Test Bank for Essentials of Marketing Research 3rd Edition by Hair

<< Test Bank for Ethics Issues Contemporary Nursing 2nd Canadian Edition By Burkhardt Test Bank For Ethics and Law in Dental Hygiene 3rd ed by Phyllis L. Beemsterboer >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Test Bank for Essentials of Marketing Research 3rd Edition by Hair

Description

WITH ANSWERS

 

Essentials of Marketing Research 3rd Edition by Hair  Test Bank

 

Chapter 02

The Marketing Research Process and Proposals

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. _____ is information collected specifically for a current research problem or opportunity.
  2. Primary data
  3. Alternate data
  4. Secondary data
  5. Warehouse data
  6. Backup data

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 26

 

  1. Gatekeeper technologies are used to _____.
  2. prevent the introduction of new and creative marketing strategies
  3. help market researchers track the behavior of internet users
  4. protect ones privacy against intrusive marketing practices
  5. allow marketers to use traditional methods for contacting people
  6. simplify the process of getting user information using telemarketing

Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 26

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the information research process?
    A.It narrows the applicability of the research process in solving organizational problems and creating opportunities.
    B.A more appropriate name for the information research process is now the traditional marketing research process.
  2. It is a systematic approach to collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and transforming data into decision-making information.
    D.It is especially useful when costs outweigh the value of the research.
    E. It serves as a written contract between the decision maker and the researcher.

Answer: C
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 27

 

  1. As compared to marketing researchers, management decision-makers _____.
    A.like to explore new phenomena
    B. like abstractions rather than concrete findings
    C. focus on information that allows certainty
    D. are scientific and analytical thinkers
    E. focus only on past information

Answer: C
Difficulty: Medium

Page: 28

 

  1. John works for CompTech Solutions. He is a typical marketing researcher. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about John?
    A.John is a scientific thinker, and loves to explore new phenomena.
    B. John wants results about future market component behavior.
    C. John is an intuitive thinker, and wants information to confirm his decisions.
  2. John does not like surprises.
    E.John wants information that allows certainty.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 28

 

  1. A manager wants to do a market study before launching a new product. The research study will take three months to complete. Just two weeks before starting the study, she learns that one of her companys competitors is about to launch a product that will compete directly with her companys new product. Based on this new information, she decides to cancel the research study and launch the product immediately. Which of the following is most likely the reason for cancelling the study?
    A. The problem can be resolved using existing information.
    B. The problem is not of strategic or tactical importance.
    C. The information required to resolve the problem is already available in the companys internal records.
    D. The time constraints associated with the problem make it impossible to conduct the study.
    E. The cost of conducting the study outweighs the benefit of additional information.

Answer: D
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 29

 

  1. Marilynn Castillo is a marketing manager with a major firm. She is debating whether to conduct a marketing research study before commercializing a product. She realizes that conducting the study will cost approximately $100,000. If she launches the product without conducting the study and the product fails, her firm could suffer a loss of $2 million. According to the above scenario, Marilynn is doing a(n) _____.
    A.time-availability assessment
    B.cost-benefit assessment
    C. research-design assessment
    D. information-availability assessment
    E. market-sensitivity assessment

Answer: B
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 29

 

  1. The first task in the information research process is to _____.
    A.redefine the decision problems as research problems
    B. identify and clarify managements information needs
    C. determine the measurement issues and scales
    D. determine the sample plan and sample size
    E. determine the research design and data sources

Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 31

 

  1. Symphony Inc., a market research firm, has formed a team to study a problem. To familiarize themselves with the overall complexity of the problem, the market research team decides to gather and synthesize background information including events and factors that led to the current problem. This research team is engaged in doing a(n) _____.
    A.situation analysis
    B. symptomatic analysis
    C. variable analysis
    D. sampling analysis
    E. screening analysis

Answer: A
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 32

 

  1. The iceberg principle provides information concerning the _____.
    A.determination of the research problem
    B.selection of the appropriate research design
    C. execution of the research design
    D. communication of the research results
    E. interpretation of data to create knowledge

Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 32

 

  1. According to the iceberg principle, which of the following statements is true?
    A.One can often get blindsided by problems that could otherwise have been easily anticipated by proactive marketing research.
    B. Problems become visible only when they become crises; marketing research can help identify problems in their early stages.
    C. Managers are aware of just a small portion of the true problem; this small portion is generally the visible symptom of a bigger underlying problem.
    D. 80 percent of marketing research budget is typically spent on solving 20 percent of all the problems facing a company.
    E. The importance of marketing research is often underestimated in organizations; what people see is a small part of a much bigger support apparatus.

Answer: C
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 32

 

  1. _____ specifies whether data should be collected about individuals, households, organizations, departments, geographical areas, or some combination.
  2. Situation analysis
  3. Cost-benefit analysis
  4. The unit of analysis
  5. Symptom analysis
  6. Integrated analysis

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 34

 

  1. In the process of identifying and clarifying information needs, which of the following components provides direction for activities such as scale development and sampling?
    A.Determination of the unit of analysis
    B. Conducting a situation assessment
    C. Determination of the relevant variables
    D. Identification and separation of symptoms
    E. Determination of the research purpose

Answer: A
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 32

 

  1. While designing a study, a researcher is wondering if she should ask respondents their age and gender. She is not sure if she would need that information later in the research process. She is trying to _____.
    A.determine the correct unit of analysis for her study
    B. conduct a situation assessment for her study
    C. determine the relevant variables for her study
    D. identify the symptoms and underlying problems for her study
    E. confirm the information value

Answer: C
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 34

 

  1. Which of the following helps generate insights that will help define the problem situation confronting the researcher?
    A.Exploratory research
    B. Descriptive research
    C. Causal research
    D. Demographic research
    E. Narrative research

Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 36

 

  1. Which of the following data collection techniques is used in exploratory research studies?
    A.Image assessment surveys
    B. Customer satisfaction surveys
    C. Narrative surveys
    D. Cause-and-effect studies
    E. Pilot studies

Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 36

 

  1. Causal research is most useful in _____.
    A.generating insights that help in defining the problem situation
    B. understanding consumer motivations and behavior that are not easy to access using other research methods
    C. understanding which variables lead to the dependent variable
  2. using historical data that has been previously collected for some research situation other than the current situation
    E.collecting quantitative data to answer research questions such as who, what, when, where, and how

Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 37

 

  1. In a census, a researcher attempts to _____.
    A.use the probability sampling technique
    B. define the known chance of selecting a subject
    C. use a small representative sample to generalize about the target population
    D. collect data from a small set of people from the target population
    E. question or observe all the members of a defined target population

Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 38

 

  1. Which of the following is true about research based on a sample?
  2. It involves a small number of members of the target population from which the researcher collects data.
  3. Each member from the target population is selected for the research.
  4. For small populations a sample is the best approach.
  5. There is no need to identify a target population.
  6. Probability sampling plans cannot measure sampling error and thus limit the generalizability of the research findings.

Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 38

 

  1. In the information research process, the role of examining measurement issues and scales is to _____.
  2. examine quantitative data to answer research and measure the sampling error
    B.determine if the population represented by the secondary data is relevant to the current research problem
    C. identify the concepts to study and measure the variables related to the research problem
    D. specify research objectives and confirm the information value
    E. select the correct type, sequence, and format of questions

Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 38

 

  1. _____ obtains information from people representative of those who will be questioned in the actual survey.
  2. Doing a unit analysis
  3. Conducting a demographic analysis
  4. Doing a situation analysis
  5. Defining
  6. Pretesting

Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 39

 

  1. In the information research process, coding and data-entry errors in the collected primary data are most likely to be caught while _____.
    A.designing and pretesting the questionnaire
    B. collecting and preparing data
    C. developing the sample design
    D. interpreting data to create knowledge
    E. examining measurement issues and scales

Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 39

 

  1. While collecting and preparing data, a difference between questioning and observation is that questioning approaches _____.
  2. need fewer researchers as compared to observation approaches
    B.need not examine data for data-entry errors and inconsistencies
    C. do not allow researchers to collect information about factors such as motivation and past behavior
    D. enable researchers to collect a wider array of data
    E. focus on collecting data that does not need coding

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 39

 

  1. In a research proposal, which of the following sections discusses the types of scales to be used for data collection?
    A.Definition of the target population
    B. Sample design
    C. Data collection method
    D. Specific research instruments
    E. Definition of the sample size

Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 40

 

  1. _____ is a specific document that provides an overview of the proposed research and methodology, and serves as a written contract between the decision maker and the researcher.
  2. Methodology transcript
  3. Questionnaire design
  4. Research proposal
  5. Interview transcript
  6. Survey design

Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Page: 41

 

True / False Questions

  1. Secondary data is information collected for a current research problem or opportunity.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 26

 

  1. Advances in gatekeeper technologies are used to protect ones privacy against intrusive marketing practices.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 26

 

  1. Caller ID and answering devices are gatekeeper technologies.

Answer: True
Difficulty: Easy

Page: 26

  1. Marketing research plays a critical role in developing competitive intelligence.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 27

 

  1. The initial recognition of the existence of a problem or opportunity should be the primary responsibility of the researcher.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 27

  1. A cost-benefit assessment examines if there is enough time to conduct the necessary research before the final managerial decision must be made.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 28

 

  1. Accurately determining the cost of doing marketing research is easier than determining the true value of the expected information.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 29

 

  1. According to the iceberg principle, decision makers are aware of only 10 percent of the true problem.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 32

  1. In order to do a situation analysis, a marketing researcher must depend solely on the information provided by the client.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 32

 

  1. Factors like demographics and brand attitudes are called units of analysis.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 34

 

  1. Relevant variables specify whether data should be collected about individuals, households, organizations, departments, geographical areas, or some combination.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 34

 

  1. Research should be conducted only when the expected value of the information to be obtained is less than the cost of the research.
    Answer: False
    Difficulty: Easy
    Page: 36

 

  1. Exploratory research collects quantitative data to answer research questions such as who, what, when, where, and how.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 36

 

  1. Image assessment surveys are an example of causal research designs.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 37

 

  1. Causal research enables the decision maker to make Ifthen statements about the variables.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 37

 

  1. In a census, the researcher attempts to question or observe a small sample representative of a defined target population.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 38

 

  1. In probability sampling, each member of the defined target population has a known chance of being selected.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 38

 

  1. Probability sampling gives the researcher the opportunity to assess sampling error.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 38

 

  1. Measurement and scaling issues are relevant only in primary research.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 39

 

  1. Observational research can collect information about attitudes, intentions, motivations, and past behavior, which are usually invisible in the questioning approach.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 39

 

  1. Procedures such as summary statistics and simple frequency distributions are used while designing and pretesting the questionnaire.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 39

 

  1. In qualitative research studies, textual and/or visual information is examined, categorized, and even sometimes tabulated.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 39

 

  1. The last phase of the research process is reporting the research findings to management.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 40

 

  1. A research proposal includes a brief profile of the researchers and their qualifications.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 40

 

  1. The research proposal is also called the final research report.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy
Page: 41

 

Essay Questions

  1. Differentiate between primary and secondary data.

Answer: Secondary data is information previously collected for some other problem or issue. A by-product of the technology advances is the ongoing collection of data that is placed in a data warehouse and is available as secondary data to help understand business problems and to improve decisions. In contrast, primary data is information collected specifically for a current research problem or opportunity. Many large businesses are linking purchase data collected in-store and online with customer profiles already in company databases, thus enhancing their ability to understand shopping behavior and better meet customer needs. But even medium-sized and small companies are building databases of customer information to serve current customers more effectively and to attract new customers.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 26

 

  1. List the questions a decision maker must ask to determine the need for information research.

Answer: To determine if research should be used to collect the needed information, the first question the decision maker must ask is: Can the problem and/or opportunity be resolved using existing information and managerial judgment? The focus is on deciding what type of information (secondary or primary) is required to answer the research question(s). With the assistance of the research expert, decision makers face the next question: Is adequate information available within the companys internal record systems to address the problem? If the necessary marketing information is not available in the firms internal record system, then a customized marketing research project to obtain the information should be considered. With input from the research expert, decision makers must assess the time constraints associated with the problem/opportunity: Is there enough time to conduct the necessary research before the final managerial decision must be made? A cost-benefit assessment should be made of value of the research compared to the cost: Do the benefits of having the additional information outweigh the costs of gathering the information? These types of questions remain a challenge for todays decision makers.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 27-29

 

  1. Discuss the Iceberg principle.

Answer: The iceberg principle holds that decision makers are aware of only 10 percent of the true problem. Frequently the perceived problem is actually a symptom that is some type of measurable market performance factor, while 90 percent of the problem is not visible to decision makers. For example, the problem may be defined as loss of market share when in fact the problem is ineffective advertising or a poorly trained sales force. The real problems are below the waterline of observation. If the submerged portions of the problem are omitted from the problem definition and later from the research design, then decisions based on the research may be incorrect. Referring to the iceberg principle helps researchers distinguish between the symptoms and the causes.

Difficulty: Easy
Page: 32

 

  1. Compare the descriptive and the causal research approaches.

Answer: Descriptive research involves collecting quantitative data to answer research questions. Descriptive information provides answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions. In marketing, examples of descriptive information include consumer attitudes, intentions, preferences, purchase behaviors, evaluations of current marketing mix strategies, and demographics. Descriptive studies may provide information about competitors, target markets, and environmental factors. On the other hand, causal research collects data that enables decision makers to determine cause-and-effect relationships between two or more variables. Causal research designs are most appropriate when the research objectives include the need to understand which variables cause a dependent variable to move. Understanding cause-effect relationships among market performance factors enables the decision maker to make Ifthen statements about the variables. They provide an opportunity to assess and explain causality among market factors.

Difficulty: Medium
Page: 36-37

 

  1. Explain the process of collecting data using a census and a sample.
    Answer: In collecting data, researchers can choose between collecting data from a census or a sample. In a census, the researcher attempts to question or observe all the members of a defined target population. For small populations a census may be the best approach. A second approach, used when the target population is large, involves selection of a sample from the defined target population. Researchers must use a representative sample of the population if they wish to generalize the findings. To achieve this objective, researchers develop a sampling plan as part of the overall research design. A sampling plan serves as the blueprint for defining the appropriate target population, identifying the possible respondents, establishing the procedures for selecting the sample, and determining the appropriate sample size.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 38

 

  1. Discuss the importance of pretesting a questionnaire.

Answer: Designing good questionnaires is difficult. Researchers must select the correct type of questions, consider the sequence and format, and pretest the questionnaire. Pretesting obtains information from people representative of those who will be questioned in the actual survey. In a pretest respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire and comment on issues such as clarity of instructions and questions, sequence of the topics and questions, and anything that is potentially difficult or confusing. Pretesting thus helps in preventing the possible issues in the actual survey by correcting them beforehand.

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 39

Chapter 07

Measurement and Scaling

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is true of measurement?
  2. As part of the measurement process, researchers assign labels to phenomena they measure but do not assign numbers to them.
  3. As part of the measurement process, researchers assign numbers to phenomena they measure but do not label them.
  4. The goal of the construct development process is to precisely measure each construct.
  5. It is the process of developing methods to systematically characterize information about persons, events, ideas, or objects of interest.
  6. The process of measurement begins with scale measurement followed by construct development.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 158

  1. A _____ is a hypothetical variable made up of a set of component responses or behaviors that are thought to be related.
  2. scale point
  3. construct
  4. relationshipCoefficient alpha
  5. statistical parameter
  6. non-bipolar descriptor

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 159

  1. Which of the following statements about constructs is true?
    A. They are directly measured.
    B. They are made up of a combination of several unrelated indicator variables.
    C. Construct development primarily involves measuring each construct.
  2. They are an observable concept.
  3. Construct development begins with an accurate definition of the purpose of the study.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 160

 

  1. The scale measurement process primarily:
  2. determines how to precisely measure each construct.
  3. identifies what is to be measured.
  4. defines what is to be measured.
  5. defines the purpose of a study.
  6. identifies the characteristics that define the concept studied in a research.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 160

 

  1. A researcher designs his questionnaire in such a way that a respondent can communicate his/her intensity of like/dislike for a product by circling an appropriate number from the response options that go from 1 to 7 (where 1 is Strongly disagree and 7 is for Strongly agree). These numbers (1 to 7) are commonly referred to as:
    A. construct points.
    B. scale portions.
    C. scale points.
    D. construct ordinals.
    E. scale ratios.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 161

 

  1. A professor wants to determine the male-female ratio in his college. He designs a questionnaire in which a respondent only needs to choose between two choices, male and female. The scale used by the professor is an example of the _____ scale.
    A. ordinal
    B. nominal
    C. ratio
    D. interval
    E. Likert

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 162

 

  1. Which of the following is true of an ordinal scale?
  2. It cannot measure quantitative data.
  3. It can be used to determine the absolute difference between rankings.
  4. It allows responses to be rank-ordered in a hierarchical pattern.
  5. It is less powerful than a nominal scale.
  6. It enables researchers to make absolute comparisons between responses.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 162

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about interval scales?
    A. They can measure absolute differences between scale points.
    B. The standard deviation cannot be calculated for interval scales.
    C. They are the highest level scale.
    D. They do not allow for comparison between measured objects.
    E. They are less powerful than ordinal scales.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 163

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about ratio scales?
  2. They cannot measure quantitative data.
  3. They cannot be used to determine the absolute difference between rankings.
  4. They are the most basic and least powerful scale design.
  5. They are less powerful than nominal scales.
  6. They enable researchers to make absolute comparisons between responses.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 164

  1. In a(n) _____, the scale questions are divided into two parts equally and the resulting parts scores are correlated against one another.
  2. split-half test
  3. test-retest reliability technique
  4. equivalent form technique
  5. nominal scale
  6. ordinal scale

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 166

 

  1. Internal consistency specifically refers to the:
  2. extent to which a scale can reproduce the same measurement results in repeated trials.
  3. degree to which the individual questions of a construct are correlated.
  4. degree to which the respondents give similar responses.
  5. degree to which a specific investigated issue leads the respondent to give a socially expected response.
  6. level of preparation required to create an appropriate environment for the respondents participating in a research.
    Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 166

 

  1. A measurement scale should:
    A. use complex sentence construction.
  2. not have negative descriptors.
    C. be internally consistent.
    D. not have discriminatory power.
    E. not include a neutral descriptor.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 166

 

  1. Using a scale, a researcher determines that the brand attitudes for Volvo are very positive (6.5 on a 7-point scale). Using the same scale for the same population, another researcher discovers that the brand attitudes for Volvo are very negative (2.2 on the same scale). This indicates that there was some problem with the scale being used. This problem is most likely to be related to:
    A. scale reliability.
    B. scale validity.
    C. face validity.
    D. discriminant validity.
    E. convergent validity.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 167

 

  1. A scale that has a neutral descriptor but has a larger number of response options on one side, either positive or negative, is referred to as a(n) _____ scale.
  2. unbalanced
  3. free-choice, even-point
  4. forced-choice, even-point
  5. forced-choice, odd-point
  6. free-choice, odd-point

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 168

 

  1. The _____ represents the distance between the largest and smallest response.
  2. mean
    B. standard deviation
    C. range
    D. median
    E. frequency distribution

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 170

 

  1. If there is significant variation among subjects regarding their attitudes toward a given brand, this variance will be reflected most clearly in which of the following measures?
  2. Mean
    B. Median
    C. Mode
    D. Standard deviation
    E. Frequency distribution

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170

 

  1. Which of the following types of scales asks the respondent to state his/her agreement or disagreement with a series of statements about a specific brand in terms of a 5-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree?
    A. Likert scale
    B. Semantic differential scale
    C. Paired-comparison scale
    D. Constant sum scale
    E. Numerical scale

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 171

 

  1. Which of the following is true about a semantic differential scale?
  2. It is a type of nominal scale.
  3. It cannot capture a persons attitudes or feelings about a given object.
  4. Only the endpoints of the scale are labeled.
  5. It is not possible to calculate the mean for each attribute.
  6. It is a type of ratio scale.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

 

  1. Which of the following is the strongest predictor of future behavior?
    A. A persons stated attitudes
    B. A persons past behavior
    C. A persons stated purchase intentions
    D. A persons exposure to advertisements for a product
    E. A persons stated dislike for competing products

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

 

  1. A researcher working at Arcade Inc. is interested in finding out peoples perception of Arcades prices and quality relative to those of its top market rival. Given this objective, which of the following would prove to be most efficient?
  2. Graphic rating scale
    B. Single-item scale
    C. Comparative rating scale
    D. Nominal scale
    E. Likert scale

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

 

  1. Which of the following statements about graphic rating scales is true?
    A. They are a type of comparative rating scales.
    B. They are recommended for use with adults only.
    C. They cannot be used to collect emotional data.
    D. They do not contain narrative descriptors.
  2. They use a scaling descriptor format.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

 

  1. Rank-order rating scales:
    A. are easy to use in traditional or computer-assisted telephone interviews, and are especially effective if the number of items being asked is more than six or seven.
    B. incorporate a scale point format that allows respondents to compare objects by indicating their order of preference.
  2. can collect more than ordinal data structures, helping the researcher to learn about the intensity or reasoning of the respondents.
    D. present the respondent with some type of descriptive graphic continuum as the set of possible raw responses to a given question.
  3. allow respondents to compare their responses against that of others.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 176

 

  1. Which of the following types of scales typically requires the respondent to allocate a given number of points, usually 100, among each separate attribute or feature relative to all the other listed ones?
  2. Nominal scales
  3. Rank-order scales
  4. Constant-sum scales
  5. Graphic rating scales
  6. Behavioral intention scales

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 176

 

  1. The difference between a single-item scale and a multiple-item scale is that a:
  2. single-item scale involves collecting data about only one attribute of the object being investigated.
  3. multiple-item scale is a type of nominal scale.
  4. single-item scale simultaneously collects data on several attributes of a construct.
  5. single-item scale provides more than one possible response to its respondents.
  6. multiple-item scale cannot collect ordinal data.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the various scale measurement issues?
    A. The researcher should avoid using specific terms and instead use general, broad words.
    B. The researcher should use leading phrases.
    C. The researcher should give clear and simple instructions.
    D. The researcher should ensure that scale descriptors have minimal discriminatory power.
    E. The researcher should use double-barreled items.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 179

 

True/False Questions

  1. The goal of the construct development process is to precisely identify and define what is to be measured.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 159

 

  1. At the heart of construct development is the need to determine exactly what is to be measured.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 161

  1. A feature is an abstract construct if it can be directly measured using physical characteristics.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 161

  1. A nominal scale enables respondents to express relative magnitude between the answers to a question and responses can be rank-ordered in a hierarchical pattern.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 162

  1. Ordinal scales can be used to determine the absolute difference between rankings.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 162-163

 

  1. For interval scales, it is not possible to calculate mean and standard deviation.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 163

 

  1. Random error produces inconsistency in scale measurements that lead to lower scale reliability.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 165

  1. Validity is a measure of accuracy in measurement.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 166

 

  1. The more scale points, the lesser the discriminatory power of the scale.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 168

 

  1. The median is the arithmetic average of all the data responses.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 170

 

  1. A Likert scale cannot measure attitudes and behavior.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 171

 

  1. Semantic differential scales typically use an odd number of scale points.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 173

 

  1. In a well-designed semantic differential scale, the individual scales should be truly bipolar.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

 

  1. Behavioral intention scales are difficult to construct.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 174

 

  1. A comparative rating scale is used when the objective is to have a respondent express his/her attitudes, behavior, or intentions about a specific object.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 175

 

  1. A graphic rating scale is a type of comparative rating scale.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 175

 

  1. Only ordinal data can be obtained using rank-order scales.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

 

  1. Constant-sum scales should preferably use more than seven attributes.
    Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 177

 

  1. Age is an example of a single-item scale.
    Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

 

  1. The number of dimensions of the construct influences the decision to use a single-item versus a multiple-item scale.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

 

Essay Questions

  1. Discuss the difference between a concrete variable and an abstract construct.

Answer: A concrete variable can be directly observed whereas an abstract construct must be indirectly measured. An example of a concrete variable is a persons age or income. An example of an abstract construct is a persons personality or intelligence.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 159-161

 

  1. A researcher measures the temperature (in degree Fahrenheit) inside a grocery store at which the customers feel most comfortable. Suggest a scale that the researcher can use. Why is it not possible to use the ratio scale in this case?

Answer: The researcher can use the nominal scale, ordinal scale, as well as the interval scale. However, the ratio scale cannot be used in this case. Given that the zero F temperature is not a true zero, the scale can never be a ratio scale. For example, it will be erroneous to say that 64F is twice as warm as 32F. To see the fallacy of this argument, simply convert these two temperature points into degree Celsius and you will find that the argument falls apart.

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 162-164

 

  1. What are the requirements of designing measurement scales?

Answer: Designing measurement scales requires (1) understanding the research problem, (2) establishing detailed data requirements, (3) identifying and developing constructs, and (4) selecting the appropriate measurement scale.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 167

 

  1. Discuss the measurement problems associated with the semantic differential scale pole descriptors.

Answer: Descriptors used to express the two ends of the scale should be true bipolar ends of the scale. The scale is not valid if bipolar ends lack the expression of extreme intensity associated with end poles. The scale design might not allow for significant magnitudes to exist between two pole descriptions.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

 

  1. What are the two factors that drive the use of multiple-item scales in research?

Answer: If the construct under study is multidimensional, then these unique dimensions have to be captured using a multiple-item scale. Also, multiple-item scales generally have more reliability and validity compared to those of single-item scales.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178-179

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here