate the proportion of people who had three or fewer tickets, you would most likely construct a cumulative relative frequency distribution.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: cumulative, relative, frequency distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

5) Frequency distributions are specifically for analyzing discrete data.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency, distribution, discrete

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

6) When developing a frequency distribution, the following classes would be considered acceptable:

5 to < 10

10 to < 20

20 to < 40

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency distribution, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

7) It is often a good idea to convert frequency distributions to relative frequency distributions when you wish to compare two distributions with different amounts of data.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

8) In a report describing the number of people in the family of each of the 400 employees at a manufacturing company, the frequency count at the value 3 was 220. This means that the relative frequency at the 3 level is .44.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: relative, frequency

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

9) One way to develop a frequency distribution using Excel is to use the Frequency function.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, Excel

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

10) There is no difference between cumulative frequency and relative frequency.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

11) A study of 4000 Dell PC customers listed the age of the customer among other variables. The youngest customer was 14 years old and the oldest customer was 84 years old. If analysts for the company wish to develop a frequency distribution with 7 classes, the smallest value that the class width can be is 10 years.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, class, width

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

12) A cumulative frequency distribution shows the percentage of observations for the variable of interest with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: cumulative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

13) In constructing a frequency distribution for the savings account balances for customers at a bank, the following class boundaries might be acceptable if the minimum balance is $5.00 and the maximum balance is $18,700:

$0.00 $5,000

$5,000 10,000

$10,000 $15,000

$15,000 $20,000

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency, distribution, class, boundary

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

14) The appropriate number of classes should generally be between 5 and 20.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency distribution, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

15) Once you have determined the class width using the formula, high-low divided by the number of classes, it is appropriate to round to the nearest integer to make the analysis easier.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: class, width, formula

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

16) There is no hard-and-fast rule regarding the number of classes that must be used when establishing a frequency distribution for a continuous variable.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: class, frequency, distribution, continuous

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

17) The upper and lower limits of each class in a frequency distribution are also referred to as the data array.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: class, frequency, distribution, array

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

18) The following class limits would be acceptable for developing a frequency distribution on income:

$0 < $5,000

$5001 < $10,000

$10,001 < $20,000

Over $20,000

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: class, limit, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

19) A histogram can be created for discrete or continuous data.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: histogram

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

20) In a recent study at First National Bank, a frequency count was made for the variable marital status for the banks 10,000 customers. It would also be appropriate to develop a histogram for this variable to show how marital status is distributed.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, histogram, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

21) After developing a frequency distribution for a quantitative variable, a histogram can be developed with the horizontal axis representing the values of the variable and the vertical axis representing the frequency of occurrence in each class or group.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, histogram, class

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

22) A histogram can be constructed for data that are either quantitative or qualitative.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: histogram, quantitative, qualitative

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

23) In a recent study of retail daily sales by stores at a mall in Kansas, the minimum daily sales was $700 and the maximum was $51,000. If you wish to construct a frequency distribution with 10 classes, the minimum class width would be $5,100.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, class, width

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

24) Consider a situation in which both a frequency distribution and a relative frequency distribution have been developed for the same quantitative variable. If histograms are constructed from each distribution, the graphs will appear to have the same shape.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: relative, frequency, distribution, histogram, quantitative

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

25) When a histogram is constructed for discrete numerical data, there should be spaces between the bars of the histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

26) When the Histogram tool in Excel is used to construct a frequency distribution and histogram, the default histogram is in the proper format and will require only that you add appropriate labels.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, Excel, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

27) When using the Histogram tool in Excel to construct a frequency distribution and histogram, the bins represent the upper class limits.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, Excel, frequency, bin, class

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

28) When using the Histogram tool in Excel to construct a frequency distribution and histogram, if the first bin value is 10 and the second bin value is 20, the frequency count for the second class will include all values from 10 up to, but not including, 20.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: histogram, Excel, bin, frequency

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

29) If you wish to construct a graph of a relative frequency distribution, you would most likely construct an ogive.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: ogive, relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

30) A joint frequency distribution is used to describe the number of occurrences where two observations in a data set have the same value.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

31) A joint frequency distribution can be constructed for either quantitative or qualitative data.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

32) If a manager is interested in analyzing the relationship between the age of customers and the dollar volume of business that is done in the store, a relative frequency distribution would be most appropriate.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

33) A recent study of students at the university contained data on year in school and student age. An appropriate tool for analyzing the relationship between these two variables would be a joint frequency distribution.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

34) A histogram can be used to display a joint frequency distribution between two quantitative variables.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: histogram, joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

35) In Excel, joint frequency distributions can be generated using the Pivot Table feature under the Data tab.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: Excel, joint, distribution, pivot

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

36) An ogive is a graph that shows cumulative relative frequency.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: ogive

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

37) If you have constructed a joint frequency distribution manually and now wish to convert it to a joint relative distribution, the proper method is to divide each cell frequency by the cells row total.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

38) Another name for a joint frequency distribution is a cross-tabulation table.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution, cross-tabulation

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

39) Two separate frequency distributions for two variables provide the same information as one joint frequency distribution involving the same two variables.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: joint frequency distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

40) In Excel a joint frequency distribution table can be created using a tool called PivotTable.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: Excel, joint, frequency, distribution, pivot

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

41) An ogive is a graph of a joint frequency distribution.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: ogive, joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

42) A histogram is an effective tool for graphically describing a joint frequency distribution.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

43) In a study involving car owners, one question asked the owner for the number of miles driven last year. A second question asked the owner for the age of the vehicle. A joint frequency distribution would be useful for determining whether newer cars tend to be driven more miles than older cars.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

44) In a study involving car owners, one question asked the owner for the number of miles driven last year. A second question asked the owner for the age of the vehicle. A histogram would be useful for analyzing the relationship between miles driven and the age of the vehicle.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: histogram, joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

45) In constructing a histogram for a joint frequency distribution, the histogram will have the most meaning for the decision maker if there are no gaps between the bars on the histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, gap, bar, joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

46) A bar chart is the same as a histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: bar, chart, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

47) Histograms cannot have gaps between the bars, whereas bar charts can have gaps.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: histogram, gap, bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

48) The regional sales manager for a medical supply company recently collected data on the reasons why customers returned the merchandise for a refund. She actually formed a frequency distribution for this variable. It would now be acceptable to construct a bar chart to graphically display the results.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

49) Bar charts can typically be formed with the bars vertical or horizontal without adversely affecting the interpretation.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, horizontal, vertical

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

50) Bar charts can show either frequency or percentage.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: bar chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

51) A tire store manager has collected data showing the number of tires of each brand sold during the past month. A bar chart might be effective in graphically illustrating which brands tend to sell best at this store.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

52) A pie chart is almost always constructed when the variable of interest is qualitative.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: pie, chart, qualitative

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

53) In situations involving two or more variables, both histograms and bar charts can be used for multiple variables on the same graph.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: multiple, variable, histogram, bar chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

54) The Wilson company monitors customer complaints and organizes these complaints into six distinct categories. Over the past year, the company has received 534 complaints. One possible graphical method for representing these data would be a histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, category

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

55) The difference between bar charts and histograms is that bar charts always show percentage while histograms always show frequency.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: bar, chart, histogram, percentage

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

56) When developing a bar chart, it is usually preferable to organize the bars in order from high to low.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

57) A stem and leaf diagram is most similar to a bar chart.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: stem, leaf, diagram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

58) One of the differences between a stem and leaf diagram and a histogram is that even for variables involving a large number of different values, the stem and leaf diagram shows the individual data values whereas the histogram requires you to group the data and lose the individual values.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

59) A study was recently conducted in which makers of toothpaste tracked sales for the month at different stores in a market area. The variable of interest was the number of units sold. The numbers ranged from 1,200 to 22,700. In this case, the stems in a stem and leaf diagram might be values such as 1 and 22 while the leaves would be 200 and 700.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

60) In constructing a stem and leaf diagram, there is a hard-and-fast rule for defining the stem and the leaves.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: stem, leaf

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

61) A stem and leaf diagram is more appropriate for graphically displaying a joint frequency distribution than is a histogram since the stems can be used to display one variable while the leaves can be used to display the second variable.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf, joint, frequency

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

62) If the Viking Sales Company plans to display the sales for each of its six major products for the year 2001, an effective chart to do this would be a histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

63) In preparing a line chart, the horizontal axis shows time and the vertical axis shows the value of the variable of interest.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: line, chart, axis

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

64) In a scatter plot the points should always be connected with a line.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: scatter, plot, line, chart

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

65) A university recently collected data for a sample of 200 business majors. One variable collected was the number of credits left to be taken before graduation. This variable could effectively be displayed using a line chart.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: line, chart

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

66) A scatter diagram is a line graph without the points connected by a line.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: scatter, diagram, line

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

67) A major insurance company believes that for drivers between 16 years of age and 60 years of age, the number of accidents per year tends to decrease as age increases. If this is the case, a scatter diagram should show a negative relationship between the two variables.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

68) Sawyer & Company is a law firm in Dallas, Texas. Recently, the administrative manager prepared a report for the managing partners that showed the number of court cases handled by the firm monthly over the past three years. It was appropriate for her to use a line chart in this case.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: line, chart

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

69) Sawyer & Company is a law firm in Dallas, Texas. Recently, the administrative manager prepared a report for the managing partners that showed the number of court cases handled by the firm monthly over the past three years. One of the objectives of graphing these data might have been to identify a trend in the number of court cases.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: trend, graph

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

70) To show the relationship between amount of rainfall and the number of car accidents, the best type of graph to use is a scatter diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: scatter diagram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

71) The J.B. Hanson Company is interested in analyzing the relationship between end-of-the-week inventory levels and sales for the same week. The graph that most likely would be used to show this relationship is a histogram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, relationship, histogram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

72) A study at State University involved an analysis of students GPAs and the number of hours that they work at jobs off-campus. An appropriate graph to display the relationship between these two variables might be a scatter diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

73) When developing a scatter diagram, it is appropriate to connect the points on the graph with straight lines or the lines can be omitted.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, connect

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

74) Scatter diagrams can be used for either quantitative or qualitative data.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Keywords: scatter diagram, data

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

75) If two variables are graphed on the same line chart, two separate scales are always required.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: variable, graph, scale

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

76) If a scatter diagram shows points that are reasonably aligned and are sloping downward from left to right, this implies that there is a negative linear relationship between the two variables.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, linear, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

77) A scatter diagram can show that the relationship between two variables is actually nonlinear.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Keywords: scatter, diagram, relationship, nonlinear

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

78) A scatter diagram can show whether a pair of variables has a strong or weak relationship, and also whether it is linear or curved.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

79) Roscoe and Associates makes computer software for use in the telecommunications industry. Recently, managers at the company collected data for the year 2001 on three variables: total dollars spent on research and development, total sales dollars, and total employee salaries. To graphically present these three variables, the managers would be justified in using a line chart with all three variables plotted.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3

Keywords: line, chart

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

80) On a scatter diagram, the independent variable should be placed on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable should be placed on the vertical axis.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, independent

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

81) In analyzing a single quantitative variable, you will generally choose to use a scatter diagram if the variable is measured over time and a histogram if the variable is cross-sectional.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, histogram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

82) A histogram is most commonly used to analyze which of the following?

- A) Nominal level data
- B) Quantitative data
- C) Time-series data
- D) Ordinal data

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, quantitative, data

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

83) The Maple Grove Hotel manager has collected data on the number of rooms occupied each evening for the past 700 nights. The fewest rooms occupied during that period was 11 and the most was the capacity, 430. Based on this information, which of the following would be reasonable class limits for the first class if the manager wishes to use 8 classes to develop a frequency distribution?

- A) 0 to 40
- B) 10 to < 65
- C) 11 to 19
- D) 0 to 52.38

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, class, limit

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

84) Recently a study of fans attending the New York Mets baseball games was conducted and 500 fans were surveyed. In forming a frequency distribution of the number of miles fans traveled from home to the stadium, it was found that 247 fans traveled between 0 and 5 miles. Based on this information what was the relative frequency for this class?

- A) 0.247
- B) 0.30
- C) 0.494
- D) Cant be determined without more information.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: relative, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

85) Frequency distributions can be formed from which of the following types of data?

- A) Both discrete and continuous
- B) Discrete only
- C) Continuous only
- D) Only qualitative data

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, distribution, data

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

86) A common rule of thumb for determining how many classes to use when developing a frequency distribution with classes is:

- A) between 5 and 20 classes.
- B) no fewer than 6 classes.
- C) equal to 0.25 times the number of data values.
- D) at least 10 classes.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency, distribution, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

87) Which of the following is an acceptable format for setting up class boundaries for a frequency distribution?

- A) 20 to under 40
- B) 20 to 40
- C) 200 to 299.99
- D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: class, boundaries, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

88) Which of the following is not considered desirable when constructing a frequency distribution for continuous data?

- A) Open-ended classes
- B) Mutually exclusive classes
- C) Equal-width classes
- D) All-inclusive classes

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Keywords: frequency, distribution, continuous, classes

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

89) Many Walmart stores have automotive departments where customers can buy tires, have their vehicles serviced, and obtain other automotive services. Recently, the manager at an Ohio Walmart collected data on the time customers had to wait to get the desired automotive service. Of the 500 cars in the sample, the shortest time any customer spent waiting was 3 minutes and the longest time was 183 minutes. Assuming that the manager wishes to develop a frequency distribution with 9 classes, which of the following would be an appropriate class width for each class?

- A) 10.50
- B) 19.99
- C) 20.00
- D) 3 to 23

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: class, width, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

90) A histogram is used to display which of the following characteristics for a quantitative variable?

- A) The approximate center of the data
- B) The spread in the data
- C) The shape of the distribution
- D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, display, quantitative, variable

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

91) When using Excels Histogram option under the Data Analysis tool, the term bins refers to:

- A) the mid-point of each class.
- B) the column where the data are located.
- C) the upper limits of each class.
- D) the lower limits of each class.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: Excel, histogram, bin, class

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

92) In forming the classes for a frequency distribution and histogram, suppose there were a number of empty classes. You should:

- A) increase the class width.
- B) decrease the class width.
- C) keep the current class width.
- D) use an ogive instead.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, Excel, gaps

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

93) A frequency histogram should be computed from which type of data?

- A) Quantitative data
- B) Categorical data
- C) Nominal level data
- D) Ordinal data

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, histogram, data, quantitative

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

94) Which of the following is a reason for constructing a joint frequency distribution?

- A) To determine the trend between the two variables
- B) To measure the spread between the two variables
- C) To help analyze the relationship between the two variables
- D) To show the average of two variables

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

95) Joint frequency distributions are used to display:

- A) the histograms of two variables analyzed simultaneously.
- B) the number of occurrences at each of the possible joint occurrences of two variables.
- C) the cumulative distribution of a variable with two possible outcomes.
- D) the relative frequency of two variables.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

96) A study was recently done in which the brand preference for breakfast cereal was analyzed against the gender of the shopper. The study consisted of 200 male shoppers and 300 female shoppers. Three different cereal brands were considered: A, B, and C. A total of 250 female shoppers preferred brand A, 25 female shoppers preferred brand C. The number of female shoppers that preferred brand B was:

- A) 25.
- B) 100.
- C) 75.
- D) 50.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

97) A study was recently done in which the brand preference for breakfast cereal was analyzed against the gender of the shopper. The study consisted of 200 male shoppers and 300 female shoppers. Three different cereal brands were considered: A, B, and C. A total of 250 female shoppers preferred brand A, 25 female shoppers preferred brand C. A total of 100 shoppers preferred brand B. The number of male shoppers that preferred brand B was:

- A) 25.
- B) 100.
- C) 75.
- D) 50.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

98) The undergraduate students at your university are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors. A recent study of undergraduates asked the students to indicate the number of credits they were registered for this term. The responses were 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. The number of cells in a joint frequency distribution for the two variables, class standing, and credit hours is:

- A) 4.
- B) 10.
- C) 24.
- D) None of the above.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Keywords: joint, frequency, distribution, cells

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 3

99) Which of the following CANNOT be shown effectively with a histogram?

- A) A frequency distribution
- B) A joint frequency distribution
- C) A relative frequency distribution
- D) The center, shape and spread of a distribution

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, frequency, distribution

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

100) Which of the following is NOT true of a bar chart?

- A) It is used for numerical data.
- B) The bars can be either horizontal or vertical.
- C) It can show either frequency or relative frequency.
- D) It is used for categorical data.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

101) One characteristic of a bar chart is:

- A) the bars can be displayed either vertically or horizontally.
- B) there can be no gaps between the bars.
- C) it is used to display the distribution of a continuous variable.
- D) it shows cumulative frequency.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Keywords: bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

102) A bar chart is most likely used to display which of the following?

- A) A continuous variable
- B) A nominal level variable
- C) An ordinal level variable
- D) Either B or C

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, variable

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

103) A study was recently conducted by the regional electric and gas company. Data were collected for three customer categories showing the dollar amount of natural gas and the dollar amount of electricity consumed during the year. Which of the following graphs would most likely be used to display both sets of data together?

- A) Pie chart
- B) Bar chart
- C) Line chart
- D) Histogram

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, display

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

104) One of the key differences between a bar chart and histogram is:

- A) the histogram contains gaps between the bars and the bar chart does not.
- B) a bar chart is used to display a categorical variable and a histogram is used to display the distribution of a quantitative variable.
- C) the histogram shows relative frequency while the bar chart shows frequency.
- D) the bar chart must be vertical while the histogram must be horizontal.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, histogram, variable

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

105) The city counsel has just voted to pass the citys budget for next year. If you were writing a report describing the budget so the citizens could understand how the total tax dollars will be spent, which of the following graphs might be most appropriate?

- A) Pie chart
- B) Scatter diagram
- C) Histogram
- D) Ogive

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: pie, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

106) Which of the following is a false statement?

- A) A bar chart is usually constructed so that gaps exist between the bars.
- B) The bars on a bar chart can be different colors.
- C) A histogram is usually constructed without gaps between the bars.
- D) A bar chart and histogram can typically be used interchangeably.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

107) At a manufacturing plant workers are divided into 4 different teams that rotate shifts. The number of units produced by each team is recorded. The best type of chart to display the data is a:

- A) pie chart.
- B) histogram.
- C) ogive.
- D) line chart.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: pie, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

108) A homeowners association consists of 20 homes. The family in each home is considered an automatic member of the association. Recently, one of the homes fell into a state of disrepair. A survey was conducted of the homeowners both on the same street as the house in question and on the second street. At issue was whether legal action should be brought against the homeowner with the problem house. There are 8 homes on the same street as the problem house and 6 of these called for legal action. The percentage of houses on the second street that favored legal action is 50 percent. Which type of chart might be most effective for conveying the information about percentage of residents favoring legal action by street?

- A) Histogram
- B) Stem and leaf diagram
- C) Bar chart
- D) Pie chart

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

109) Which of the following is a key difference between a bar chart and a histogram?

- A) A bar chart typically has gaps between the bars while a histogram has no gaps.
- B) A bar chart is developed to analyze a continuous variable, while a histogram is used to analyze discrete variables.
- C) Both A and B are correct.
- D) There is actually no real difference between a bar chart and a histogram.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

110) The Grangeville Power Company has four classifications for its customers. For each customer classification, the company tracks the total amount of electricity used during the year. Which of the following types of graphs would be most appropriate to use?

- A) A horizontal bar chart
- B) A vertical bar chart
- C) Both A and B would be appropriate.
- D) A histogram

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart, horizontal, vertical

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

111) Which of the following is true about the difference between stem and leaf diagrams and histograms?

- A) There is no difference.
- B) The stem and leaf diagram shows more information by showing the individual values.
- C) The histogram shows the shape center and spread of the distribution while the stem and leaf does not.
- D) The stem and leaf diagram shows less information than a histogram.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem and leaf, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

112) The Carter Department Store has data on the sales volume by department for the past 200 days. The data are in an Excel spreadsheet where column A represents the department name and column B represents the sales for each day in that department. In order to construct a bar chart that illustrates the difference in total sales by department for the 200 days, a required step in Excel will be to:

- A) determine the total sales by department.
- B) use the frequency function to count the number of occurrences by department.
- C) group the data into 5 to 20 classes.
- D) determine the class widths.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Keywords: Excel, bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

113) A bar chart possesses which of the following?

- A) Capability of displaying the distribution for a quantitative variable
- B) The option of displaying the data in scatter diagram form
- C) The option for displaying two or more variables on the same chart
- D) An easy method for displaying the general shape of a continuous variable

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: bar, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

114) The Canyon Water Company collects data on the number of gallons of water consumed during a month for each customer. The production manager has divided the usage into 6 classes. To display these data effectively, she could use which of the following types of graphs to convey information about the water usage?

- A) A stem and leaf diagram
- B) A bar chart
- C) A histogram
- D) Either a histogram or a pie chart

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, pie, chart

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

115) A stem and leaf diagram is used to:

- A) display the distribution of a quantitative variable.
- B) show the joint relationship between two variables.
- C) graph a joint frequency distribution.
- D) show relative cumulative frequency.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf, quantitative

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

116) A stem and leaf diagram is an alternative to using:

- A) a pie chart.
- B) a bar chart.
- C) a histogram.
- D) an ogive.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

117) One of the advantages that a stem and leaf diagram has over a histogram is:

- A) the detail of the data is preserved.
- B) it shows the general distribution of a quantitative variable.
- C) it can be used with nominal data.
- D) There are no advantages.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: stem, leaf, histogram

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 5

118) If two variables show a positive linear relationship in a scatter diagram:

- A) most of the data values will plot in the lower left-hand quadrant.
- B) most of the data values will plot in the lower left-hand and upper right-hand quadrants.
- C) most of the data values will cluster close to the x and y axes.
- D) the data will cluster in the center of the graph.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, linear, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

119) To show how the price of a stock has changed over the last 3 months, the best type of chart to use is:

- A) a pie chart.
- B) a histogram.
- C) a line chart.
- D) a bar chart.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Keywords: line, chart, trend

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

120) A line chart is most appropriate for:

- A) cross-sectional data.
- B) nominal level data.
- C) ordinal level data.
- D) time-series data.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Keywords: line, chart, time, series

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

121) The managers at Harris Pizza in Boston have tracked the tips received by their drivers along with the total bill to the customer. An appropriate graph for analyzing the relationship between these two variables is:

- A) a scatter diagram.
- B) a line chart.
- C) a histogram.
- D) a pie chart.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

122) A scatter diagram can be used to do which of the following?

- A) Determine the trend in a variable
- B) Analyze the relationship between two variables
- C) Describe the basic distribution for a quantitative variable
- D) Show the percentage of a variable that is associated with each category into which that variable has been divided

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

123) In constructing a scatter diagram:

- A) the independent variable should be on the vertical axis.
- B) the independent variable should be on the horizontal axis.
- C) the dependent variable should be on the horizontal axis.
- D) It does not matter which variable goes on which axis.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, independent, dependent

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

124) Which of the following questions CANNOT be answered using a scatter diagram?

- A) What is the trend over time of each of the 2 variables?
- B) Is there a curved or linear relation between the 2 variables?
- C) Is there a weak or strong relation between the 2 variables?
- D) Is there a positive or negative relation between the 2 variables?

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter diagram

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

125) The sales manager at Western Furniture Company tracked data on the number of customers who came into the store each day and the total dollar volume of sales at the store during the same day. She is considering putting together a report for top management and wishes to show the relationship between these two variables. Which of the following graphs would likely be most useful? She has a sample of 36 days worth of data.

- A) Scatter diagram
- B) Bar chart
- C) Frequency histogram
- D) Pie chart

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

126) Consider the following chart. Which of the following statements is most correct?

- A) There is a negative linear relationship between the two variables.
- B) There is a positive linear relationship between the two variables.
- C) There is a perfect linear relationship between the two variables.
- D) There is no apparent relationship between the two variables.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, diagram, linear, relationship

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

127) Consider the following chart. Which of the following statements is most correct?

- A) The values for the dependent variable are determined by the values for the independent variable.
- B) The values in a scatter plot should be connected by a straight line.
- C) The variable on the horizontal axis should be the independent variable.
- D) A scatter plot like this one shows the trend in the data over time.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: scatter, plot, independent

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

128) The Fitness Center manager has collected data on the number of visits to the club each week for the past 8 weeks. These data are shown as follows. Which of the following statements is most correct?

Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Week 5 | Week 6 | Week 7 | Week 8 |

1415 | 1623 | 1934 | 1879 | 2102 | 2156 | 2511 | 2499 |

- A) The proper graph for displaying these data is a pie chart.
- B) There has been a gradual downward trend in these data.
- C) A frequency histogram should be developed to help identify the trend in these data.
- D) The data lend themselves to a line chart.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Keywords: line, chart, trend

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

129) The Fitness Center manager has collected data on the number of visits to the club each week for the past 8 weeks. These data are shown as follows. Which of the following statements is most correct?

Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Week 5 | Week 6 | Week 7 | Week 8 |

1415 | 1623 | 1934 | 1879 | 2102 | 2156 | 2511 | 2499 |

- A) A histogram will illustrate whether a linear relationship exists between the number of visits and the week number.
- B) A scatter diagram would be useful for displaying these data.
- C) A line chart for these data will show that an upward trend in the number of visits to the club has occurred over two weeks.
- D) None of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Keywords: line, chart, trend

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 6

130) Assuming you have data for a variable with 2,000 values, using the 2*k* *n* guideline, what is the least number of groups that should be used in developing a grouped data frequency distribution?

- A) 9
- B) 11
- C) 13
- D) 12

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Keywords: descriptive statistics

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 1

131) In creating a frequency distribution for numerical data, describe the steps in choosing the classes.

Answer: The steps are (1) determine the number of classes, (2) determine the class width, (3) determine the class boundaries, and (4) count how many values are in each class.

The number of classes should generally be between 5 and 20, where the more data you have means more classes. To determine the class width, the classes must span the entire range of the data set from the smallest value to the largest value. So an initial estimate of class width is to divide the range by the number of classes.

W =

This width usually needs to be adjusted up to a round number. To determine the class boundaries there are several considerations. The classes should be of equal width, have no gaps between classes (all inclusive), and no overlaps (mutually exclusive). Finally the number of observation in each class is tallied.

Diff: 2

Keywords: classes, class width

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

132) Explain what information can be conveyed by a frequency histogram.

Answer: A frequency histogram can be used to convey information about three different characteristics of a quantitative variable. First, the histogram can give us an idea of where the center of the data falls. The histogram can show the spread in the variable. Finally, the histogram can show the shape of the distribution.

Diff: 2

Keywords: frequency, histogram, quantitative

Section: 2-1 Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Outcome: 2

133) Explain why it is appropriate to connect the points on a line graph, but the points on a scatter plot should not be connected.

Answer: A line chart is used to display data that are measured in sequence over time. The points are in a defined order. Connecting the points serves to illustrate any trend that may be present in the data. A scatter plot is used to show the relationship between two variables. The XY data points are plotted in a two-dimensional space. The order that the XY points are recorded is of no consequence, so connecting the points would be meaningless.

Diff: 3

Keywords: line, scatter, connect, points

Section: 2-3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

Outcome: 7

134) Why should a histogram contain no gaps between the bars but a bar chart may have gaps?

Answer: A histogram is used to convey the distribution of a quantitative variable. The horizontal axis represents the range of possible values for the variable of interest. The bars are joined together to form the distribution. A bar chart is used to illustrate a qualitative variable. By using gaps between the bars, the differences between the categories are more easily seen.

Diff: 2

Keywords: histogram, bar, chart, gaps

Section: 2-2 Bar Charts, Pie Charts and Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Outcome: 4

135) Discuss the steps that you would use to manually construct a histogram for the salaries of the 1,124 employees in the Ferris Steel Company.

Answer: We might begin by sorting the data from low to high. Since salaries would likely be somewhat continuous, there would likely be lots of different possible salaries represented in the 1,124 data points. Thus, we would need to group th

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