Test Bank for Physics 8th Edition by Cutnell

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Test Bank for Physics 8th Edition by Cutnell

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Import Settings:
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Information Field: Difficulty
Information Field: SectionDef
Highest Answer Letter: E
Multiple Keywords in Same Paragraph: No

Chapter: Chapter 5

Multiple Choice

1. A ball moves with a constant speed of 4 m/s around a circle of radius 0.25 m. What is the period of the motion? [Hint: For this calculation, you need to know the circumference of the circle.]
A) 0.1 s
B) 0.4 s
C) 0.7 s
D) 1 s
E) 2 s

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

2. The second hand on a watch has a length of 4.50 mm and makes one revolution in 60.00 s. What is the speed of the end of the second hand as it moves in uniform circular motion?
A) 9.42 104 m/s
B) 2.67 103 m/s
C) 5.34 103 m/s
D) 4.71 104 m/s
E) 2.36 105 m/s

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

3. Approximately one billion years ago, the Moon orbited the Earth much closer than it does today. The radius of the orbit was only 24 400 km. The orbital period was only 23 400 s. Today, the average radius is 385 000 km; and the present period is 2.36 106 s. Assuming that the orbit of the Moon is circular, calculate the ratio of the speed of the Moon in its ancient orbit to the speed that it has today.
A) 15.8
B) 12.8
C) 10.2
D) 7.15
E) 6.39

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

4. A solar-powered car is traveling at constant speed around a circular track. What happens to the centripetal acceleration of the car if the speed is doubled?
A) The centripetal acceleration remains the same.
B) The centripetal acceleration increases by a factor of 2.
C) The centripetal acceleration increases by a factor of 4.
D) The centripetal acceleration is decreased by a factor of one-half.
E) The centripetal acceleration is decreased by a factor of one-fourth.

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

5. A ball is whirled on the end of a string in a horizontal circle of radius R at constant speed v. Complete the following statement: The centripetal acceleration of the ball can be increased by a factor of 4 by
A) keeping the speed fixed and increasing the radius by a factor of 4.
B) keeping the radius fixed and increasing the speed by a factor of 4.
C) keeping the radius fixed and increasing the period by a factor of 4.
D) keeping the radius fixed and decreasing the period by a factor of 4.
E) keeping the speed fixed and decreasing the radius by a factor of 4.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

6. A rock is whirled on the end of a string in a horizontal circle of radius R with a constant period T. If the radius of the circle is reduced to R/3, while the period remains T, what happens to the centripetal acceleration of the rock?
A) The centripetal acceleration remains the same.
B) The centripetal acceleration increases by a factor of 3.
C) The centripetal acceleration increases by a factor of 9.
D) The centripetal acceleration decreases by a factor of 3.
E) The centripetal acceleration decreases by a factor of 9.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

7. A car traveling at 20 m/s follows a curve in the road so that its centripetal acceleration is 5 m/s2. What is the radius of the curve?
A) 4 m
B) 8 m
C) 80 m
D) 160 m
E) 640 m

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

8. A satellite is placed in a circular orbit to observe the surface of Mars from an altitude of 144 km. The equatorial radius of Mars is 3397 km. If the speed of the satellite is 3480 m/s, what is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the satellite?
A) 2.17 m/s2
B) 2.60 m/s2
C) 2.99 m/s2
D) 3.42 m/s2
E) 4.05 m/s2

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

Reference: Ref 5-1

One of the worlds largest Ferris wheels, the Cosmo Clock 21 with a radius of 50.0 m is located in Yokohama City, Japan.
Each of the sixty gondolas on the wheel takes 1.00 minute to complete one revolution when it is running at full speed.
Note: Ignore gravitational effects.

9. What is the uniform speed of a gondola when the Ferris wheel is running at full speed?
A) 314 m/s
B) 1.67 m/s
C) 10.5 m/s
D) 18.6 m/s
E) 5.24 m/s

Ans: E
Refer To: Ref 5-1
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

10. What is the centripetal acceleration of the gondola when the Ferris wheel is running at full speed?
A) 0.548 m/s2
B) 6.91 m/s2
C) 2.21 m/s2
D) 0.732 m/s2
E) 6.28 m/s2

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-1
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-1 and 5-2

11. A boy is whirling a stone around his head by means of a string. The string makes one complete revolution every second; and the magnitude of the tension in the string is F. The boy then speeds up the stone, keeping the radius of the circle unchanged, so that the string makes two complete revolutions every second. What happens to the tension in the sting?
A) The magnitude of the tension is unchanged.
B) The magnitude of the tension reduces to half of its original value, F/2.
C) The magnitude of the tension increases to twice its original value, 2F.
D) The magnitude of the tension increases to four times its original value, 4F.
E) The magnitude of the tension reduces to one-fourth of its original value, F/4.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-3

12. A 0.25-kg ball attached to a string is rotating in a horizontal circle of radius 0.5 m. If the ball revolves twice every second, what is the tension in the string?
A) 2 N
B) 5 N
C) 7 N
D) 10 N
E) 20 N

Ans: E
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-3

13. A certain string just breaks when it is under 25 N of tension. A boy uses this string to whirl a 0.75-kg stone in a horizontal circle of radius 2.0 m. The boy continuously increases the speed of the stone. At approximately what speed will the string break?
A) 6.4 m/s
B) 8.2 m/s
C) 12 m/s
D) 15 m/s
E) 18 m/s

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-3

14. Holly puts a box into the trunk of her car. Later, she drives around an unbanked curve that has a radius of 48 m. The speed of the car on the curve is 16 m/s, but the box remains stationary relative to the floor of the trunk. Determine the minimum coefficient of static friction for the box on the floor of the trunk.
A) 0.42
B) 0.54
C) 0.17
D) 0.33
E) This cannot be determined without knowing the mass of the box.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-3

15. In an amusement park ride, a child stands against the wall of a cylindrical room that is then made to rotate. The floor drops downward and the child remains pinned against the wall. If the radius of the room is 2.15 m and the relevant coefficient of friction between the child and the wall is 0.600, with what minimum speed is the child moving if he is to remain pinned against the wall?
A) 7.26 m/s
B) 3.93 m/s
C) 12.1 m/s
D) 5.93 m/s
E) 9.80 m/s

Ans: D
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-3

16. Which force is responsible for holding a car in a frictionless banked curve?
A) the reaction force to the cars weight
B) the vertical component of the cars weight
C) the vertical component of the normal force
D) the horizontal component of the cars weight
E) the horizontal component of the normal force

Ans: E
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-4

17. Which force is responsible for holding a car in an unbanked curve?
A) the cars weight
B) the force of friction
C) the reaction force to the cars weight
D) the vertical component of the normal force
E) the horizontal component of the normal force

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-4

18. Complete the following statement: The maximum speed at which a car can safely negotiate an unbanked curve depends on all of the following factors except
A) the diameter of the curve.
B) the acceleration due to gravity.
C) the coefficient of static friction between the road and the tires.
D) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the road and the tires.
E) the ratio of the static frictional force between the road and the tires and the normal force exerted on the car.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

19. Complete the following statement: The maximum speed at which a car can safely negotiate a frictionless banked curve depends on all of the following except
A) the mass of the car.
B) the angle of banking.
C) the diameter of the curve.
D) the radius of the curve.
E) the acceleration due to gravity.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-4

20. Determine the minimum angle at which a roadbed should be banked so that a car traveling at 20.0 m/s can safely negotiate
the curve if the radius of the curve is 2.00 102 m.
A) 0.200
B) 0.581
C) 11.5
D) 19.6
E) 78.2

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

21. A car enters a horizontal, curved roadbed of radius 50 m. The coefficient of static friction between the tires and the roadbed is 0.20. What is the maximum speed with which the car can safely negotiate the unbanked curve?
A) 5 m/s
B) 10 m/s
C) 20 m/s
D) 40 m/s
E) 100 m/s

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

22. An indoor track is to be designed such that each end is a banked semi-circle with a radius of 24 m. What should the banking angle be for a person running at speed v = 6.0 m/s?
A) 8.7
B) 11
C) 14
D) 22
E) 45

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

Reference: Ref 5-2

A 1800-kg Jeep travels along a straight 500-m portion of highway (from A to B) at a constant speed of 10 m/s. At B, the Jeep encounters an unbanked curve of radius 50 m. The Jeep follows the road from B to C traveling at a constant speed of 10 m/s while the direction of the Jeep changes from east to south.

23. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the Jeep as it travels from A to B?
A) 2 m/s2
B) 5 m/s2
C) 10 m/s2
D) 20 m/s2
E) zero m/s2

Ans: E
Refer To: Ref 5-2
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-4

24. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the Jeep as it travels from B to C?
A) 2 m/s2
B) 5 m/s2
C) 10 m/s2
D) 20 m/s2
E) zero m/s2

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-2
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

25. What is the magnitude of the frictional force between the tires and the road as the Jeep negotiates the curve from B to C?
A) 9600 N
B) 7200 N
C) 3600 N
D) 1800 N
E) 1000 N

Ans: C
Refer To: Ref 5-2
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-4

26. The Earth exerts the necessary centripetal force on an orbiting satellite to keep it moving in a circle at constant speed. Which one of the following statements best explains why the speed of the satellite does not change although there is a net force exerted on it?
A) The satellite is in equilibrium.
B) The acceleration of the satellite is zero m/s2.
C) The centripetal force has magnitude mv2/r.
D) The centripetal force is canceled by the reaction force.
E) The centripetal force is always perpendicular to the velocity.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

27. Callisto and Io are two of Jupiters satellites. The distance from Callisto to the center of Jupiter is approximately 4.5 times farther than the distance from Io to the center of Jupiter. How does Callistos orbital period, TC, compare to that of Io, TI?
A) TC = 4.5 TI
B) TC = 21 TI
C) TC = 9.5 TI
D) TC = 0.2 TI
E) TC = 2.7 TI

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

28. Consider a hypothetical planet in our solar system whose average distance from the Sun is about four times that of Earth. Determine the orbital period for this hypothetical planet.
A) 0.25 year
B) 2.5 years
C) 4 years
D) 8 years
E) 16 years

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

29. Consider a satellite in a circular orbit around the Earth. If it were at an altitude equal to twice the radius of the Earth, 2RE, how would its speed v relate to the Earths radius RE, and the magnitude g of the acceleration due to gravity on the Earths surface?
A)
B) v2 = 2gRE
C)
D)
E)

Ans: C
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

30. A satellite is placed in equatorial orbit above Mars, which has a radius of 3397 km and a mass MM = 6.40 1023 kg. The mission of the satellite is to observe the Martian climate from an altitude of 488 km. What is the orbital period of the satellite?
A) 9.18 102 s
B) 3.62 103 s
C) 7.36 103 s
D) 1.08 105 s
E) 7.27 1012 s

Ans: C
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

31. A satellite in orbit around the earth has a period of one hour. An identical satellite is placed in an orbit having a radius that is nine times larger than that of the first satellite. What is the period of the second satellite?
A) 0.04 h
B) 3 h
C) 4 h
D) 9 h
E) 27 h

Ans: E
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

32. The radius of Saturns orbit around the Sun is about 10 times that of Earth. Complete the following statement: The period of Saturn is about
A) 10 years.
B) 30 years.
C) 40 years.
D) 90 years.
E) 160 years.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

33. An artificial satellite in a circular orbit around the Sun has a period of 8 years. Determine the ratio of the satellites orbital radius to that of the earths orbital radius. Assume that the earths orbit around the Sun is circular.
A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) 8
E) 23

Ans: C
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

34. The mass and radius of the moon are 7.4 1022 kg and 1.7 106 m, respectively. What is the weight of a 1.0-kg object on the surface of the moon?
A) 1.0 N
B) 1.7 N
C) 3.7 N
D) 8.8 N
E) 9.8 N

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

35. An object weighs 10 N on the earths surface. What is the weight of the object on a planet that has one tenth the earths mass and one half the earths radius?
A) 4 N
B) 2 N
C) 1 N
D) 10 N
E) 20 N

Ans: A
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

Reference: Ref 5-3

A 2400-kg satellite is in a circular orbit around a planet. The satellite travels with a constant speed of 6670 m/s.

The radius of the circular orbit is 8.92 106 m.

36. At the instant shown in the figure, which arrow indicates the direction of the net force on the satellite?

A) (a)
B) (b)
C) (c)
D) (d)
E) (e)

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-3
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

37. What is the acceleration of the satellite?
A) 2.5 m/s2
B) 21 m/s2
C) 9.8 m/s2
D) 5.0 m/s2
E) zero m/s2

Ans: D
Refer To: Ref 5-3
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

38. Determine the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted on the satellite by the planet.
A) 1.2 104 N
B) 2.4 104 N
C) 5.0 103 N
D) 7.5 104 N
E) This cannot be determined since the mass and radius of the planet are not specified.

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-3
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

39. What is the acceleration due to gravity at an altitude of 1.00 106 m above the earths surface? Note: the radius of the earth is 6.38 106 m.
A) 3.99 m/s2
B) 9.80 m/s2
C) 5.00 m/s2
D) 6.77 m/s2
E) 7.32 m/s2

Ans: E
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

40. The radius of the earth is 6.38 106 m and its mass is 5.98 1024 kg. What is the acceleration due to gravity at a height of 1.28 107 m above the earths surface?
A) 1.08 m/s2
B) 2.15 m/s2
C) 9.80 m/s2
D) 0.659 m/s2
E) 0.114 m/s2

Ans: A
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

41. A spaceship is in orbit around the earth at an altitude of 12 000 miles. Which one of the following statements best explains why the astronauts experience weightlessness?
A) The centripetal force of the earth on the astronaut in orbit is zero newtons.
B) The pull of the earth on the spaceship is canceled by the pull of the other planets.
C) The spaceship is in free fall and its floor cannot press upwards on the astronauts.
D) The force of gravity decreases as the inverse square of the distance from the earths center.
E) The force of the earth on the spaceship and the force of the spaceship on the earth cancel because they are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

42. A space station is designed in the shape of a large, hollow donut that is uniformly rotating. The outer radius of the station is 350 m. With what period must the station rotate so that a person sitting on the outer wall experiences artificial gravity, i.e. an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2?
A) 230 s
B) 170 s
C) 110 s
D) 76 s
E) 38 s

Ans: E
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

43. The radius of the earth is 6400 km. An incoming meteorite approaches the earth along the trajectory shown. The point C in the figure is 6400 km above the earths surface. The point A is located at the earths center. At point C, what acceleration would the meteorite experience due to the earths gravity?

A) 9.8 m/s2 toward A
B) 2.5 m/s2 toward A
C) 2.5 m/s2 toward B
D) 5.0 m/s2 toward B
E) 5.0 m/s2 toward A

Ans: B
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-5 and 5-6

44. A plane is traveling at 200 m/s following the arc of a vertical circle of radius R. At the top of its path, the passengers experience weightlessness. To one significant figure, what is the value of R?

A) 200 m
B) 1000 m
C) 2000 m
D) 4000 m
E) 40 000 m

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

45. A 25-kg box is sliding down an ice-covered hill. When it reaches point A, the box is moving at 11 m/s. Point A is at the bottom of a circular arc that has a radius R = 7.5 m. What is the magnitude of the normal force on the box at Point A?

A) 250 N
B) 280 N
C) 400 N
D) 650 N
E) 900 N

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

46. A 0.75-kg ball is attached to a 1.0-m rope and whirled in a vertical circle. The rope will break when the tension exceeds 450 N. What is the maximum speed the ball can have at the bottom of the circle without breaking the rope?
A) 24 m/s
B) 12 m/s
C) 32 m/s
D) 16 m/s
E) 38 m/s

Ans: A
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-7

Reference: Ref 5-4

A small car of mass M travels along a straight, horizontal track. As suggested in the figure, the track then bends into a vertical circle of radius R.

47. What is the minimum acceleration that the car must have at the top of the track if it is to remain in contact with the track?
A) 4.9 m/s2, downward
B) 4.9 m/s2, upward
C) 9.8 m/s2, downward
D) 9.8 m/s2, upward
E) 19.6 m/s2, upward

Ans: C
Refer To: Ref 5-4
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

48. Which one of the following expressions determines the minimum speed that the car must have at the top of the track if it is to remain in contact with the track?
A) v = MgR
B) v = 2gR
C) v2 = 2gR
D) v2 = gR
E) v = gR

Ans: D
Refer To: Ref 5-4
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-7

Reference: Ref 5-5

A 1500-kg vehicle travels at a constant speed of 22 m/s around a circular track that has a radius of 85 m.

49. Which statement is true concerning this vehicle?
A) The velocity of the vehicle is changing.
B) The vehicle is characterized by constant velocity.
C) The vehicle is characterized by constant acceleration.
D) The vehicle has a velocity vector that points along the radius of the circle.
E) The vehicle has an acceleration vector that is tangent to the circle at all times.

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-5
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-7

50. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the vehicle?
A) 5.7 m/s2
B) 0.26 m/s2
C) 9.8 m/s2
D) 1.2 m/s2
E) zero m/s2

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-5
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

51. What is the average velocity of the vehicle during one revolution?
A) 8.0 m/s
B) 12 m/s
C) 26 m/s
D) 44 m/s
E) zero m/s

Ans: E
Refer To: Ref 5-5
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

52. Determine the magnitude of the net force that acts on the vehicle.
A) 390 N
B) 1800 N
C) 8.5 103 N
D) 1.5 104 N
E) zero newtons

Ans: C
Refer To: Ref 5-5
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

53. Jupiter has a mass that is roughly 320 times that of the Earth and a radius equal to 11 times that of the Earth. What is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Jupiter?
A) 2.7 m/s2
B) 9.8 m/s2
C) 26 m/s2
D) 87 m/s2
E) 260 m/s2

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

Reference: Ref 5-6

A rocket orbits a planet in a circular orbit at a constant speed as shown in the drawing.

Note these arrows:

54. At the instant shown in the drawing, which arrow indicates the direction of the acceleration of the rocket?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

Ans: A
Refer To: Ref 5-6
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-7

55. At the instant shown in the drawing, which arrow shows the direction of the reaction force exerted on the planet by the rocket?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

Ans: B
Refer To: Ref 5-6
Difficulty: Easy
SectionDef: Section 5-7

56. Suppose that the radius of the circular path is r when the speed of the rocket is v and the acceleration of the rocket has magnitude a. If the radius and speed are increased to 2r and 2v respectively, what is the magnitude of the rockets subsequent acceleration?
A)
B) 2a
C) a
D) 4a
E) 8a

Ans: B
Refer To: Ref 5-6
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

57. The record for the highest speed achieved in a laboratory for a uniformly rotating object was 2.01 103 m/s for a 0.15-m long carbon rod. What was the period of rotation of the rod?
A) 7.4 105 s
B) 3.1 104 s
C) 4.7 104 s
D) 5.2 103 s
E) 1.3 103 s

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

Reference: Ref 5-7

An airplane flying at 115 m/s due east makes a gradual turn following a circular path to fly south. The turn takes 15 seconds to complete.

58. What is the radius of the curve that the plane follows in making the turn?
A) 280 m
B) 350 m
C) 830 m
D) 1100 m
E) 1600 m

Ans: D
Refer To: Ref 5-7
Difficulty: Hard
SectionDef: Section 5-7

59. What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration during the turn?
A) zero m/s2
B) 6.9 m/s2
C) 8.1 m/s2
D) 9.8 m/s2
E) 12 m/s2

Ans: E
Refer To: Ref 5-7
Difficulty: Medium
SectionDef: Section 5-7

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