Test Bank for Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition by Shelley Taylor
Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition by Shelley Taylor
The Systems of the Body
Multiple Choice Questions
- (p. 15)_____ fibers provide input to the brain and spinal cord by carrying signals from receptors.
A. Motor nerve
B. Sensory nerve
- (p. 15)The somatic nervous system connects:
A. the small intestine to the pancreas, and ensures the regulation of enzymes in the pancreas.
B. the blood vessels to the lymph nodes to help in the formation of lymphocytes.
C. nerve fibers to voluntary muscles, and provides the brain with feedback about its movement.
D. the central nervous system to all the internal organs that cannot be voluntarily controlled.
- (p. 15)The _____ nervous system helps to restore the body to a normal state after an emergency has passed.
- (p. 16)The _____ coordinates voluntary muscle movement, the maintenance of balance and equilibrium, and the maintenance of muscle tone and posture.
A. cerebral cortex
- (p. 16)Damage to the cerebellum is associated with:
A. loss of muscle tone, and disturbances in posture.
B. alterations in the rate of breathing.
C. reduced blood flow to the left and right atriums.
D. hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid.
- (p. 16)The _____ is responsible for the coordination of visual and auditory reflexes.
- (p. 16)Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?
A. It serves as a link between the hindbrain and the midbrain, and helps control respiration.
B. It is responsible for the regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
C. It assists in the recognition of sensory stimuli, and the relay of sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
D. It helps transit thoughts generated in the cerebral cortex, and assess their impact on internal organs.
- (p. 16)The _____ lobe contains the cortical areas which are responsible for auditory and olfactory impulses.
- (p. 17)Epinephrine and norepinephrine are together termed as _____.
- (p. 17)Which of the following bodily changes results from the release of catecholamines?
A. Decreased heart rate
B. Decrease in the amount of sweat produced
C. Increased rate of respiration
D. Increase in the frequency of urination
- (p. 18)_____ is a chronic, nonprogressive disorder of the nervous system that is marked by the lack of muscle control.
B. Parkinsons disease
C. Multiple sclerosis
D. Cerebral palsy
- (p. 18)The gene for _____ disease has been identified by a test, which also roughly predicts the age when one will succumb to the disease.
- (p. 18)_____ is the paralysis of all four extremities, and the trunk of the body which occurs when the upper portion of the spinal cord is severed.
- (p. 19)The posterior pituitary lobe produces _____ which controls contractions during labor and lactation.
- (p. 19)The _____ glands are located on top of each of the kidneys.
- (p. 19)Which of the following is commonly known as the disease of lifestyle?
B. Type II diabetes
C. Type I diabetes
- (p. 20)Which of the following functions is performed by the adrenal cortex in response to stress?
A. There is a deregulation of sodium retention.
B. The formation and inflammation of antibodies is encouraged.
C. There is a decrease in the amount of energy stored in the body.
D. There is an increase in protein and fat mobilization.
- (p. 21)The right atrium and ventricle pump blood back to the lungs via the _____.
A. mitral valve
D. pulmonary artery
- (p. 21)_____ occurs when the heart has insufficient supply of oxygen, or adequate removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products.
A. Angina pectoris
B. Myocardial infarction
- (p. 21)_____ occurs when a clot has developed in a coronary vessel, and blocks the flow of blood to the heart.
A. Myocardial infarction
B. Angina pectoris
- (p. 22)Which of the following is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis?
- (p. 22)_____ fever is a bacterial infection that originates in the connective tissue, and can potentially affect the functioning of the heart valves.
- (p. 22)An adults body approximately contains _____ liters of blood.
- (p. 22)Which of the following blood-forming cells produces platelets?
- (p. 22)_____ results from below-normal numbers of red blood cells which interferes with its transportation.
A. Peptic ulcer
- (p. 23)The _____ is a muscular tube that divides at its lower end into two branches called the primary bronchi.
- (p. 23)The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during respiration occurs between the:
A. primary bronchi and the secondary bronchi.
B. alveoli and the capillaries.
C. alveoli and the arteries.
D. bronchioles and the arteries.
- (p. 23)Respiratory movements are controlled by a respiratory center in the _____.
B. cerebral cortex
- (p. 24)_____ is a seasonal allergic reaction to foreign bodies that enter the lungs.
D. Hay fever
- (p. 24)_____ accounts for 80 percent of all cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- (p. 24)_____ is a secondary infection that may occur as a complication of other disorders, such as a severe cold or flu.
A. Bronchial pneumonia
- (p. 25)The unidirectional muscular movement of a bolus through the esophagus, toward the stomach is known as _____.
- (p. 25)A critical function of the pancreas is the production of _____.
- (p. 25)Bile is stored in the _____, and is secreted into the duodenum when necessary.
- (p. 26)_____ is an open sore in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum.
C. Peptic ulcer
- (p. 26)Which of the following types of hepatitis is also known as serum hepatitis?
A. Hepatitis A
B. Hepatitis B
C. Hepatitis C
D. Hepatitis E
- (p. 27)The smooth muscle tissue which acts as a reservoir for urine is called a _____.
D. urinary bladder
- (p. 27)One of the chief functions of the kidneys is to:
A. control the growth and secretion of the cortex region of the adrenal gland.
B. control the chemical composition of blood.
C. produce various gastric secretions.
D. control the water balance in the body.
- (p. 28)Estrogen is responsible for:
A. the endometrial lining to move into the fallopian tube.
B. the occurrence of menopause.
C. preparing the body for pregnancy.
D. the development of secondary sex characteristics in females.
- (p. 28)_____ is produced by the interstitial cells of the testes under the control of the anterior pituitary lobe.
- (p. 29)_____ cancer is known to be the most lethal cancer that affects women.
- (p. 29)Some women usually choose to undergo _____ therapy to deal with the noxious symptoms that occur during menopause.
- (p. 29)Genetic material for inheritance lies in the nucleus of the cell in the form of _____ chromosomes.
- (p. 30)Which of the following diseases has a genetic basis?
A. Hay fever
C. Multiple sclerosis
D. Cerebral palsy
- (p. 31)_____ is an example of an environmentally transmitted disease.
B. Yellow fever
- (p. 31)Toxigenicity is the ability to:
A. produce poisons which invade other parts of the body.
B. resist the bodys defenses.
C. produce white blood cells in the body.
D. reduce the risk of potential genetic disorders.
- (p. 31)A localized infection:
A. is confined to a particular site in the human body and does not spread.
B. is confined to a particular area, and sends toxins to other parts of the body.
C. rarely affects the human body.
D. affects several different areas or body systems.
- (p. 32)The largest group of cells involved in natural immunity is known as _____.
- (p. 32)_____ release cytokines that lead to inflammation and fever, and promote wound healing.
- (p. 33)_____ prevent the passage of microbes from one section of the body to another.
B. Anatomical barriers
C. Antimicrobial substances
D. Inflammatory responses
- (p. 33)_____ are chemicals produced by the body that kill invading microorganisms.
A. Antimicrobial substances
C. Inflammatory responses
D. Anatomical barriers
- (p. 34)_____ cells secrete chemicals that kill invading organisms and infected cells.
- (p. 34)Which of the following bodily systems functions as the drainage system of the body?
A. The immune system
B. The lymphatic system
C. The endocrine system
D. The respiratory system
- (p. 35)_____ is a malignant lymphoma which involves the progressive, chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphatic tissue.
A. Parkinsons disease
D. Hodgkins disease
- (p. 35)In an autoimmune disease:
A. the treatment procedure is long-term, but it is easily curable.
B. the body fails to recognize the existence of a foreign substance until its severity increases.
C. certain white blood cells ingest microbes causing an infection.
D. the body recognizes its own tissue as a foreign invader, and produces antibodies to fight it.
True / False Questions
- (p. 15)Regulation of the autonomic nervous system occurs via the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
- (p. 15)The parasympathetic nervous system is activated in individual responses to stress.
- (p. 16)The structures of the limbic system play an important role in emotion.
- (p. 19)The endocrine system is responsible for fast-acting, short-duration responses to changes in the body.
- (p. 21)The two primary clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis are angina pectoris and congestive heart disease.
- (p. 26)Hepatitis A is typically transmitted through food and water.
- (p. 29)Menopause can be cured definitively by hormone therapy.
- (p. 30)There appears to be a genetic contribution to coronary heart diseases and some forms of cancer.
- (p. 33)Antigens are proteins produced in response to stimulation by antibodies.
- (p. 35)Compared to women, men are at a greater risk of contracting autoimmune diseases.
- (p. 17)Describe the two most common disorders of the nervous system.
The two most common forms of neurological dysfunction are epilepsy and Parkinsons disease. Epilepsy is a disease of the central nervous system. It is often idiopathic, which means that no specific cause for the symptoms can be identified. Epilepsy is marked by seizures which range from barely noticeable to violent convulsions, accompanied by irregular breathing, and loss of consciousness. Epilepsy cannot be cured, but it can often be controlled through medication and behavioral interventions designed to manage stress. Patients with Parkinsons disease have progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia, which is a group of nuclei in the brain that control smooth motor coordination. The result of this deterioration is tremors, rigidity, and slowness of movement. Parkinsons patients may be treated with medication, but large doses can cause undesirable side effects.
- (p. 20)Describe the structure of the cardiovascular system. Include the internal and external factors influencing heart rate, and its impact on the hearts functioning.
The cardiovascular system comprises the heart, blood vessels, and blood; and acts as the transport system of the body. Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Blood also carries nutrients from the digestive tract to the individual cells so that the cells may extract nutrients for growth and energy. The heart functions as a pump, and its pumping action causes the blood to circulate throughout the body. The heart performs its internal functions through regular rhythmic phases of contraction and relaxation known as the cardiac cycle. A number of external factors also influence the rate at which the heart contracts and relaxes. During exercise, emotional excitement, or stress the heart speeds up, and the cardiac cycle is completed in a shorter time.
- (p. 26)Describe the nature and symptoms of hepatitis. Compare and contrast Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, and explain its mode of transmission.
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver which produces swelling, tenderness, and sometimes permanent damage. It remains in the blood causing a yellowing of the skin known as jaundice. Hepatitis A is caused by viruses, and is typically transmitted through food and water. It is often spread by poorly cooked seafood, or through unsanitary preparation and storage of food. Hepatitis B is a more serious form which is also known as serum hepatitis. It is caused by a virus and is transmitted by the transfusion of infected blood, by improperly sterilized needles, through sexual contact, and through mother-to-infant contact. It is a particular risk among intravenous drug users. Its symptoms are similar to those of hepatitis A but are far more serious.
- (p. 30)Discuss the role of genetic counseling. How can it be used effectively by health psychologists?
Genetic counseling is used in prenatal diagnostic tests that permit the detection of some genetically based disorders, including Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, Huntingtons disease, and breast cancer. People who have a family history of genetic disorders, those who have already given birth to a child with a genetic disorder, or those who have recurrent reproductive problems, such as multiple miscarriages, often seek such counseling. In some cases, technological advances have made it possible to treat some of these problems before birth through drugs or surgery. Growing evidence suggests that people at risk for treatable disorders benefit from genetic testing, and do not suffer long-term psychological distress. Health psychologists have an important role to play in research and counseling related to genetic risks especially if they can help people modify their risk status and manage their distress.
- (p. 32)Compare and contrast nonspecific and specific immune mechanisms. Provide an example for each.
The body has a number of responses to invading organisms, some nonspecific and others specific. Nonspecific immune mechanisms are a general set of responses to any kind of infection or disorder. The inflammatory response is an example of a nonspecific immune mechanism. Specific immune mechanisms are always acquired after birth, and they fight particular microorganisms and their toxins. Antibodies that develop with the help of foreign antigens are an example of a specific immune mechanism.
Multiple Choice Questions
- (p. 65)The health benefits of regular exercise include:
A. increased resting heart rate.
B. reduced HDL.
C. increased metabolic syndrome.
D. reduced risk of some cancers.
- (p. 65)Who among the following people is least likely to exercise regularly?
A. Joe, a 10-year-old boy
B. Jill, a 15-year-old girl
C. Jack, a 35-year-old man
D. Juana, a 45-year-old woman
- (p. 65)A typical exercise prescription is to accumulate _____ or more minutes of moderate intensity activity on most days of the week, and _____ or more minutes of vigorous intensity activity at least three days of the week.
A. 15; 30
B. 20; 15
C. 30; 20
D. 45; 60
- (p. 65)Aerobic exercise involves _____ activities.
A. low intensity, and long duration
B. low intensity, and short duration
C. high intensity, and long duration
D. high intensity, and short duration
- (p. 65)A person with low _____ may derive benefits from less exercise each week.
A. cardiopulmonary fitness
C. anaerobic capacity
- (p. 65)Which of the following is more likely to be an aerobic exercise?
A. Trust walking
B. Rope climbing
- (p. 65)Exercise may be a useful resource in combating the adverse effects of stress because it:
A. helps to suppress the immune system.
B. helps to modulate immune activity.
C. decreases exogenous opioids.
D. increases cognitive functioning.
- (p. 65)Researchers investigating the effects of aerobic exercise on psychological functioning believe that:
A. regular exercise improves physical health, mood, and general well-being.
B. women who exercise regularly will never face symptoms of depression.
C. the positive effect of exercise on mood is unrelated to increased self-efficacy.
D. modest exercise or increase in activity level is not enough to benefit cognitive functioning.
- (p. 66)Which of the following statements is a benefit of conducting an employee fitness program?
A. It decreases costs for the company.
B. It increases employee turnover.
C. It decreases time spent on-the-job.
D. It increases job satisfaction.
- (p. 66)Individuals are more likely to exercise if:
A. they belong to families in which exercise is rarely practiced.
B. they perceive themselves as lethargic.
C. they do not have social support, or people to take responsibility for their health.
D. they have a strong self-efficacy for exercising.
- (p. 66)People who are _____ are more likely to exercise.
- (p. 66)_____ can foster exercise.
A. Social support
D. Sedentary work
- (p. 66)People who live in low socio-economic statuses find it difficult to exercise because:
A. they do not have the time.
B. they are already engaged in other activities.
C. they are socially isolated.
D. they live in unsafe neighborhoods.
- (p. 66)Improving _____ for exercise increases rates of exercise.
A. environmental options
B. emotional functioning
C. cognitive functioning
D. community connections
- (p. 67)Successful interventions are designed to match physical activity with:
A. an individuals mental age.
B. an individuals stage of readiness.
C. an individuals financial status.
D. an individuals perception of self-appearance.
- (p. 67)Softechture Inc., a software company, has organized a workshop for its employees to promote the values of exercise, physical health, and psychological well-being. This kind of a workshop is known as _____ intervention.
- (p. 68)The number of people who participate in regular exercise has increased by more than _____ in the past few decades.
A. 30 percent
B. 50 percent
C. 70 percent
D. 85 percent
- (p. 68)_____ represents one of the major causes of preventable death.
- (p. 68)Interventions to reduce home accidents are typically conducted with parents because:
A. they are more knowledgeable about the most common hazards in their home.
B. young children may not be able to learn about safety at home.
C. evaluations have shown that parents lack knowledge in safeguarding their children.
D. they have control over the childs environment.
- (p. 69)Mary is turning 50, and she does not think she is at risk for breast cancer. What would you suggest?
A. Mary does not need a mammogram.
B. Mary should get a mammogram every year.
C. It is unclear what Mary should do.
D. Mary should wait until she crosses age 50.
- (p. 70)Screening through mammography is important for older and high-risk women because:
A. early detection can improve survival rates.
B. one in every five women develops breast cancer.
C. compliance with mammography recommendations is high.
D. the use of mammograms improves with age.
- (p. 70)Which of the following is a compelling reason that deters women from getting regular mammograms?
A. Fear of radiation
B. Distance from health care facilities
C. Lack of equipments in the hospitals
D. Fear of looking older
- (p. 70)Which of the following is a similarity between breast cancer, and colorectal cancer?
A. Both are more common among Hispanics.
B. Both are a common cause of death in young adults.
C. Both have a high likelihood of survival.
D. Both recommend screening for older adults.
- (p. 71)The chief risk factor for skin cancer is known to be _____.
C. ultraviolet radiation
- (p. 71)Communications to adolescents and young adults regarding the use of sunscreen should emphasize:
A. negative effects of using excessive sunscreen lotion.
B. long-term risks of chronic illness.
C. immediate adverse effects of sun exposure.
D. advantages of using a tanning salon as compared to sun exposure.
- (p. 72)A diet high in _____ can help reduce insulin levels.
A. trans fat
- (p. 72)Which of the following food items is more likely to contain saturated fats?
A. Meat and dairy products
B. Fried foods
C. Fruits and vegetables
D. Fish and nuts
- (p. 73)The most common reason to switch to a diet low in cholesterol is to:
A. maintain weight.
B. reduce dietary changes.
C. improve health.
D. improve appearance.
- (p. 73)When people are under stress, they are more likely to:
A. let others monitor their food consumption.
B. pay attention to what they eat.
C. be self-controlled.
D. be distracted.
- (p. 73)Individuals who are _____ do a better job of adhering to a healthy diet.
- (p. 73)Which of the following has greatly contributed to obesity over the past decade?
B. Limited portion size
C. Avoiding the consumption of drinks
- (p. 74)Training in _____ includes planning skills, and formation of explicit behavioral intentions which can improve dietary adherence.
- (p. 74)While changing dietary habits of high-risk people, the focus must be on the _____.
D. peer group
- (p. 74)The most powerful determinant of what a family eats is:
A. the husbands food preferences.
B. the wifes food preferences.
C. the childrens food preferences.
D. the childrens health considerations.
- (p. 74)Dietary interventions may be particularly successful if:
A. they guarantee weight loss.
B. they are culturally and linguistically appropriate.
C. they do not include too much of physical activity.
D. they do not include the family, or community
- (p. 74)Most diet changes are implemented through:
A. social network interventions.
B. photo-ageing interventions.
C. cognitive behavioral interventions.
D. telephone-based interventions.
- (p. 74)Which of the following is a technique used in cognitive-behavioral interventions to modify diet?
A. Contingency contracting
B. Guided imagery
C. Guided participation
- (p. 74)Children who are involved in dietary interventions are more likely to:
A. practice better dietary habits in adulthood.
B. have a better physique compared to other children.
C. encourage their friends to follow diet plans.
D. become vegetarians in adulthood.
- (p. 74)Behavioral interventions to alter diet must ideally be _____.
- (p. 74)_____ is an effective way to alter behavior related to diet and exercise.
B. Social engineering
C. Social networking
D. Private education
- (p. 74)Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of _____ stages.
- (p. 75)The lightest and earliest stage of sleep is marked by _____.
A. vivid dreams
B. delta waves
C. body temperature
D. theta waves
- (p. 75)_____waves are marked by deep sleep which is important for restoring energy, strengthening the immune system, and prompting the body to release growth hormone.
- (p. 75)During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep the eyes dart back and forth, and breathing and heart rate flutters. This stage of sleep is marked by _____.
A. K-complex waves
B. delta waves
C. theta waves
D. beta waves
- (p. 75)The stage of sleep marked by beta waves is important for _____.
B. restoring energy
C. growth hormones
D. consolidating memories
- (p. 75)Which of the following best describes a restorative activity?
A. Exercising regularly and being more productive at work
B. Dealing with a disability using coping mechanisms
C. Savoring the positive aspects of life and regaining emotional balance
D. Bringing the body back to a normal state of functioning after an accident
- (p. 75)_____ in women may be tied to hormonal levels related to menopause.
A. Anorexia nervosa
B. Bulimia nervosa
C. Speech disorders
D. Sleep disorders
- (p. 75)Jane is not satisfied with her job; she is depressed, and dependent on alcohol. Recently, Jane has been experiencing sleep disturbances, and is unable to cope with stressful events. Jane is most likely suffering from _____.
- (p. 75)Roy was an interstate truck driver. He had been driving for the past 12 years, and most of his trips were between 11:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. Roy used to take irregular naps during the day, and also made time for other personal activities. However, overtime, he felt fatigued and decided to quit. After years of driving during the night, and sleeping for a few hours during the day, Roy is having trouble sleeping at night. Which of the following is a likely cause for Roys condition?
C. Reduced blood pressure
D. Chronic insomnia
- (p. 75)Chronic insomnia can compromise the ability to secrete and respond to _____
A. amino acids
- (p. 75)Children who do not get enough sleep usually display:
A. behavioral problems.
B. weight fluctuations.
C. withdrawn attitudes.
D. subdued intelligence.
- (p. 76)Insomnia is more common among people who:
A. blunt the impact of stressful events by distracting themselves.
B. deal with stressful events by ruminating or focusing on them.
C. engage in a few restorative activities.
D. avoid caffeine in the afternoon.
- (p. 76)_____ is a symptom of psychopathology commonly found among long sleepers.
B. Chronic worrying
C. Sleep deprivation
- (p. 76)Which of the following is a behavioral intervention undertaken for the treatment of insomnia?
A. Conversion therapy
B. Hormone therapy
C. Immune therapy
D. Relaxation therapy
- (p. 76)Participating in enjoyable leisure time activities such as socializing, or spending time in nature is related to:
A. reduced physical functioning.
B. increased blood pressure.
C. lower levels of cortisol.
D. higher risk of weight gain.
True / False Questions
- (p. 65)People who engage in regular, vigorous exercise may reduce their risk of certain forms of cancer.
- (p. 66)The practice of regular exercise declines substantially when boys reach adolescence.
- (p. 67)People who drop out of exercise programs do so within the first three to six months.
- (p. 69)Community-wide health education programs aimed at increasing seat belt usage and infant restraint devices can be successful.
- (p. 70)Women from low-income groups are more likely to receive regular mammograms.
- (p. 72)Mediterranean diets are rich in red meat, and low in vegetables, nuts, fruits, and fish.
- (p. 73)The reason people switch to a diet low in cholesterol, fats, calories, and additives is to improve health.
- (p. 75)People who have high levels of hostility or arousal have poor sleep quality.
- (p. 76)People who deal with stressful events by blunting their impact or distracting themselves are more prone to insomnia.
- (p. 76)Participation in leisure activities can improve cognitive functioning among the elderly.
- (p. 65)Explain the physical and psychological benefits of exercise.
Exercise helps to maintain mental and physical health. Daily exercise can decrease the risk of several chronic diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. Psychologically, exercise improves mood and general well-being. Exercise also helps to improve social activity, and provides an improved sense of self-efficacy. Because of its positive impact on mood, exercise has been used as a treatment for depression too.
- (p. 66)Which individuals are more likely to exercise regularly?
People who come from families in which exercise is practiced, and those who have positive attitudes toward physical activity; people who have a strong sense of self-efficacy for exercising; people who have energy, are extraverted, and sociable exercise regularly. Those who perceive themselves as athletic, have a strong social support, and take responsibility for their health are more likely to exercise.
- (p. 69)Imagine you are designing a program to be administered through the county health department designed to increase the frequency of mammograms among community residents. What kind of techniques would you adopt to increase screening through mammography?
Changing the attitudes of women toward mammography can increase the likelihood of obtaining a mammogram. Thus interventions must focus of creating awareness. Women who have positive attitudes regarding mammography, and who perceive social norms as favoring are more likely to participate in mammography programs. Creating a social support system is especially important for low-income and older women. Women are more likely to get mammograms if their friends are doing the same. Interventions are more successful if they are geared to the stage of readiness of prospective participants.
- (p. 71)Discuss the importance of sun safety practices particularly for youngsters.
The chief risk factor for skin cancer is excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Typically, sun safety practices begin with educational interventions to alert people to the risks of skin cancer, and to the effectiveness of sunscreen use for reducing risk. Communications to adolescents and young adults that stress the gains that sunscreen use will bring them are important. This could give freedom from concerns about skin cancers or improvements in appearance. When risks are emphasized, it is important to stress the immediate adverse effects of rather than the long-term risks of chronic illness, because adolescents and young adults are especially influenced by immediate concerns.
- (p. 74)How does sleep correlate with health? Explain with the use examples.
Sleep is an important restorative activity. Adults who sleep for less than seven hours experience sleep problems and insomnia. For women, sleep disorders may be tied to hormonal levels related to menopause. Insufficient sleep affects cognitive functioning, mood, job performance, and quality of life. Chronic insomnia can increase the risk of coronary heart disease; it increases blood pressure, and deregulates stress physiology. It can also affect weight gain.
Heart Disease, Hypertension, Stroke, and Type II Diabetes
Multiple Choice Questions
- (p. 251)The number one killer in the United States, accounting for one out of every six deaths, is:
B. coronary heart disease.
- (p. 251)Coronary heart disease is:
A. unrelated to the changes in diet.
B. a disease of modernization.
C. prevalent among children.
D. unrelated to social status.
- (p. 251)Raj, who complains of chest pain, is admitted to a hospital. The diagnosis reveals that his blood vessels have narrowed and the flow of oxygen and nourishment to his heart has been interrupted. He is, in this case, suffering from _____.
A. Alzheimers disease
B. coronary heart disease
C. cardiovascular disease
D. Parkinsons disease
- (p. 251)Which of the following is a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
A. Abnormal weight loss
B. Low serum cholesterol
C. Curvature of the spine
- (p. 251)The combination of obesity centered around the waist, high levels of triglycerides, low levels of HDL cholesterol, and difficulty metabolizing blood sugar are symptomatic of:
B. metabolic syndrome.
C. angina pectoris.
- (p. 251)Gerard is obese around the waist. He has high blood pressure and low levels of good cholesterol. These are symptomatic of:
C. multiple sclerosis.
D. metabolic syndrome.
- (p. 251)According to a study by Lawlor et al. (2005), risk factors for heart disease begin to cluster by age _____ for those low in SES.
- (p. 252)According to a study by Troxel et al. (2003), _____ are disproportionately exposed to chronic stress and are at an elevated risk for CHD.
A. Native Americans
B. African Americans
C. Asian Americans
D. Pacific Islanders
- (p. 253)Which of the following is true of the impact of social factors on CHD?
A. Industrialized countries have a very low incidence of CHD.
B. People who are less mobile have a higher frequency of CHD.
C. Social stability is linked to higher rates of CHD.
D. Migrants have a higher incidence of CHD.
- (p. 253)Which of the following job factors relates to increased risk of CHD?
A. Discrepancy between occupation and diet
B. Discrepancy between occupation and family life
C. High social support at work
D. High work demands and low control
- (p. 254)Which of the following is true of heart diseases in women?
A. They are less likely to die from a first heart attack than men.
B. They experience an increased risk of cardiovascular disease after menopause.
C. They develop CHD on the average about 15 years earlier than do men.
D. They are protected at young ages against CHD due to their lower levels of HDL cholesterol.
- (p. 255)The personality quality agency is associated with _____.
A. a focus on others
B. a focus on oneself
- (p. 255)Which of the following personality qualities reflects a positive caring orientation to others?
C. Unmitigated agency
D. Unmitigated communion
- (p. 255)Which of the following best describes unmitigated communion?
A. It is a focus on the self.
B. It is a focus on social unity.
C. It is an extreme focus on others.
D. It is an extreme focus on oneself.
- (p. 255)People who are both hostile and _____have an increased risk for metabolic syndrome and CHD.
- (p. 255)Cynical hostility is characterized by:
C. infrequent angry episodes.
D. trust in others.
- (p. 255)Higher levels of hostility have been found among:
C. people high in socioeconomic status (SES).
- (p. 256)The relation between hostile style and enhanced cardiovascular reactivity to stress is most reliable for _____.
- (p. 256)Hostile people exhibit a _____ response to sympathetic activity in response to stress.
B. strong pessimistic
D. weak antagonistic
- (p. 256)Individuals who are high in hostility:
A. have chronically lower blood pressure.
B. show lower heart rate reactivity to laboratory stressors.
C. show exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity.
D. show strong antagonistic responses to sympathetic activities.
- (p. 257)Which of the following is true of depression?
A. It is an independent risk factor for CHD.
B. It is a psychological by-product of other risk factors for CHD.
C. It is based on genetic factors.
D. It is unrelated to metabolic syndrome.
- (p. 257)Depression in people who are hostile and in African Americans is likely to be closely linked to:
A. atypical antidepressant.
B. monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
C. C-reactive protein.
D. tricyclic antidepressant.
- (p. 257)Depression is typically treated with Prozac which is a(n):
A. atypical antidepressant.
B. monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
C. serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
D. tricyclic antidepressant.
- (p. 257)_____ remains an underdiagnosed and untreated contributor to CHD morbidity and mortality.
A. High cholesterol
- (p. 258)_____ refers to chronically searching the environment for potential threat.
B. Due diligence
C. Vigilant coping
D. Type-A behavior
- (p. 258)_____ is a common treatment for cardiac patients that treats blockage of major arteries in the heart.
A. Coronary artery bypass graft
B. Transmyocardial laser revascularization
C. Heart transplant
- (p. 258)Patients with myocardial infraction are treated in a(n) _____ unit where their cardiac functioning is continually monitored.
A. hospice care
B. coronary care
C. home care
D. acute care
- (p. 259)Successful cardiac rehabilitation depends critically on:
A. the cost involved in the treatment.
B. a medical practitioners involvement.
C. a patients active participation and commitment.
D. the level of cynical hostility shown by medical staff.
- (p. 259)Beta-blockers are used in cardiac rehabilitation:
A. to activate the parasympathetic nervous system.
B. to resist the effects of sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
C. to control the pain of angina pectoris.
D. to restrict the negative side effects of the administered drugs.
- (p. 260)_____ are the most common drugs prescribed for patients following an acute coronary event or a stroke.
- (p. 261)Cardiac rehabilitation programs involve:
A. no exercise.
C. minimum alcohol consumption.
D. smoking cessation.
- (p. 261)According to studies of recove