Test Bank for Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L.

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Test Bank for Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L.

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Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L.  
Test Bank 

 

Chapter 2

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is not deviance?
  2. Voluntarily childless
  3. Talking to classmate while professor lectures
  4. Cutting arm with razor, intentionally
  5. Sneezing in class

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An example of an aesthetic norm includes:
  2. purple hair.
  3. a few tattoos.
  4. a human tail.
  5. a cleft (largely disfigured) lip.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which is not a new form of deviance due to new technologies?
  2. Legal downloading of music, movies, and readings
  3. Cyberbulling
  4. Online misbehavior of college students
  5. Sexting

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Deviance is reflective of ______ and _______.
  2. a) laws, enforcement
  3. b) norms, attitudes
  4. c) parents, family
  5. d) flaws, mistakes

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rosa Parks is known for her act of positive deviance because:
  2. a) she was expected to sit in the back of the bus and chose to sit in the back.
  3. b) she was expected to sit in the back of the bus and refused to sit in the back.
  4. c) she was not allowed on the bus and got on anyway.
  5. d) she was expected to sit at the front of the bus and chose to sit in the back.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of sexually unconventional behaviors?
  2. a) Prostitution and escort services
  3. b) Adult affairs
  4. c) College students having sex
  5. d) Online sex predators

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain:

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. _________ are deviant because they afflict bodily harm with intention while many people avoid bodily harm.
  2. a) Anorexics and bulimics
  3. b) Homosexual couples
  4. c) Self-injurers
  5. d) Voluntarily childless

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. _______ __________ is defined as criminal and deviant acts by the largest corporations and the most powerful political organizations.
  2. a) Ethnocentric deviance
  3. b) Elite deviance
  4. c) Criminogenic deviance
  5. d) Corporate criminality

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An example of pharmaceutical deviance includes:
  2. a) a doctor provided a prescription to a patient lives in another county.
  3. b) filling a prescription at RiteAid instead of your usual Walgreens pharmacy.
  4. c) filling a pain killer prescription from your doctor.
  5. d) taking Adderall before an exam your friend has a prescription for, but you do not.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The children of _________________ were forced to a new set of norms, things they considered deviant from their own culture, including strangers, foods, clothing, and etiquette for two months while investigations took place.
  2. a) The Corn
  3. b) Columbine
  4. c) Zion Ranch
  5. d) Kimmie Schmidt

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Relationships and Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False:

 

  1. Deviant behavior is always criminal.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A woman who is voluntarily childless is viewed as deviant across all cultures.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Conventional sexual orientations in the United States during the 1950s included heterosexuality, in which homosexuality is the deviant opposition to the conventional during that time.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Homophobia refers to the fear of heterosexuality.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. If behavior is prevalent by hidden populations or young people, for example, it cannot be considered deviant just because the law states it is.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Intentional behaviors that violate norms but are conducted in honorable ways and for the good of people are acts of positive deviance.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. According to sociologists, violations of aesthetic norms and physical incapacity (including physical disability) are two examples of physical deviance.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. According to sociologists, deviance is always studied as a relative definition.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Flashmobs are deviant because they break out in synchronized dancing in public places where dancing usually does not take place.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Do you consider illegal downloading of music, movies, and readings deviant? What makes it deviant?

 

ANS: The student should include an argument supported with the fact it is deviant according to the law and subject to formal punishment. Whether or not the student says yes or no, for their personal opinion is irrelevant. This question is to gauge whether or not the student understands deviance is something that can be prevalent by younger and hidden populations, yet deviant by law regardless of a lack of consensus.

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What are some examples of body modification? Who is Mr. Lepperd and why is he deviant?

 

ANS: Body modification includes extreme tattooing, like Mr. Leppard. Mr. Lepperd paid to have more than 99% of his body covered in inked leopard spots. He is deviant because he violates the social norm of having only a few tattoos, and is practically covered. Body modification also includes piercings, scarification, and reconstructive and cosmetic surgery

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Several types of deviance exist that apply to our everyday lives. They include workplace deviance, sexual deviance, and physical deviance. Provide 2 examples of each of these types of deviance. Explain the logic or why they are considered deviant and which norms they violate specifically.

 

ANS: Examples of workplace devianceanswers vary; taking a coworkers apron, taking another employees tips off their table, taking another coworkers customer, providing a table with discounts though they have no coupons or eligibility proof of a discount offered, and taking credit for work on a project when your coworker did most of the work.

Examples of physical devianceanswers may vary; a female wearing short blue hair, and a man wearing a dress to an interview.

Examples of sexual devianceanswers may vary; fetishes for example foot fetishes, baby fetishes, etc., bondage, role-play and costume play, use of toys, etc.

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

Chapter 4

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. __________ is a state of normlessness, in which society fails to regulate expectations and behaviors of its members.
  2. a) Strain
  3. b) Anomie
  4. c) Disruption
  5. d) Chaos

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is an assumption of anomie/strain theories?
  2. a) Social order is a product of endless conflict and temporary resolution.
  3. b) Norms are shared by society and its members.
  4. c) Laws establish social order.
  5. d) Response to deviance is for punishment.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Anomie/strain theories assume social order is:
  2. a) a result of endless conflict and temporary resolution.
  3. b) established through laws imposed by upper classes.
  4. c) the product of a cohesive set of norms.
  5. d) impossible to attain.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Emile Durkheim examined what phenomena in nineteenth-century Europe?
  2. a) Drug use by adults
  3. b) Community disorganization
  4. c) Social influences on suicide
  5. c) Juvenile delinquents

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The ideal body type is an example of anomie/strain because:
  2. a) the ideal body type creates an unrealistic expectation among members of society.
  3. b) the ideal body type is attained in illegal ways.
  4. c) the ideal body type is representative of the norm and lacks diversity.
  5. d) the ideal body type is too easily attained.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Robbers, thieves, embezzlers, etc. who agree with societal goals, but lack the means to achieve them so they resort to stealing to achieve societal goals is considered which of Mertons five adaptations?
  2. a) Conformity
  3. b) Innovation
  4. c) Ritualism
  5. d) Retreatism

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to Differential Opportunity Theory, _________ subcultures are considered double failures, because they cannot find legitimate or illegitimate subcultures to fit in.
  2. a) conflict
  3. b) innovative
  4. c) consensus
  5. d) retreatist

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Mertons Deviance Typology examines the intersections of _____________ and _____________.
  2. a) economic goals, institutionalized means
  3. b) cultural goals, institutionalized means
  4. c) historical means, economic means
  5. d) cultural goals, historical means

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlins theory argued that criminal and deviant behavior is learned like other behaviors and, importantly, that not everyone has the same opportunities to learn criminal skills and have criminal careers. This incorporated the work of which well-known sociologist/criminologist?
  2. a) Edwin Sutherland
  3. b) Robert Merton
  4. c) James Cressey
  5. d) Roberta Agnew

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The Occupy movement is an interesting example of highly educated individuals taking to the streets to protest what they perceive as _____________ in the corporate suites.
  2. a) antifeminists
  3. b) saints
  4. c) armed militia
  5. d) deviance

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. Anomie and strain theories are concerned with social structures and how such structures constrain behavior of individuals and cause deviance.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to anomie theories, it is not society that has failed to regulate expectations of its members, but the individual who has failed to regulate his/her own expectations of behavior.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The American Dream as it applies to anomie/strain theories refers to strain between societys idea of wealth as success and anything is possible, and illegitimate means to obtaining success.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to Merton (1938), Social Structure & Anomie argues the goals of success, especially economic success, are viewed as legitimate expectations and norms for everyone.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Differential opportunity theories argue motivations and availability of opportunities to learn about and participate in deviancy must be considered in the study of deviance.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Agnew argues that strain frustration may lead to the collective solution of forming a delinquent subculture in which middle-class norms and values are replaced with their antithesisor the opposite ideals.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to differential opportunity theory, criminal subcultures and the neighborhoods in which they reside can perpetuate crime through generations with the use of their own forms of icons and role models (legitimate or not).

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to Robert Agnews General Strain Theory, some people are predisposed to crime, while others are not.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to Cloward and Ohlin, retreatist subcultures develop in disorganized communities where illegitimate opportunities are largely absent and those that exist are closed to adolescents.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Emile Durkheim suggested deviance is a result of a lack of regulation of goals and unlimited desires/needs.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlins Differential Opportunity Theory is applied to understanding gangs and gang behavior, as read in the text. According to the application of this theory to gang research, what must be considered in understanding criminal learning environments of gangs? Provide a short explanation.

 

Ans:

Cloward and Ohlins Differential Opportunity Theory & Gangs

  • Criminal learning environments for gangs
    • neighborhood (types of illegitimate opportunities vary from poor to rich)
    • opportunity to learn (lack of legitimate opportunity to attain wealth and success)
    • opportunity to practice (gang life promotes practice of illegitimate)

 

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to Robert Agnews General Strain Theory, strain leads to anger and frustration that leads to deviant behavior, but not all individuals respond to strain with crime and deviance. What types of strain are most likely to lead to deviant behavior and/or crime?

 

Ans:

Types of strain most likely to lead to deviant behavior and/or crime

  • High amounts of strain
  • Strain that is perceived as unjust
  • Strain associated with low self-control

Strain creates more pressure or incentive for criminal coping

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlin argued that the different kinds of illegitimate opportunities available in poor urban neighborhoods lead to three types of criminal subcultures. List the three types of criminal subcultures and provide 2-3 sentences description of each.

 

Ans:

Three types of criminal subcultures: criminal, conflict, and retreatist. Criminal subcultures develop among lower-class adolescent boys in neighborhoods with open illegitimate opportunity structures. These neighborhoods are characterized by systematic, organized crime, and they provide an outlet in illegal employment for youths to attain wealth and get paid via illegitimate means. Conflict subcultures develop in disorganized communities where illegitimate opportunities are largely absent and those that exist are closed to adolescents. Such neighborhoods are characterized by social instability, and youth growing up in these conditions are deprived of both conventional (legitimate) and criminal (illegitimate) opportunities. Retreatist subcultures are associated with drug use and the drug culture among some lower-class adolescents. Cloward and Ohlin characterized adolescents in retreatist subcultures as double failures who cannot find a place for themselves in either criminal or conflict subcultures. While this is closely related to Mertons concept of retreatists, Cloward and Ohlin directed attention to the social environment and the conditions that help to explain the formation of each type of deviant subculture.

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Chapter 9

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. ___________ theories would study corporations and the human suffering corporate action and powers cause to society.
  2. a) Conflict
  3. b) Anomie/strain
  4. c) Marxist
  5. d) Learning

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. _____________ theories examine changes in attitudes, legal rights, and conflict among different groups who do not agree or find consensus.
  2. a) Conflict
  3. b) Anomie/strain
  4. c) Labeling
  5. d) Learning

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What type of economic system are Marxist and conflict theories primarily critical of?
  2. a) Socialist
  3. b) Communist
  4. c) Fascist
  5. d) Capitalist

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. _____________ and ____________ theories assume that conflict exists, especially in capitalist societies, in which laws are administered to some and not others
  2. a) Social control, labeling
  3. b) Techniques of neutralization, biological
  4. c) Marxist, conflict
  5. d) Biofeminist, socioeconomic

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. __________ theories argue reforms rather than revolutionary overthrow.
  2. a) Conformist
  3. b) Conflict
  4. c) Marxist
  5. d) Feminist

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which Marxist theorist wrote Communist Manifesto?
  2. a) Tannebaum
  3. b) Chambliss
  4. c) Marx
  5. d) Turk

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What does Steven Spitzer use to describe the unneeded laborers and those critical of the system in his work?
  2. a) Saints and Roughnecks
  3. b) Social Junk and Social Dynamite
  4. c) Unemployed and Rebels
  5. d) Saints and Social Junk

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to Karl Marx, in a capitalist society, economic power belongs to the ____________ and the ______________ live in poverty and misery.
  2. a) bourgeoisie; proletariat
  3. b) proletariat; bourgeoisie
  4. c) government; proletariat
  5. d) military; bourgeoisie

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Conflict theorist, ___________, studies the process in which individuals become a part of a group, the development of relationships within and among groups, and how conflict arises when groups are threatened by competing interests of other groups.
  2. Turk
  3. Chambliss
  4. Marx
  5. Vold

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ____________ functions of the law argue that the law is proscribed and tells individuals what actions they can and cannot perform, and is enforced by agents of the law.
  2. a) Instrumental
  3. b) Symbolic
  4. c) Consensus
  5. d) Relativist

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

True/False

 

  1. Marxist and conflict theories assume that conflict exists, especially in capitalist societies, in which laws are administered to some and not others.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Marxism argues that false consciousness of the laborer is the false hope or belief that as laborers in a capitalist society they can move up.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Marxist theorists are in support of capitalism to reduce deviancy and group conflict.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to Marxist theories, the law is the tool for powerless groups to ensure interests and services of need are met.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Marxist/conflict theories would be interested in the study of a case where a woman who worked at a restaurant who was repeatedly harassed, verbally abused, and assaulted by a few male cook staff. She then seeks to file a lawsuit for sexual harassment; however, she is faced with resistance from both men and women in the restaurant and community.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. William Bonger built upon Marxist ideas and explicitly related them to the topic of crime in his book Criminality and Economic Conditions.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The symbolic function of law is when the law tells individuals what actions they can and cannot engage in, and agents of the law enforce those rules by arresting individuals who break the law.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. For Kitsuse and Spector (1973) would be interested in what is defined as deviant whereas they would not find it important to study how deviance is defined.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A criticism of conflict and Marxist theorists is that they dismiss conflict as having explanatory power in deviance studies.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Karl Marx coined the term proletariat to refer to the laborers of production.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

 

  1. In your own words, briefly describe the term dialectical materialism. One can do this by using an example to show understanding of the concept.

 

Ans:

Reality existed in the material world; meaning or reality separates from the meaning that individuals gave it a dialectic meaning negotiation of contradictions. Society is full of contradictions, and negotiating contradictions create new material reality. Example of prohibition in the book, here prohibition may be the thesis, the selling of liquor under no restriction may be the antithesis, and liquor laws may be the synthesis of the competing ideas.

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. List the assumptions of Marxist and conflict theories. Provide questions this type of research might ask.

 

Ans:

Assumptions include conflict exists (especially in a capitalist society), conflict arises from power differentials in society, laws are administered to some and not others

 

Why are certain groups more likely to be considered deviant?

Why are some actions, which many might consider harmful, not considered deviant or criminal?

 

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Compare and contrast Marxist and conflict theories.

 

Ans:

Marxist and conflict theories are separate

  • both social constructionist or relativist perspective
  • definitions of power differ
  • structural issues, institutions, and group v. individual and experiences

Marxistspolitical economy and the capitalist system; power and conflict

  • revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist system

Conflictpower beyond a singular focus on the capitalist system reforms rather than revolutionary overthrow

 

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

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