Test Bank for Human Communication in Society, 4th Edition By Jess K. Alberts, Thomas K.

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Test Bank for Human Communication in Society, 4th Edition By Jess K. Alberts, Thomas K.

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Human Communication in Society, 4th Edition By Jess K. Alberts, Thomas K.  Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 2: Perspectives on Human Communication

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_Q2.1   The belief systems behind the various approaches to studying human communication are known in general as _____.

  1. interpretations
  2. methods
  3. theories
  4. paradigms

Answer: d

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.2   As the text notes, scholars develop ________ in an attempt to explain why people communicate as they do.

  1. paradigms
  2. theories
  3. readings
  4. methods

Answer: b

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.3   The communication discipline is BEST described as _____.

  1. linear
  2. reciprocal
  3. complimentary
  4. interdisciplinary

Answer: d

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.4   The ________ approach generally endorses the idea that reality is external to individuals and no one can predict future behavior based on observations of past behavior.

  1. social science
  2. interpretive
  3. critical
  4. post-modern

Answer: a

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.5   Tamara is interested in doing a quantitative research study to determine the most significant causes of public speaking anxiety among college students. This study belongs to the ________ approach to communication research.

  1. social science
  2. interpretive
  3. critical
  4. post-modern

Answer: a

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.6   When researchers observe subjects in everyday, real-life situations, it is an example of a ________ setting.

  1. linear
  2. naturalistic
  3. behavioristic
  4. laboratory

Answer: b

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.7   In the demand-withdrawal interaction pattern, the person who asks for the change is the _______.

  1. demander
  2. withdrawer
  3. aggressor
  4. behaviorist

Answer: a

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.8   Julie criticizes her boyfriend for his political view and is trying to convince him that he is wrong. He responds by rolling his eyes and walking from the room. This is an example of the ________ communication pattern.

  1. negative reciprocity
  2. insecure attachment
  3. demandwithdrawal
  4. blaming

Answer: c

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.9   Some communication experts believe that as children interact with their caregivers, they develop expectations for future interactions in relationships in general.  This is known as forming a type of ________.

  1. attachment
  2. growth relation
  3. care development
  4. interaction

Answer: a

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.10   Which branch of philosophy is a basis for the interpretative approach?

  1. behaviorism
  2. humanism
  3. socioculturalism
  4. socialism

Answer: b

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.11   One of the earliest influences on the field of communication was _____.

  1. rhetoric
  2. psychology
  3. sociology
  4. religion

Answer: a

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.12   The interpretive approach to communication emphasizes the _____ of human behavior.

  1. predictability
  2. humanity
  3. creativity
  4. credibility

Answer: c

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.13   A communication researcher who examines the flirtation behaviors used by couples interacting with one another by converting data to numeric indicators is using the             method of research.

  1. qualitative
  2. quantitative
  3. interpretive
  4. ethnographic

Answer: b

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.14   When researchers carefully read and listen to conversations over and over again to develop a framework of categories that group, label, and summarize particular acts of communication in the data, researchers are using the ________ approach to understanding communication.

  1. content analysis
  2. qualitative analysis
  3. ethnographic
  4. interpretative

Answer: a

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.15   Researchers who investigate cultures differences from their own often use the ________ method to gather information.

  1. ethnographic
  2. statistical
  3. content analysis
  4. rhetorical

Answer: a

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.16   A(n) ________ scholar explores communication with the ultimate goal of changing society.

  1. social scientific
  2. interpretive
  3. post modern
  4. critical

Answer: d

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.17   The ________approach to communication research and study focuses on the role of power in communication exchanges.

  1. social science
  2. interpretive
  3. critical
  4. post-modern

Answer: c

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.18   Which of the following views would a critical scholar agree with?

  1. We each construct our own reality and these realities have consequences.
  2. Realities are constructed at birth and our destiny is out of our reach.
  3. An individuals reality is constructed by their peers and societal contacts.
  4. Our realities are formed from behavior and norms.

Answer: a

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.19   When examining a TV series in order to determine how gay and lesbian relationships are portrayed as non-traditional or not normal, a researcher uses textual analysis. This method is associated with the ________ approach.

  1. social science
  2. interpretive
  3. critical
  4. post-modern

Answer: c

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

True/False Questions

 

TB_Q2.20   Methods describe the specific ways in which scholars collect and analyze data, the results of which are used to test theories.

Answer: True

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.21   The study of communication has a short history that can only be traced back to the early 1900s.

Answer: False

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.22   Behaviorists believed that predictions were possible because they saw reality as both observable and describable.

Answer: True

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.23   Social scientists would never rely on qualitative methods.

Answer: False

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.24   Conversation analysis is a quantitative method that examines naturally occurring conversations to understand better the sequences and functions of everyday talk.

Answer: False

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.25   Interpretive studies have found that defensive communication in romantic relationships can lead to unproductive cycles of conflict.

Answer: True

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.26   Rhetorical analysis would be one method of examining a public speech.

Answer: True

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.27   Member-checking refers to an analysis of the number of people involved in a particular study.

Answer: False

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.28   Critical scholars are concerned with whether or not they have the right to study, analyze, and represent the views of others, perhaps disadvantaged people.

Answer: True

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.29   The strength of the critical approach is its emphasis on the physical and psychosocial  forces associated with communication.

Answer: False

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Completion (fill-in-the-blank) Questions

 

TB_Q2.30   A ________ is a belief system that focuses on a set of assumptions about knowledge, reality, and human nature.

Answer: paradigm

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.31   When a researcher makes an educated guess based on a theory, that guess is called a(n) _____.

Answer: hypothesis

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q2.32   A _____ method of research would be used to answer the question, how many?

Answer: quantitative

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.33   Rhetoric can be described as the art of _____.

Answer: persuasion

LO 2.3: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the interpretive approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Interpretive Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q2.34   The analysis of popular culture texts is common within the ________ approach to human communication.

Answer: critical

LO 2.4: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the critical approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Critical Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

Essay Questions

 

TB_Q2.35   Compare and contrast the social scientific and interpretive approach by describing the strengths and limitations of each approach.

Answer: The social science approach in communication originally focused on the individual or, less frequently, the dyad (a pair of people, like Charee and Mateo, who interact with each other). Because the social science approach grew out of the fields of psychology and sociology, communication scholars typically relied on some of the same research methods used by these social scientists. Scholars who developed the interpretive approach were influenced by the ancient Greek tradition of rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, and by humanism, a branch of philosophy that celebrates human nature and its potential. Like the social science approach, the interpretive approach focuses on the individual, but interpretive communication researchers have goals and assumptions that differ from those who use the social science paradigm.

LO 2.1: Explain the relationships among paradigms, theories, and methods in communication studies.

Topic: Contemporary Approaches to Studying Human Communication

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q2.36   Explain  the demandwithdrawal conflict pattern from the  social science  approach.

Answer: This pattern occurs when one partner criticizes or tries to change the other partner, who responds by becoming defensive and then disengagingeither psychologically or physically. Communication scholars have conducted many studies that attempted to explain and predict how and why this pattern occurs. Whereas most of the research has focused on dyads composed of heterosexual romantic couples, the pattern seems to extend to many different relationships and contexts, and it seems that, as with Charee and Mateo, women are statistically more likely to be the demanders who request change from their male partners, whereas men are more likely than women to withdraw. This type of communication pattern (demand-withdrawal) is particularly problematic in close relationshipsit seems to go hand in hand with negative emotions and destructive tactics that can eventually lead to a cycle of increasingly negative and hostile conflicts.

LO 2.2: Describe the underlying assumptions, theories and methods, ethical issues, and strengths and limitations of the social science approach to the study of communication.

Topic: The Social Science Approach: Assumptions, Theories, Methods, Ethical Issues, Strengths, and Limitations

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Chapter Six: Nonverbal Communication

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_Q6.1   Nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning is known as nonverbal ________.

  1. kinesics
  2. communication
  3. haptics
  4. gestures

Answer: b

LO 6.1: Describe the important role of nonverbal communication in social interaction.

Topic: The Importance of Nonverbal Communication

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q6.2   Your text defines and discusses five aspects of nonverbal codes.  Which of these is NOT one of those aspects?

  1. value
  2. kinesics
  3. paralinguistics
  4. haptics

Answer: a

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q6.3   Obscene gestures are a form of the nonverbal behavior known as _____.

  1. haptics
  2. kinesics
  3. proxemics
  4. chronemics

Answer: b

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.4   If you stick out your hand to hail a cab, which kinesic behavior are you using?

  1. illustrator
  2. emblem
  3. gesture
  4. adaptor

Answer: c

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

 

 

TB_Q6.5   If you raise your hand in class to speak, which kinesic behavior are you using?

  1. gesture
  2. emblem
  3. regulator
  4. port

Answer: b

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q6.6   Harris returned from a hunting trip where he almost killed a deer.  When explaining to his friends how large the deer was, Harris held his hands a certain distance apart.  This is an example of which kinesic behavior?

  1. gesture
  2. illustrator
  3. emblem
  4. adaptor

Answer: b

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q6.7   Rate, volume, pitch, and stress refer to the vocal aspects of nonverbal communication known as ________.

  1. paralinguistics
  2. illustrators
  3. phonemes
  4. haptics

Answer: a

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

TB_Q6.8   The sounds we utter that do not have the structure of language are known as ________.

  1. rhythms
  2. noises
  3. vocalizations
  4. proxemics

Answer: c

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

TB_Q6.9   Preston shows up late for his first day of work. Based on this, his new bosss expectations for appropriate ________ behavior are violated.

  1. chronemic
  2. haptic
  3. kinesic
  4. proxemic

Answer: a

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q6.10   Which of the following demonstrates the use of time polychronically?

  1. Sara is reading a book before she heads to bed.
  2. Jessica closes her computer tablet while talking to her friend to avoid distraction.
  3. Norton texts on his phone while watching a movie with friends.
  4. Jeffery prefers to see movies at the movie theater instead of renting them.

Answer: c

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.11   ________ distance describes the space we use when interacting with friends and acquaintances.          .

  1. Intimate
  2. Private
  3. Personal
  4. Habitual

Answer: c

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q6.12   An interaction with a worker at the mall is likely to occur at the ________ distance.

  1. intimate
  2. personal
  3. social
  4. public

Answer: c

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.13   A doctor or a dentist uses ________ touch at work.

  1. professional
  2. social-polite
  3. love-intimate
  4. demand

Answer: a

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.14   In the United States, ________touch is more intimate than professional touch but it is still impersonal.

  1. functional
  2. social-polite
  3. love-intimate
  4. demand

Answer: b

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.15   Kevin is offended when his manager stops by his desk and places his hand on Kevins arm while he talks with him. Kevin feels constrained by the situation. His manager is demonstrating _____ touch.

  1. functional
  2. socialpolite
  3. loveintimate
  4. demand

Answer: d

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q6.16   Skylar is talking to a few of her friends at a party.  During the conversation, she takes turns in the conversation and makes eye contact with the friend she is speaking to directly.  Which function of nonverbal behavior is she displaying?

  1. communicating information
  2. regulating interaction
  3. expressing and managing intimacy
  4. social control

Answer: b

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q6.17   Sloane glared at the bus driver who did not stop for her at the crosswalk.  Which function of nonverbal behavior is she displaying?

  1. communicating information
  2. regulating interaction
  3. expressing and managing intimacy
  4. social control

Answer: d

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.18   An organization that forbids employees from having or obtaining tattoos is using ________ to regulate the nonverbal communication of its employees.

  1. power
  2. chronemics
  3. stereotypes
  4. haptics

Answer: a

LO 6.4: Explain how nonverbal communication can both trigger and express prejudice and discrimination.

Topic: The Individual, Nonverbal Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.19   When the verbal and nonverbal message express the same meaning, the message is considered ________.

  1. congruent
  2. contradictory
  3. parallel
  4. synced

Answer: a

LO 6.6: Name five ways to improve your ability to interpret nonverbal behavior.

Topic: Improving Your Nonverbal Communication Skills

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

True/False Questions

 

TB_Q6.20   Nonverbal cues are typically not associated with emotions.

Answer: False

LO 6.1: Describe the important role of nonverbal communication in social interaction.

Topic: The Importance of Nonverbal Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.21   People exhibit nonverbal behaviors virtually all the time they are conscious.

Answer: True

LO 6.1: Describe the important role of nonverbal communication in social interaction.

Topic: The Importance of Nonverbal Communication

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.22   The meaning we attribute to someones nonverbal behavior varies based on how well we know the communicator.

Answer: True

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.23   Posture, movement, and facial expression are all components of chronemics.

Answer: False

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.24   Gestures we use to manage our emotions are called adaptors.

Answer: True

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q6.25   Immediacy refers to the degree of tension ones body displays.

Answer: False

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.26   Posture and movement often convey information about a persons mood.

Answer: True

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q6.27  Paralinguistics are the aspects of language that are oral but not verbal.

 

Answer: True

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.28  A public speaking teacher who writes comments that the speaker speaks too quickly and with a flat voice is paying attention to vocalizations.

Answer: False

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.29  Public distance is appropriate when speaking in a lecture hall or performing on a stage during a play.

Answer: True

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.30  In cross-sex interactions, women are more likely to initiate touch than men.

Answer: False

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.31  Congruent messages express the opposite meaning.

Answer: False

LO 6.6: Name five ways to improve your ability to interpret nonverbal behavior.

Topic: Improving Your Nonverbal Communication Skills

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Completion (fill-in-the-blank) Questions

 

TB_Q6.32 ________ or signals are distinct, organized means of expression that consist of both symbols and rules for their use.

Answer: Nonverbal codes

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.33 When Nathan is in a rush and stuck in traffic, he often finds his leg bouncing. This is an example of a(n) ________.

Answer: adaptor

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.34 ________ are gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning.

Answer: Emblems

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.35 The study of the way people use time as a message is called ________.

Answer: chronemics

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q6.36 Giving a brief hug to a coworker that you have come to know well when you run into him or her downtown is an example of ________ touch.

Answer: friendship

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

Essay Questions

 

TB_Q6.37  Describe  the  five  functions  of  nonverbal  behaviors  and  provide  examples  of  each function.

Answer: In general, scholars have determined that nonverbal behaviors serve five functions during interaction (Patterson, 1982, 2003). Those five functions are: communicating information, regulating interaction, expressing and managing intimacy, establishing social control, and signaling service-task functions. Most fundamentally, nonverbal messages are used to communicate information. From the receivers point of view, much of a senders behavior is potentially informative. For example, when you meet someone for the first time you evaluate the pattern of the senders behavior to assess a variety of factors. Nonverbal communication also is used to regulate interaction. That is, people use nonverbal behaviors to manage turn-taking during conversation. Thus, if you want to start talking, you might lean forward, look at the current speaker, and even raise one finger. A third function of nonverbal communication, and the most studied, involves expressing and managing intimacy. The degree of your nonverbal involvement with another usually reflects the level of intimacy you desire with that person. People also use nonverbal communication to exert or establish social control, or to exercise influence over other people. Individuals engage in the social control function when they smile at someone they want to do them a favor or when they glare at noisy patrons in a theater to encourage them to be quiet. Finally, nonverbal communication has a service-task function. Behaviors of this kind typically signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts. For example, golf pros often stand with their arms around a novice golfer to help her with her golf swing, and massage therapists engage in intimate touch as part of their profession.

LO 6.3: Define five nonverbal codes and discuss the five functions of nonverbal messages.

Topic: Nonverbal Communication and the Individual

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q6.38  Describe the relationship between nonverbal behavior and power. Be sure to address the role of identity and status in your answer.

Answer: Nonverbal communication and power are intricately relatedespecially via the nonverbal codes of appearance and artifacts. In the United States, power is primarily based on an individuals access to economic resources and the freedom to make decisions that affect others. People use nonverbal cues to communicate their own status and identities, and to evaluate and interpret others status and identities. Based on these interpretations, peopleconsciously and unconsciouslyinclude and exclude others, and approve or disapprove of others. For example, in wealthy communities, people who dont look affluent may be stopped and questioned about their presence.

LO 6.4: Explain how nonverbal communication can both trigger and express prejudice and discrimination.

Topic: The Individual, Nonverbal Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q6.39  Describe the role of nonverbal communication in prejudice and discrimination. Be sure to include specific examples of behaviors that could be interpreted as prejudicial.

Answer: At the intersection of societal forces and nonverbal communication are prejudice and discrimination. Both can be triggered by nonverbal behavior and are also expressed through nonverbal behavior. Lets look at how this works. First, ones race and ethnicity, body shape, age, or style of dressall of which are communicated nonverbally can prompt prejudgment or negative stereotypes. How often do people make a snap judgment or generalization based on appearance? Second, prejudice and discrimination are expressed nonverbally. In some extreme cases, nonverbal signals have even triggered and perpetrated hate crimes. there are many other more subtle ways that prejudice can be communicated nonverballyfor instance, averting ones gaze or failing to reciprocate a smile. It can be as subtle as shifting your gaze, leaning your body away, or editing your speech.

LO 6.4: Explain how nonverbal communication can both trigger and express prejudice and discrimination.

Topic: The Individual, Nonverbal Communication, and Society

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q6.40  Identify and give examples of two ways to improve your nonverbal communication skills.

Answer: Answers can vary but might include: One way you can assess your own and others nonverbal communication is to examine how it interacts with verbal messages (Jones & LeBaron, 2002). That is, how congruent (similar) are the two sets of messages? When the two types of messages are congruent, they are often genuine (or we assume them to be so). For example, a positive verbal message (I like you) combined with a positive nonverbal message (smile, forward body lean, relaxed posture) usually conveys a convincing positive message. In addition to assessing the congruence of the verbal and nonverbal components of a message, you improve your comprehension of nonverbal messages by analyzing the context, your knowledge of the other person, and your own experiences. For example, if you are playing basketball and a teammate slaps you on the rear and says good going, the message may be clear. Given the context, you may read it as a compliment and perhaps a sign of affection or intimacy. But what if the slap on the rear occurs at work after an effective presentation? Given that such behavior is generally inappropriate in a business context, you probably will (and should) more closely assess its meaning.

LO 6.6: Name five ways to improve your ability to interpret nonverbal behavior.

Topic: Improving Your Nonverbal Communication Skills

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

 

Chapter Twelve: Rhetorical Communication

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_Q12.1   Communication that influences the attitudes or behaviors of others is called ____ or the art of persuasion.

  1. phonetics
  2. literacy
  3. mediated
  4. rhetoric

Answer:  d

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.2   An individual who pursues sustained and detailed analyses of rhetorical discourse is known as a rhetorical ________.

  1. critic
  2. observer
  3. expert
  4. influencer

Answer:  a

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.3   In the early Greek city-states, ________ taught speakers to adjust their notions of right or wrong, true or untrue, depending on their speaking situation, their audience, and their goals.

  1. sophists
  2. rhetoricians
  3. orators
  4. resonators

Answer:  a

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.4   Which of the artistic proofs did Aristotle consider to be the most important?

  1. ethos
  2. pathos
  3. logos
  4. monos

Answer:  a

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.5   The public ________ a speaker projects can enhance his or her ethos if the audience perceives it to be credible, informed, or intelligent.

  1. ethos
  2. persona
  3. pathos
  4. logos

Answer:  b

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.6   ________ refers to the rhetorical use of emotions to affect audience decision making.

  1. ethos
  2. persona
  3. pathos
  4. logos

Answer:  c

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.7   During a murder trail, the prosecutor might show sentimental videos or photos of the deceased to the jury.  This is an appeal to which artistic proof?

  1. ethos
  2. pathos
  3. logos
  4. monos

Answer:  b

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.8   Hannah, a five-year-old, knows how to get out of cleaning up her toys.  All she has to do is crawl on her parents laps and give them a sad, wide-eyed look with a quivering lip.  Hannah is using which artistic appeal?

  1. Ethos
  2. pathos
  3. logos
  4. mythos

Answer:  b

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.9   Whitney is a health teacher.  She is attempting to inform and persuade her students not to experiment with illegal drugs.  She does this by explaining the health risks.  Whitney is using which type of artistic proof?

  1. ethos
  2. pathos
  3. logos
  4. eros

Answer:  c

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.10   A persons place in the social hierarchy is called his or her social _____.

  1. credibility
  2. status
  3. position
  4. rationality

Answer:  c

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.11   Unusual weather or natural disasters are examples of ________.

  1. social position
  2. rhetorical events
  3. epideictic rhetoric
  4. deliberative rhetoric

Answer:  b

LO 12.4: Explain four functions of rhetoric: reaffirming cultural values, increasing democratic participation, securing justice, and promoting social change.

Topic: The Individual, Rhetoric, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q12.12   When legislators argue about raising taxes to pay for new roads, they are engaging in ________ rhetoric.

  1. deliberative
  2. social
  3. epideictic
  4. cultural

Answer: a

LO 12.4: Explain four functions of rhetoric: reaffirming cultural values, increasing democratic participation, securing justice, and promoting social change.

Topic: The Individual, Rhetoric, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.13   The goal of ________ rhetoric is to set things right after an injustice has occurred.

  1. forensic
  2. legal
  3. judicial
  4. deliberative

Answer: a

LO 12.4: Explain four functions of rhetoric: reaffirming cultural values, increasing democratic participation, securing justice, and promoting social change.

Topic: The Individual, Rhetoric, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.14   The movement to abolish slavery is an example of a(n) ________ movement.

  1. physiological
  2. psycho-social
  3. social
  4. linguistic

Answer: c

LO 12.4: Explain four functions of rhetoric: reaffirming cultural values, increasing democratic participation, securing justice, and promoting social change.

Topic: The Individual, Rhetoric, and Society

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.15  After identifying his or her general purpose, the second task of a public speaker is to _____.

  1. identify the audience
  2. understand the audience
  3. select your topic
  4. indemnify a specific purpose

Answer: b

LO 12.6: Identify the basic steps in preparing a speech.

Topic: Using Your Rhetorical Skills: Speaking in Public

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

True/False Questions

 

TB_Q12.16  A rhetorical critic is an informed consumer of rhetorical discourse who is prepared to analyze rhetorical texts.

Answer:  True

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.17  A rhetor can be a person, institution, or a corporation.

Answer:  True

LO 12.2: Identify cultural and social influences on the development of rhetoric.

Topic: What is Rhetoric? A Broader View

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.18  In terms of ethos, you cannot change your attractiveness in order to increase your credibility.

Answer:  False

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.19  The best view of a rhetorical audience includes ONLY those people who could take appropriate action based upon a particular message.

Answer:  False

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.20  An ethical rhetorician would be willing to speak out in public if another rhetor communicates in a way to dehumanize or demean others.

Answer:  True

LO 12.5: Understand the ethical issues facing rhetors and audience members.

Topic: Ethics and Rhetoric

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

TB_Q12.21  An ethical rhetorician is firm in his/her beliefs and does not need to change their mind.

Answer:  False

LO 12.5: Understand the ethical issues facing rhetors and audience members.

Topic: Ethics and Rhetoric

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.22  It is fine for a speaker to use statistics without carefully explaining them to the audience.

Answer: False

LO 12.6: Identify the basic steps in preparing a speech.

Topic: Using Your Rhetorical Skills: Speaking in Public

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.23  The spatial organizational pattern follows a timeline; for example, a speech on the life of Ronald Reagan would use this pattern.

Answer: False

LO 12.6: Identify the basic steps in preparing a speech.

Topic: Using Your Rhetorical Skills: Speaking in Public

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Completion (fill-in-the-blank) Questions

 

TB_Q12.24  An informed consumer of rhetorical discourse who is prepared to analyze rhetorical texts is a(n) ________.

Answer: rhetorical critic

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.25  The ability to use emotions to affect an audiences decision making is called ________.

Answer: pathos

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

TB_Q12.26  The artistic proof that refers to reasoning or rationality is ________.

Answer: logos

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.27  Lloyd Bitzer argues that the ________ audience is the only group of people who can take the appropriate action to a particular message.

Answer: rhetorical

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

TB_Q12.28  The type of rhetoric that reaffirms cultural values through praising and blaming is called _____.

Answer: epideictic

LO 12.4: Explain four functions of rhetoric: reaffirming cultural values, increasing democratic participation, securing justice, and promoting social change.

Topic: The Individual, Rhetoric, and Society

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

Essay Question

 

TB_Q12.29  Describe the three functions of rhetoric in our society. Provide examples from the recent news that illustrate these functions.

Answer: Rhetorical communication serves at least three important social functions. First, as you may have surmised, rhetoric is essential to a vital democracy. For people to make informed decisions (and vote) about a range of issues, they must consume rhetorical messages critically and then advocate with care. By advocating for ones perspective and engaging with the perspectives of others, people can make decisions together regarding the common good. Hence, rhetoric can strengthen democratic society, and speeches or other types of communication to the public can serve important political and social functions. Second, rhetoric helps people seek justice. Probably one of the most obvious sites of this rhetorical function is the courtroom. Not only lawyers but also jurors need rhetorical skills; they need to listen carefully and critically not only to what is said, but also how it is said, and they must be able to persuade other jurors of the proper verdict. Speakers also use rhetoric to persuade others to pursue social justice, for example, to support a moratorium on the death penalty or treat animals more ethically. Third, rhetoric helps people clarify their own beliefs and actions. For example, after the attacks of September 11, 2001, many people, like our student in It Happened to Me: Denise, were not sure what to believe about why the United States was attacked or how they should respond or behave. Therefore, they turned to experts and national leaders, such as the president, to gather information that could help them clarify their beliefs and understanding.

LO 12.1: Describe some of the key issues in rhetorical communication.

Topic: The Importance of Rhetoric

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q12.30  Consider a recent election in your area. Explain how the candidates used the three artistic proofs in their campaigns. Provide examples from speeches, TV/radio commercials, or web sites to support your answer.

Answer: Answers will vary but should include general information on the three artistic proofs. Ethos Aristotle considered ethosusually translated as characterthe most important of the three artistic proofs. Aristotle emphasized that rhetors create ethos, or a sense of their character, by displaying to their audience good sense, moral character, and goodwill. He also included family background, attractiveness, and athletic ability as valuable assets in persuasion through ethos. Advertising commonly exploits this aspect of ethos, using famous family names, attractive models, and celebrated athletes to promote products.

Pathos refers to the rhetorical use of emotions to affect audience decision making. Speakers often use emotion to influence the audience to identify with a particular perspective. In a court case, the prosecuting lawyer may reenact the crime to help the jury see the case from the victims point of view. An effective reenactment may influence the jury to emotionally identify, and thus side, with the prosecution rather than the defense.

Logos Although the word logos looks like logic, it is not as narrowly defined. Rather, logos refers to reasoning or argumentation more generally. As an artistic proof, logos refers to how rhetors construct arguments or present evidence so that audiences reach a particular conclusion. For example, a lawyer may use evidence such as fingerprints to build a case and explain how a crime occurred, or a politician may point to her voting record to establish her credibility as a conservative.

LO 12.3: Identify and define the three artistic proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Topic: The Rhetor: Rhetorics Point of Origin

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

TB_Q12.31  Consider a recent issue of public conflict such as immigration reform or health care access or any other issue which you are familiar. Explain how social position impacts those who speak on that issue.

Answer: Answers will vary but should include a general overview of the concept of social position. Related to the concept of ethos is the social position from which a rhetor speaks.

Aristotle noted that those who came from noble families were better positioned as rhetors. Yet social position refers to more than the prestige of ones family. Ones social position comes from the way society is structured. Everyone is located in more than one position in the social structure as she or he speaksas a student, a customer, a friend, a voter, and so on. As a receiver of public communication, you should always consider the position or positions from which the rhetor is speaking. We expect certain people to speak in certain situations, such as family members at a funeral or the governor after a natural disaster. In these cases, the rhetors authority comes from a combination of her or his position and the audience members expectations. Yet these social positions are also hierarchical, meaning that some positions have more power than others. For example, if you, as a student, were to speak out about U.S. immigration policies, you would be less influential than the president when he speaks about the same topic. Even if you spoke well, you could not make up for the difference in social positions between a student and a president. Social positions and positions of power are deeply intertwined because social positions gain their power from the society that supports the structure. This power structure allows certain rhetors to be more effective than others in promoting a message. Social institutions, also considered rhetors according to our definition, have distinct social positions that contribute to the effectiveness

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