Test Bank for PSYCH 2nd Edition by Rathus

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Test Bank for PSYCH 2nd Edition by Rathus

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Chapter 4
Sensation and Perception

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _______________is stimulation of the sense receptors; perception is an inner representation of the world.
a.
Adaptation
c.
Sensation
b.
Organization
d.
Cognition

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

2. Sensation is to mechanical stimulation as __________ is to mental representation.
a.
perception
c.
motivation
b.
unconscious
d.
adaptation

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. A mechanical process resulting in the stimulation of the senses and the transmission of sensory information to the brain or spinal cord is called
a.
perception.
c.
absolute threshold.
b.
sensation.
d.
dark adaptation.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

4. The process by which sensations are organized to form inner representations of the world is called
a.
psychophysical.
c.
adaptation.
b.
sensation.
d.
perception.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. The ________ __________ is the minimum amount of stimulation needed to produce a sensation.
a.
absolute threshold
c.
Webers threshold
b.
difference threshold
d.
darkness threshold

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 3-74 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

6. The absolute threshold is detected by exposing a participant to progressively stronger stimuli until participant can detect the stimuli ________ of the time.
a.
100%
c.
25%
b.
50%
d.
10%

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 3-74 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

7. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a.
There are individual differences in absolute thresholds.
b.
Our ears are particularly sensitive to sounds that are very low in pitch.
c.
The measure of the absolute threshold for taste is the equivalent of 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water.
d.
The police officer caught the just-speeding car on his radar because he was motivated to reduce the number of speeders on his patrol, which illustrates the signal detection theory.

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-74&75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

8. The difference threshold for light is defined as the
a.
weakest amount of light the average person can perceive most of the time.
b.
ratio of the amplitude and wavelength.
c.
difference in wavelengths between analogous hues.
d.
smallest difference in intensity required to perceive a difference in intensity 50% of
the time.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. Difference threshold for various sensory systems is expressed as
a.
Websters constant.
c.
Webers constant.
b.
Fechners constant.
d.
Sensory constant.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

10. Webers constant for light is known as _______.
a.
1/60th
c.
1/53rd
b.
2%
d.
1/333

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. Which of the statements below is NOT true according to Ernst Weber?
a.
The constant for noticing differences in lifted weight is 1/53rd.
b.
He found that the jnd did not really differ for each of the senses.
c.
People can tell when a tone rises or falls in pitch by one-third of l%.
d.
Taste is the least sensitive of all the senses.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

12. Which of the following is a prediction of Webers constant for noticing differences?
a.
A person of 200 pounds would have to lose twice as much weight as a person of 100
pounds in order for the difference to be noticed.
b.
The maximum difference in stimuli that can be detected is the same for all senses.
c.
The constant is the same for all sense modalities.
d.
Motivation, attention, and past experience are factors in the constant.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

13. Signal detection theory incorporates all of the following EXCEPT the
a.
activation of feature detectors.
b.
perceivers motivation, expectations, and learning.
c.
contrast between signal and background noise.
d.
sharpness of ones sensory capacity.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-75&76 OBJ: 1
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

14. Which factor listed below does NOT affect a persons ability to perceive sensory stimuli or a difference between stimuli?
a.
The intensity of the stimuli.
b.
The sharpness or acuteness of a persons biological sensory system.
c.
Psychological factors, such as motivation, expectations, and learning.
d.
None of these.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-75&76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

15. The background noise, the perceivers motivation, and the sharpness of the perceivers sensory system are among the variables incorporated in __________.
a.
Webers constant
c.
opponents process theory
b.
psychophysics theory
d.
signal-detection theory

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 4-75&76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. A psychological factor in signal detection is focusing your _________ on stimuli that you consider important.
a.
attention
c.
perception
b.
feature detectors
d.
threshold

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-75&76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

17. What are feature detectors?
a.
A mechanical process that involves the stimulation of sensory receptors.
b.
Neurons that fire in response to specific features of sensed stimuli.
c.
Visible light that triggers visual sensations.
d.
The lowest intensity at which the stimulus can be detected.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: BTC

18. Many cells fire in response to lines presented at various angles, while others fire in response to specific colors. These cells are termed
a.
firing detectors.
c.
sensory cortex detectors.
b.
feature detectors.
d.
visual input detectors.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Applied

19. Through the process of sensory adaptation we become _____ sensitive to stimuli that are low in magnitude and ______ sensitive to unchanging stimuli.
a.
less; more
c.
less; less
b.
more; less
d.
more; more

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

20. If you become more sensitive to stimulation this is called ____________; and if you are less sensitive to stimulation this is called __________.
a.
sensitization; desensitization
b.
positive adaptation; negative adaptation
c.
desensitization; sensitization
d.
Both a and b

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

21. Wallace lives near a major railroad changing station. He is desensitized to the noise of the roaring trains. What has taken place?
a.
positive adaptation
c.
signal detection
b.
negative adaptation
d.
just noticeable difference

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Applied

22. After being in a dark room for a while, you can see much better than you could when you walked in. This is known as
a.
desensitization.
c.
virtual stabilization.
b.
sensitization.
d.
motion imaging.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

23. The trash really stinks, but it doesnt bother you as much as it did when you first came home, so you put off taking it out for another day. ____________ has probably occurred.
a.
Positive adaptation
c.
Sensory adjustment
b.
Negative adaptation
d.
Signal adaptation

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Applied

24. Which sensory system is dominant for most individuals?
a.
hearing
c.
vision
b.
smelling
d.
touch

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

25. Visible light is
a.
electromagnetic energy.
c.
biochemical energy.
b.
chemical energy.
d.
pressure/vacuum energy.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-76&77 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

26. Even when he blocks out all visible light waves from his field of vision, Petros cannot see infrared or ultraviolet light waves because
a.
his eyes adapted to the darkness.
b.
most people have never seen ultraviolet or infrared waves and are unable to identify
them.
c.
nobody can see in the dark.
d.
only one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum triggers visual sensations.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-76&77 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

27. Which of the following colors is longest in wavelength?
a.
red
c.
violet
b.
yellow
d.
green

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-77 OBJ: 2
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

28. Light first passes through the outer surface of the eye called the ___________.
a.
cornea
c.
pupil
b.
retina
d.
iris

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

29. As you leave a darkly lit movie theater and enter the parking lot on a bright sunny day, the ______ in your eyes adjust so you are not blinded by the increase in light.
a.
retina
c.
pupils
b.
fovea
d.
optic nerve

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

30. Artemis is watching television with the lights out. Seymour walks into the room and flips on the light, which momentarily blinds Artemis because her
a.
corneas are slow to adapt.
b.
lenses have not yet thickened to accommodate the increased light.
c.
retina continues to hold afterimages of the television screen.
d.
pupils need a brief time to adjust to the increased light.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

31. The part of the eye that changes its thickness to adjust an image to make it clearer is the________.
a.
lens
c.
iris
b.
retina
d.
cornea

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

32. What is a photoreceptor?
a.
The part of the spectrum that stimulates the eye and produces visual sensations.
b.
Cells of the retina that respond to light.
c.
Neurons whose axons form the optic nerve.
d.
Neurons that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

33. Rods and cones respond to light and produce neural impulses that are collected by
a.
ganglion cells.
c.
atypical cells.
b.
bipolar cells.
d.
helper cells.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

34. The __________ of ganglion cells in the retina form the optic nerve.
a.
cell bodies
c.
axons
b.
dendrites
d.
none of these

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

35. The axons of the __________ make up the optic nerve, which exits the eye at the __________.
a.
bipolar cells; fovea
c.
bipolar cell; blind spot
b.
ganglion cells; blind spot
d.
horizontal cells; fovea

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

36. Light enters the eye, stimulates the retina, and relays visual information to the brain through nerve impulses. What is the order of cell firing to the brain?
a.
photoreceptors, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
b.
ganglion cells, photoreceptors, bipolar cells
c.
bipolar cells, photoreceptors, ganglion cells
d.
photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

37. ________ are the photoreceptors that allow us to see black and white; ______ are the photoreceptors that allow us to see colors.
a.
Cones; rods
c.
Ganglion cells; bipolar cells
b.
Rods; cones
d.
Bipolar cells; ganglion cells

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

38. Rods and cones outnumber _______ by more than 100 to 1.
a.
bipolar cells
c.
amacrine cells
b.
ganglion cells
d.
horizontal cells

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

39. Jim sees only in white and black. After careful examination of his retina, the ophthalmologist concludes that Jims ___________ have degenerated.
a.
bipolar cells
c.
horizontal cells
b.
cones
d.
ganglion cells

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

40. Hair cells are to hearing as ___________ are to vision.
a.
horizontal cells
c.
bipolar cells
b.
ganglion cells
d.
rods and cones

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

41. What is the most sensitive area of the retina?
a.
blind spot
c.
pupil
b.
fovea
d.
presbyopia

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
42. You have been at the beach all day and forgot your sunglasses. What part of the eye is most likely damaged?
a.
peripheral area
c.
optic nerve
b.
blind spot
d.
fovea

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

43. The blind spot is
a.
an area of the retina that is insensitive to visual stimulation.
b.
where the axons of ganglion cells converge and form the optic nerve.
c.
both a and b
d.
an area of the retina that is very sensitive to visual stimulation.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

44. Juliana is nearsighted; therefore images of distant objects are focused _________ the retina.
a.
behind
c.
above
b.
in front of
d.
below

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

45. Your good friend Agnes has difficulty reading road signs when she drives. What condition does she likely exhibit?
a.
Her eyeballs are too short.
c.
She is farsighted.
b.
She has presbyopia.
d.
She is nearsighted.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

46. A visual disorder caused by brittleness of the lens is known as
a.
astigmatism.
c.
strabismus.
b.
presbyopia.
d.
binocular acuity.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

47. In the eye disorder presbyopia, the primary symptom is the
a.
difficulty in perceiving near objects.
c.
eye muscles not working in synchrony.
b.
retina becoming detached.
d.
tendency toward eyestrain.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

48. Your 45-year-old father was just told by his eye doctor that he needs reading glasses. This could be
a.
macular degeneration.
c.
presbyopia.
b.
retinitis pigmentosis.
d.
nearsightedness.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

49. The process of dark adaptation happens more quickly for _________which can adjust to lower lighting in about _________ minutes.
a.
cones; 10
c.
cones; 45
b.
rods; 10
d.
rods; 45

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

50. Wavelength of light determines its
a.
brightness.
c.
saturation.
b.
hue.
d.
brightness adaptation.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

51. It is 100 F outside; which of the following rooms would you probably find most appealing?
a.
red
c.
yellow
b.
orange
d.
blue

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

52. The living room of your new apartment seems cold and forbidding, and you decide to remedy the problem by adding color to the decorating scheme. To add warmth to the room, you should consider using
a.
yellow, blue, and red.
c.
greens, blues, and violet.
b.
orange, green, and blue.
d.
yellow, orange, and red.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

53. What are complementary colors?
a.
colors that are beside each other on the color wheel
b.
colors that are across from each other on the color wheel
c.
colors that are mixed together and dissolve into light yellow
d.
colors that reflect very little light

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

54. Colors across from each other on the color wheel are labeled
a.
complementary.
c.
primary.
b.
analogous.
d.
trichromatic.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

55. What is the source of all color?
a.
light
c.
hues
b.
shadows
d.
pigment

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

56. If you mix blue and yellow, you get green. This is true only when you are mixing
a.
light.
c.
afterimages.
b.
pigments.
d.
wavelengths.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

57. To avoid the heat it is better to wear white clothing as opposed to black when out in the sun. This is true because
a.
black reflects light whereas white reflects little light.
b.
white absorbs the light.
c.
white reflects a lot of light whereas black reflects little light.
d.
none of these.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

58. Why does grass appear green?
a.
The pigment in chlorophyll absorbs most of the red, blue, and violet wavelengths of light, and the green is reflected.
b.
The pigment in chlorophyll reflects most of the red, blue, and violet wavelengths of light, and the green is absorbed.
c.
The red pigment reflects all the wavelengths of light, leaving only various shades of green.
d.
The blue pigment absorbs all the wavelengths of light, and various amounts of green are absorbed.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

59. When mixing a blue pigment with a yellow pigment, the result is
a.
green.
c.
purple.
b.
gray.
d.
orange.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

60. The complementary colors situated across from each other on the color wheel unite to produce gray when combining __________ through a(n) __________ process.
a.
pigments; additive
c.
pigments; subtractive
b.
lights; additive
d.
lights; subtractive

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

61. The blue automobile gains its color by __________ red, yellow, and violet wavelengths and __________ the blue wavelengths.
a.
absorbing; reflecting
c.
reflecting; absorbing
b.
adding; subtracting
d.
absorbing; complementing

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

62. __________ are the persistent sensations of color followed by the perception of the complementary color when the first color is removed.
a.
Analogous hues
c.
Afterimages
b.
Complementary colors
d.
Sensory impressions

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

63. If a man of normal color vision looks at a green paper for about 30 seconds and then shifts his gaze to a sheet of white paper, that paper will appear
a.
yellow.
c.
red.
b.
blue.
d.
gray.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

64. Who developed the trichromatic theory?
a.
Thomas Young
c.
Ewald Hering
b.
Herman von Helmholtz
d.
Rock Peck

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

65. Thomas Young projected three different colored lights onto a screen so they partially overlapped. He found that he could produce ______________________ of the lights.
a.
analogous colors by varying the duration
c.
afterimages by varying the intensities
b.
any color by varying the saturation
d.
any color by varying the intensities

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

66. The idea that the eye contains three kinds of photoreceptors differentially sensitive to red, green, and blue that are responsible for color vision was proposed by the German physiologist
a.
Gustav Fechner.
c.
Ernest Heinrich Weber.
b.
Ewald Hering.
d.
Hermann von Helmholtz.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: BTC

67. According to trichromatic theory, three types of cones are differentially sensitive to which of the following colors?
a.
red, yellow, and violet
c.
blue, red, and green
b.
black, white, and red
d.
orange, yellow, and red

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

68. Opponent-process theory of color vision was proposed by
a.
Hermann von Helmholtz.
c.
Georges Seurat.
b.
Thomas Young.
d.
Ewald Hering.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual
69. Ewald Hering proposed the opponent-process theory of color vision which claims:
a.
Three types of color receptors are responsible for afterimages.
b.
The four types of color receptors are sensitive to red, green, blue and the brightness of the light.
c.
A red-green cone can transmit messages for red and green at the same time.
d.
Staring at a green, black, and yellow flag for 30 seconds will not disturb the
perception of color.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

70. The opponent-process theory of color vision is based on the idea that the retina contains
a.
three types of simple receptors sensitive to red, green, and blue.
b.
three types of receptors, two sensitive to color and one to differences in brightness.
c.
three sets of cells responsive to brightness.
d.
three types of receptors responsive to primary colors.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

71. According to opponent-process theory, a __________ afterimage produced by a yellow sheet of paper represents a process of reestablishing a neural __________ in the retina.
a.
red; balance
c.
blue; balance
b.
blue; inhibition
d.
green; rebound

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

72. Research on the patterns of neural transmission from the cones to the bipolar and ganglion cells, then to the brain, suggests that the messages are consistent with
a.
trichromatic theory.
c.
neural rebound effect.
b.
opponent-process theory.
d.
Thomas Youngs studies.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

73. On theories of color vision, the weight of evidence tends to support
a.
opponent-process theory.
b.
trichromatic theory.
c.
neural rebound effect.
d.
opponents process and trichromatic theories as partially correct.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

74. Your professor has just called you a trichromat. What does this mean?
a.
You can only perceive three colors.
c.
You have damaged cones in your retina.
b.
You have normal color vision.
d.
You have damaged rods in your retina.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-82 OBJ: 2
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

75. George is partially colorblind yet his sister is not, but her sons are partially colorblind. These family traits are best described by which of the following statements?
a.
Partial color blindness occurs only in men.
b.
The gene responsible for partial color blindness has nothing to do with gender.
c.
Georges and his sisters eye color chromosomes are different.
d.
Partial color blindness is a sex-linked trait that affects mostly males.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 4-82 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

76. A perceptual tendency to integrate disconnected pieces into a whole image is called
a.
closure.
c.
proximity.
b.
continuity.
d.
similarity.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-82 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

77. Gestalt psychologists have noted the rules in the way humans integrate bits and pieces of sensory stimulation into meaningful whole experiences. The rules are referred to as the laws of
a.
bottom-up processing.
c.
perceptual organization.
b.
figure-ground perception.
d.
opponents process theory.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-83 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

78. The perceptual tendency to separate objects from the surroundings is called
a.
figure-ground perception.
c.
Gestalt rules of perception.
b.
closure.
d.
trichromatic theory.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-83 OBJ: 3
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

79. The Gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendency to see objects that are near each other as belonging to a set is termed
a.
proximity.
c.
continuity.
b.
closure.
d.
similarity.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-83 OBJ: 3
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

80. The Gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendency to see like objects as belonging together is termed
a.
proximity.
c.
similarity.
b.
continuity.
d.
common fate.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

81. A Valentines Day heart with an arrow point projecting through the lower part and the shaft partially shown in the upper part illustrates the Gestalt rule of
a.
common fate.
c.
proximity.
b.
continuity.
d.
similarity.

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

82. If elements move together, they are perceived as belonging together, which illustrates the law of
a.
common fate.
c.
similarity.
b.
continuity.
d.
closure.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

83. When you observe a marching band formation that appears to take on the shape of a letter even though the members are not in direct contact with each other, you are experiencing the Gestalt grouping principle called _____________.
a.
closure
c.
continuity
b.
common fate
d.
all of these

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

84. If you are putting a puzzle together while looking at a picture of the completed project, this would illustrate __________.
a.
bottom-up processing
b.
top-down processing
c.
rule of continuity
d.
law of closure

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

85. If Kimberly tells you that she was surprised the shredded picture that she pieced together turned out to be an image of herself, you may assume that she had used mostly __________ processing.
a.
top-down
c.
perceptual
b.
bottom-up
d.
patterned

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

86. The perceived movement of a deer running through the woods is
a.
termed the autokinetic effect.
b.
mainly based on stroboscopic motion of the deer glimpsed through the trees.
c.
mainly based on the deers change of position relative to the trees.
d.
termed phi phenomenon.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

87. You are trying to decide if the bus you are in or the bus adjacent to you is moving. This is called _______.
a.
apparent movement
c.
autokinetic effect
b.
perception of real movement
d.
stroboscopic motion

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

88. The rapid presentation of a progression of stationary images is a visual illusion termed
a.
real movement.
c.
stroboscopic motion.
b.
autokinetic effect.
d.
phi phenomenon.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

89. At the movies, it appears to you that the actors and objects on the screen are actually moving. This experience is based on
a.
stroboscopic motion.
c.
the Meller-Lyer illusion.
b.
motion parallax.
d.
the autokinetic effect.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

90. Brad hurt his left eye in football practice and was given an eye patch to wear. Brad discovered that his depth perception was not as good as usual, especially when driving in unlit roads at night. This is because he could make use of only
a.
binocular cues.
c.
perspective.
b.
monocular cues.
d.
shadows.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

91. The distance between far off objects appears to be smaller than the distance between nearby objects. This is contributes to
a.
perspective.
c.
clearness.
b.
overlapping.
d.
phi phenomenon.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

92. If you were an artist and wanted an object to appear far away in your drawing, what monocular cue could you use?
a.
relative size
c.
clearness
b.
overlapping
d.
all of these

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

93. The monocular cue of overlapping is based on our experience that partially covered objects are
a.
farther away than the objects obscuring them.
b.
closer than the objects obscuring them
c.
the same distance than the objects obscuring them.
d.
the same shape as the objects obscuring them.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

94. In a painting that you are observing, one object is perceived as a two-dimensional circle, and another appears to be a three dimensional sphere. What monocular cue can account for this effect?
a.
convergence
c.
shadowing
b.
relative size
d.
shape constancy

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

95. The grain of wooden floor appearing rough nearby and smooth at greater distances illustrates the monocular depth cue of
a.
perspective.
c.
texture gradient.
b.
proximity.
d.
shadowing.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

96. To represent three-dimensional objects in his paintings, Louis used
a.
texture gradient.
c.
shadows.
b.
perspective.
d.
retinal disparity.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

97. When we are driving along a dark road at night, the moon may appear to move along with us. This perceptual experience is an example of
a.
the autokinetic effect.
c.
binocular depth cues.
b.
the phi phenomenon.
d.
motion parallax.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

98. When traveling, the monocular cue motion parallax produces the perception that
a.
distant objects are moving along with us.
b.
objects at intermediate distances are stationary.
c.
objects that are close move past us very quickly
d.
all of these.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-85 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

99. Binocular cues for depth perception include _______.
a.
retinal disparity and convergence
c.
continuity and retinal disparity
b.
convergence and closure
d.
retinal disparity and proximity

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

100. Depth perception is enhanced when each eye projects the image of an object to the brain from a slightly different perspective. This cue for depth is called
a.
convergence.
c.
accommodation.
b.
perspective.
d.
retinal disparity.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

101. As a person gets closer to an object there is ___________ retinal disparity.
a.
less
c.
equal
b.
greater
d.
weaker

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

102. Nine-year-old Dennis enjoyed crossing his eyes for his friends. He was using the same eye muscles that are used in
a.
accommodation.
c.
convergence.
b.
retinal disparity.
d.
motion parallax.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

103. The image of a cat from 20 feet away occupies about the same amount of space on your retina as an inch-long piece of candy in your hand. Yet you still perceive the cat as larger than the piece of candy because of ______________.
a.
shape constancy
c.
size constancy
b.
retinal disparity
d.
brightness constancy

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

104. From a chair lift high above the slopes, we perceive the skiers below as normal size even though their images formed on our retinas are extremely small. This occurs because of
a.
shape constancy.
c.
illusory constancy.
b.
size constancy.
d.
binocular cues.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

105. If Kiobe, an African pygmy who grew up and lived all his life in a thick forest, told an anthropologist that the distant buffalo on the open plain were insects, one might conclude that he
a.
suffered from presbyopia.
b.
lacked brightness constancy.
c.
lacked shape constancy for great distance.
d.
lacked size constancy for great distance.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

106. Color constancy is based on perceiving objects as the same color despite changes in
a.
lighting conditions.
c.
the color of light.
b.
the color of the pigment.
d.
none of these.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

107. The tendency to perceive an object as being just as bright in varying amounts of light is called
a.
an illusion.
c.
brightness constancy.
b.
a monocular cue.
d.
color constancy.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 4-86&87 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

108. When a closet door is closed, its shape is perceived as rectangular. When the same door is opened, the retinal image is trapezoidal, but we realize the shape of the door has not changed due to
a.
size constancy.
c.
shape constancy.
b.
interposition.
d.
convergence.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-87 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

109. When looking at the wall-mount telephone straight on, a rectangular image forms on Kirbys retinas; looking at the same phone at an angle from the side, a trapezoidal shape forms in each eye. Yet the phone retains the same appearance despite the changing images. This is best explained by
a.
size constancy.
c.
shape constancy.
b.
lateral vision.
d.
illusory contours.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 4-87 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Applied

110. When principles of perceptual organization lead to distortions in the appearance of objects, __________ results.
a.
an illusion
c.
retinal disparity
b.
accommodation
d.
a hallucination

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-87 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

111. Hering-Helmholtz and Mller-Lyer both refer to
a.
theories of hearing.
c.
visual disorders.
b.
theories of color perception.
d.
illusions.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-87 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

112. In which of the following situations are you not able to hear the nearby frantic scream of a scared child?
a.
during a skydive
c.
in outer space
b.
while swimming underwater
d.
standing ten feet away

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

113. The compression and expansion of air molecules is a source of
a.
light waves.
c.
hue.
b.
pheromones.
d.
sound waves.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

114. The human ear is sensitive to sound waves with frequencies of
a.
20 to 2,000 cycles per second.
c.
2 to 200 cycles per second.
b.
20 to 20,000 cycles per second.
d.
200 to 20,000 cycles per second.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

115. The loudness of a sound is determined by the __________ of sound waves.
a.
frequency
c.
consonance
b.
amplitude
d.
dissonance

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

116. Frequency of sound waves determines __________, and amplitude determines __________.
a.
pitch; loudness
c.
loudness; timbre
b.
timbre; pitch
d.
pitch; timbre

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

117. The loudness of a sound is determined by the __________ of the sound waves and expressed in __________ units of measurement.
a.
wavelength; decibel
c.
amplitude; pounds pressure
b.
amplitude; millimicrons
d.
amplitude; decibel

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

118. You have just returned from touring with a rock band. During the concerts you had to stand directly in front of the speakers. You notice difficulty hearing people in conversations. What has most likely happened?
a.
You were exposed to sounds of 85 to 90 dB for long periods of time, and have
suffered hearing damage.
b.
You were exposed to sounds of 180 to 220 dB for long periods of time, and your hearing will return to normal in a few months.
c.
You were exposed to sounds of 50 dB for long periods of time, and you will become totally deaf.
d.
Your eardrum was most likely ruptured by the loud music.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

119. The physical correlates of pitch and loudness are __________ and __________, respectively.
a.
amplitude; frequency
c.
overtones; frequency
b.
frequency; amplitude
d.
decibels; frequency

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

120. The membrane at the end of the outer ear, which vibrates in response to sound waves, is the
a.
eardrum.
c.
organ of Corti.
b.
oval window.
d.
round window.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

121. The function of the three bones in the middle ear is to
a.
attenuate the amplitude of the sound waves.
b.
decrease the pressure of the air entering the ear.
c.
funnel the sound waves to the eardrum.
d.
increase the pressure of air entering the ear.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

122. The tiny bones that vibrate to amplify the sound vibrations are located in the
a.
outer ear.
c.
inner ear.
b.
middle ear.
d.
cochlea.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

123. The coiled bony structure that makes up the inner ear is called the
a.
organ of Corti.
c.
cochlea.
b.
anvil.
d.
eardrum.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

124. Hair-like receptors on the organ of Corti bend in response to vibrations of the
a.
eardrum.
c.
round window.
b.
oval window.
d.
basilar membrane.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

125. Movement of hair cells generates neural impulses that travel to the brain via the ________ _________.
a.
optic nerve
c.
basilar membrane
b.
auditory nerve
d.
oval window

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

126. To locate the source of a sound, Frank turned his head a few degrees to the left. We may conclude that the sound Frank heard was
a.
directly overhead.
c.
to the left of him.
b.
too low to hear clearly.
d.
to the right of him.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Applied

127. As Jeannine turns up the volume of the stereo system, we may conclude that
a.
more auditory neurons fire.
c.
auditory neurons fire less frequently.
b.
fewer auditory neurons fire.
d.
overtones are more consonant

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Applied

128. Place theory advances the idea that pitch discrimination depends upon the
a.
area of the middle ear stimulated.
b.
number of auditory neurons activated.
c.
frequency at which auditory neurons fire.
d.
area of the basilar membrane that vibrates to the sound.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

129. Frequency theory of pitch discrimination predicts that high-pitched sounds fire __________ and low-pitched sounds fire __________.
a.
more often; less often
b.
less often; more often
c.
more sensory cells; fewer sensory cells
d.
nearer to the oval window; farther from the oval window

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

130. The place theory is not able to completely explain pitch perception because people can sense pitches as low as _________ yet the Place Theory appears to apply only to pitches greater than _________.
a.
00 Hz; 5,000 Hz
c.
20 Hz; 5,000 Hz
b.
20 Hz; 500 Hz
d.
2 Hz; 500 Hz

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

131. Research on deafness shows that
a.
one percent of Americans are deaf.
b.
conductive deafness is most often found in children.
c.
sensorineural deafness usually stems from damage to the structures of the middle ear.
d.
hearing aids provide inner ear amplification of sound.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

132. Damage to the structure of the middle ear takes the form of __________ deafness, and damage to the structures of the inner ear results in __________ deafness.
a.
sensorineural; conductive
c.
conductive; sensorineural
b.
monochromatic; dichromatic
d.
sensorineural; presbyopia

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

133. Following a long period of playing lead guitar in his rock band, Orpheus showed diminished hearing in particular frequencies. He most likely suffers from
a.
conductive deafness.
c.
stimulation deafness.
b.
strabismus.
d.
sensorineural deafness.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Applied

134. Following a long career as an airplane mechanic, Mike Goodwrenchs hearing was periodically tested. In the most recent test, the audiologist found evidence of generalized hearing loss for detection of sounds at all frequencies. Mike probably suffers from
a.
sensorineural deafness.
c.
conductive deafness.
b.
presbyopia.
d.
ringing sensations.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Applied

135. Cochlear implants, or artificial ears, restore hearing by
a.
stimulating the bones of the middle ear.
b.
amplifying the vibrations at the oval window.
c.
amplifying the sounds through the bony cochlea.
d.
stimulating the auditory nerve directly.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-90 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

136. Which of the following are classified as chemical senses?
a.
smell and taste
c.
smell and vestibular sense
b.
smell and olfactory sense
d.
taste and kinesthesis

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

137. The receptor neurons for smell are located in the
a.
olfactory nerve.
c.
organ of Corti.
b.
olfactory membrane.
d.
organ of pheromone.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

138. Odors are detected by sites on receptor neurons in the
a.
olfactory membrane, which is located just inside each nostril.
b.
olfactory membrane, which is located deep within each nostril.
c.
olfactory nerve.
d.
vomeronasal organ.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

139. The ___________ _________ transmits information about odors from the nose to the brain.
a.
olfactory nerve
c.
organ of corti
b.
olfactory membrane
d.
oval window

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

140. The sense receptors for taste are _________, and these receptors are located on the _________.
a.
taste buds; taste cells
c.
hair cells; taste cells
b.
taste cells; taste buds
d.
taste buds; hair cells

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Factual

141. The four qualities of taste are
a.
bitter, spicy, sweet, and sour.
c.
sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.
b.
salty, bitter, sweet, and hot.
d.
sweet, sour, spicy, and hot.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Factual

142. The skin senses include
a.
touch and pressure.
c.
pain.
b.
cold and warmth.
d.
all of these.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

143. Which of the following statements is true about the process of active touching?
a.
Active touching means continually moving your hand along an object to get continuous sensory input.
b.
If one stops active touching, the sensations will fade.
c.
Active touching receives information about pressure, temperature, texture, and muscle feedback.
d.
All of these

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

144. Differential sensitivity to pressure and touch in different parts of the body is a function of
a.
density of nerve endings and portion of sensory cortex.
b.
density of nerve endings in specific body areas.
c.
parts of the body and inborn traits.
d.
size of the brain and density of nerve endings.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual

145. You can feel that there are two rods touching your cheeks, but have difficulty feeling two rods if you are touched with them on your calves. This is because
a.
touch receptors are more densely packed in your calves.
b.
touch receptors are more densely packed in your cheeks.
c.
more of the sensory cortex is devoted to the perception of sensation on the face.
d.
Both b and c.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

146. If you wash your hands in barely warm water after spending an hour shoveling snow without wearing gloves, the water is likely to seem uncomfortably warm. This is because sensations for temperature are
a.
true to outside temperatures.
b.
produced by the warm receptors only.
c.
relative to the skin temperature.
d.
not noticeable below 45 degrees Celsius.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Applied

147. When neurons called nociceptors in the skin are stimulated, the result is
a.
pain
c.
heat
b.
pleasure
d.
all of these

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual

148. A pain message to the brain is initiated by the release of any or all of the chemicals EXCEPT
a.
P.
c.
pheromones.
b.
bradykinin.
d.
prostaglandins.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-92 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual

149. ____________ help transmit pain messages to the brain and stimulate circulation to an injured area causing _____________.
a.
Prostaglandins; inflammation
c.
Prostaglandins; blood thinning
b.
Pheromones; blood thinning
d.
Pheromones; inflammation

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

150. All of the following are psychological factors that can influence our reaction to pain EXCEPT
a.
other senses such as vision.
b.
emotional responses and how one handles stress.
c.
the amount of perceived control over the pain.
d.
an individuals pain tolerance.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

151. Your grandfather lost a leg in WWII. He sometimes complains of pain in his leg, even though it was amputated. Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning this situation?
a.
Your grandfather is not alone; 2 out of 3 combat veteran amputees complain of the same thing.
b.
This is known as phantom limb pain.
c.
The pain might be from an activation of the nerves in the stump of the missing limb.
d.
This pain is not real, it is imaginary.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

152. Tammy caught her thumb in the door. Why did her friend tell her to rub and scratch the thumb?
a.
She wanted to distract Tammy from the pain.
b.
Based on the gate theory, this can prevent the pain message from reaching the brain.
c.
This would promote the release of endorphins.
d.
Based on the stimulation theory, this would relieve the pain.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

153. The view that pain messages may not get through to the brain when the switchboard (that transmits pain messages) becomes flooded is termed
a.
gate theory.
c.
frequency theory.
b.
opponents process theory.
d.
acupuncture.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual

154. Researchers believe that acupuncture relieves pain by
a.
stimulating nerves that reach the hypothalamus
b.
causing the release of endorphins
c.
blocking pain receptors
d.
a and b

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Factual

155. A weight lifter can show off his muscles when he poses because the sensation of muscle tightness, and hardness is provided by the
a.
vestibular senses.
c.
photoreceptors.
b.
kinesthesis senses.
d.
touch receptors.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 7
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

156. The sensory receptors for kinesthesis are located in the
a.
tendons, muscles, and joints.
c.
bony frame of the body.
b.
semicircular canals.
d.
skin and hair.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 7
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

157. The ability to perceive whether your body is falling or changing speed is due to your
a.
virtual reality.
c.
extrasensory perception.
b.
vestibular sense.
d.
sensory positioning.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-94 OBJ: 7
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: BTC

158. Five year old Ben, loves to spin around until he cant stand up. This loss of balance is due to receptors in his
a.
eyes.
c.
legs.
b.
ears.
d.
joints.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 4-94 OBJ: 7
MSC: TYPE: Applied

159. You accelerate as you drive away from a stop light that has turned green. You are able to notice the change in speed because of receptors in the
a.
cochlea.
c.
joints.
b.
semicircular canals.
d.
surface of the skin.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 4-94 OBJ: 7
MSC: TYPE: Applied
160. After getting off a roller coaster ride you have difficulty maintaining your balance. This is due to _______.
a.
vestibular senses
c.
both a and b
b.
semicircular canals
d.
neither a or b

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-94 OBJ: 7
MSC: TYPE: Applied

161. Even though some studies have supported ESP, it nonetheless failed to gain credibility among psychologists because
a.
the respected ESP researcher J. B. Rhine of Duke University was not a psychologist.
b.
films have sensationalized ESP phenomena.
c.
from years of research, not one person has been found who can show ESP consistently and from one researcher to another.
d.
television psychics are frauds.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 4-95 OBJ: 8
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

162. Which of the following is true regarding extrasensory perception?
a.
Psychologists prefer to study perception that involves sensation.
b.
ESP refers to perception of objects or events without the use of sensory organs.
c.
No one has reliably demonstrated extrasensory perception from one occasion to
another or with more than one researcher.
d.
All of these.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 4-95 OBJ: 8
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

COMPLETION

1. Sensation is the stimulation of sensory receptors and transmission of sensory information to the_______ for processing.

ANS: brain

DIF: 1 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual

2. Gustav Fechner used the term_______________ to refer to the weakest amount of a stimulus that can be distinguished from no stimulus at all.

ANS: absolute threshold

DIF: 1 REF: 4-74 OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. The smallest difference in intensity of two stimuli required to perceive a difference in intensity 50% of the time is called the ___________.

ANS: difference threshold

DIF: 2 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
4. The fraction of the intensity by which a source of physical energy must be increased or decreased so that a difference in intensity will be perceived, is the definition of ________________.

ANS: Webers constant

DIF: 1 REF: 4-75 OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. Negative adaptation is also called ___________.

ANS: desensitization

DIF: 1 REF: 4-76 OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual

6. The wavelength of visible light determines color or ___________.

ANS: hue

DIF: 1 REF: 4-77 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

7. The transparent tissue that forms the outer surface of the eyeball is the ___________ .

ANS: cornea

DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

8. The size of the _________ adjusts automatically to the amount of light present.

ANS: pupil

DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. The colors across from one another on the color wheel are labeled _______________.

ANS: complimentary colors

DIF: 1 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

10. The mixture of lights is a(an) ____________ process.

ANS: additive

DIF: 2 REF: 4-80 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. Our ability to perceive color depends on the eyes transmission of different messages to the brain when lights with different___________ stimulate the ______ in the retina.

ANS: wavelengths; cones

DIF: 2 REF: 4-81 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. A person who is sensitive to black-white and either red-green or blue-yellow is partially colorblind. They are called a ____________.

ANS: dichromat

DIF: 1 REF: 4-82 OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual

13. The way we integrate bits and pieces of sensory stimulation into meaningful wholes, is refereed to as ________ ________.

ANS: perceptual organization

DIF: 2 REF: 4-82&83 OBJ: 3 MSC: TYPE: Factual

14. Depth perception involves ______________ and _____________ cues.

ANS: monocular; binocular

DIF: 1 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3 MSC: TYPE: Applied

15. The pitch of a sound is determined by its ____________, or the number of cycles per second as expressed in the unit _________.

ANS: frequency; hertz

DIF: 2 REF: 4-88 OBJ: 4 MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. The stirrup is attached to another vibrating membrane called the _______________.

ANS: oval window

DIF: 1 REF: 4-89 OBJ: 4 MSC: TYPE: Factual

17. In locating sounds, sound coming from the right side reaches the _________ ear first.

ANS: right

DIF: 1 REF: 4-89&90 OBJ: 4 MSC: TYPE: Factual

18. Olfactory membrane receptor neurons fire when a few molecules of a substance in _______________ form come into contact with them.

ANS: gaseous

DIF: 1 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5 MSC: TYPE: Factual

19. _______ _______ proposes that producing a flood of sensations can prevent pain messages from traveling to the brain.

ANS: Gate Theory

DIF: 1 REF: 4-93 OBJ: 6 MSC: TYPE: Factual
20. The_______ _________ helps us to maintain our balance.

ANS: vestibular sense

DIF: 1 REF: 4-94 MSC: TYPE: Factual

TRUE/FALSE

1. The iris is the muscle in the eye that controls the size of the pupil.

ANS: T DIF: 1 REF: 4-78 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

2. Cones are more sensitive to dim light.

ANS: F DIF: 1 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. If you have difficulty seeing objects that are far away, you are farsighted.

ANS: F DIF: 1 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

4. Dark adaptation is the process of increasing the sensitivity of rods and cones in low light.

ANS: T DIF: 2 REF: 4-79 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. The retina of a monochromat is sensitive only to lightness and darkness.

ANS: T DIF: 2 REF: 4-82 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

6. Top down processing involves discovering a form by carefully considering patterns of component parts.

ANS: F DIF: 3 REF: 4-84 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

7. Binocular cues allow us to perceive depth.

ANS: T DIF: 1 REF: 4-86 OBJ: 3
MSC: TYPE: Factual

8. Hearing damage may occur if you are exposed to 85 to 90decibels for long periods of time.

ANS: T DIF: 2 REF: 4-88&89 OBJ: 4
MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. Genetics does not contribute to an individuals sensitivity to basic tastes.

ANS: F DIF: 1 REF: 4-91 OBJ: 5
MSC: TYPE: Factual

10. Pain is sharpest in areas of the body where nerve endings are densely packed.

ANS: T DIF: 1 REF: 4-92&93 OBJ: 6
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

11. There is reliable scientific evidence for ESP.

ANS: F DIF: 1 REF: 4-94&95 OBJ: 8
MSC: TYPE: Factual

ESSAY

1. a) Define sensation and perception explain the difference between the two terms. b) Describe signal detection theory. c) Define sensory adaptation. How are sensitization and desensitization different?
ANS: Essay should include:

a) Sensation involves sense receptors; perception includes interpretations from experience. b) The interaction of detection and learning, motivation and psychological states; often we detect what we are looking for and do not detect what we are not looking for. c) Conditions in which sensory systems become more and less sensitive. The discussion of sensitization and desensitization should include the terms positive and negative adaptation, respectively.

2. a) Describe the order in which light passes through the eye. Be sure to identify each of the parts of the eye and their functions. b) Describe how the sense receptors receive light in the retina and how sensory information gets sent to the brain
ANS: Essay should include:
a) In order: cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, and a discussion of their functions. b) Description and functions of the rods, cones, ganglion and bipolar cells, blind spot and the optic nerve.

3. a) Define the two types of visual cues that help with depth perception and b) select two examples of each type and demonstrate how these cues facilitate depth perception.
ANS: Essay should include:
a) The definitions of monocular and binocular cues. b) Two monocular cues from the following: perspective, relative size, clearness, overlapping, shadowing, texture gradient, motion parallax, and a description of how each cue represents depth; a description of the two binocular cues: retinal disparity, convergence and how these cues rely on both eyes that provide slightly different retinal images and muscle changes to represent depth.
4. a) Describe the order in which sound waves enter the outer and middle ear. Be sure to describe each of the parts and their function. b) Describe how the sense receptors receive sound energy in the cochlea, and how sensory information gets sent to the brain. c) Compare two types of deafness and the causes.
ANS: Essay should include:
a) In order: outer ear, middle ear: eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, and a description of their functions. b) Descriptions and functions of structures in the inner ear: cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of corti, auditory nerve. c) Descriptions of conductive deafness (caused by damage in the middle ear) and sensorineural deafness (caused by damage in the inner ear).
5. a) Compare and contrast kinesthesis and the vestibular sense. b) Provide an example of each and describe why it is important in human functioning.
ANS: Essay should include:
a) Definitions of kinesthesis and vestibular senses. Comparison: both provide information about body positions and movement beyond vision. Contrast: kinesthesis involves sensory information from the body being sent to the brain; vestibular senses involve sensors in the semicircular canals of the ear sending information about body position and speed. b) Kinesthesis: discussion of an athlete or other individual who needs sensory feedback, including what would happen without this sense. Vestibular sense: any example containing dizziness, including why this sense is important to judge body position, gravity, speed.

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