Test Bank for Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson

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Test Bank for Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson

Description

Chapter 5: Methods and Strategies of Research

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Experimental Ablation Multiple Choice
1,2,4,8,13,21,22,25,
27,28,33,35,36,39,44,
55,56,57 3.5.6.7.9-12,14,15,17,19,20,23,
26,29-32,34,38.40-43,45-47,49-52,54

16,18,24,37,48,
53,55,58
Fill-In
1-8
Essay

Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity Multiple Choice

62-68 59-61,69, 70-73,78,79,80 66,77,81
Fill-In
9-14
Essay
6,7
Neurochemical Methods Multiple Choice

83,84,86,88
85,87
Fill-In
15-18
Essay
9 8
Genetic Methods Multiple Choice

89,90,83,94 91.92
Fill-In
19-20
Essay
10

Multiple-Choice Questions

5.1-1. Mr. B. suffered a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in his brain after ingesting a neurotoxin. Which of the therapies below was successful in restoring his motor function?
a. injection of fetal nigrostriatal neurons into Mr. B.s caudate nucleus and putamen
b. oral ingestion of L-DOPA
c. oral ingestion of cocaine and amphetamine
d. infusion of dopamine directly into Mr. B.s caudate nucleus and putamen
e. injection of radioactive L-DOPA
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-1
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Opening Vignette
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. injection of fetal nigrostriatal neurons into Mr. B.s caudate nucleus and putamen
Rationale: The motor function of Mr. B was restored by an injection of fetal nigrostriatal neurons into Mr. B.s caudate nucleus and putamen.

5.1-2. The symptoms of Parkinsons disease relate to a lack of ________ within the ________.
a. dopamine; basal ganglia
b. acetylcholine; hippocampus
c. norepinephrine; basal ganglia
d. serotonin; hippocampus
e. acetylcholine; basal ganglia
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-2
Page Ref: 131
Topic: Opening Vignette
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. dopamine; basal ganglia
Rationale: The symptoms of Parkinsons disease relate to a lack of dopamine within the cells of the basal ganglia.

5.1-3. Which of the following is true of the experimental ablation technique?
a. The technique is one of the oldest methods used in neuroscience.
b. The term is derived from a word meaning to overstimulate.
c. The technique involves stimulating brain tissue and then observing behavior.
d. Tissue destroyed in the ablation technique is aspirated from the brain.
e. Magnetic stimulation of the brain is an example of the ablation technique.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-3
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Experimental Ablation
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: e
Rationale: The experimental ablation technique is one of the oldest methods used in neuroscience.

5.1-4. One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
a. immunocytochemistry.
b. stereotaxic surgery.
c. autoradiography.
d. experimental ablation.
e. twin-study methods.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-4
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Experimental Ablation
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. experimental ablation.
Rationale: One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is experimental ablation.

5.1-5. Which of the following is a rationale for lesion studies?
a. The change in behavior that follows a particular brain lesion can give important clues about the function of that brain area.
b. Lesions are easily made within the brain.
c. Brain lesions are specific for fibers of passage.
d. Brain lesions reliably produce marked changes in behaviors.
e. Brain lesions allow for activation of behavioral circuits.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-5
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. The change in behavior that follows a particular brain lesion can give important clues about the function of that brain area.
Rationale: The rationale for the ablation technique is that changes in behavior that follow a particular brain lesion can give important clues about the function of that brain area.

5.1-6. Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior?
a. Brain lesions are difficult to produce in animals.
b. The lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior.
c. Behaviors are difficult to monitor reliably in animals.
d. Each brain structure is isolated from the others.
e. Since only 10 percent of the brain is in use, there is only a 10 percent chance that damaging a structure will induce a behavioral change.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-6
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. The lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior.
Rationale: A key problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior is that the lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior.

5.1-7. Circuits within the brain perform
a. independent behaviors.
b. a single behavior that is functional for the organism.
c. reflexes that can be excitatory or inhibitory.
d. a function that contributes to a behavior.
e. are organized as centers that control behaviors.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-7
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. a function that contributes to a behavior.
Rationale: Circuits within the brain perform a function that contributes to a behavior.

5.1-8. Infusion of ________ into the brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation.
a. cocaine
b. GABA
c. lidocaine
d. muscimol
e. kainic acid
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-8
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Factual
Answer: e. kainic acid
Rationale: Infusion of kainic acid into brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation.

5.1-9. Imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusion would be appropriate?
a. Glial cells within the lateral hypothalamus are key for the control of eating.
b. The changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus.
c. The changes in eating are due to damage to cell bodies within the lateral hypothalamus, and these act to initiate eating.
d. The lateral hypothalamus functions to inhibit eating.
e. The investigator should have chosen a different inhibitory amino acid.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-9
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. The changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus.
Rationale: The changes in eating noted in the first study (using RF lesions) are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus.

5.1-10. The ________ technique creates a brain lesion by killing neurons through overstimulation.
a. aspiration
b. hypoxia
c. kainic acid
d. 6-hydroxydopamine
e. radio-frequency current
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-10
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. kainic acid
Rationale: The kainic acid technique creates a brain lesion by killing neurons through overstimulation.

5.1-11. A lesion technique that is selective for cell bodies involves
a. aspiration of tissue using a pipette.
b. overstimulation of glutamate receptors by kainic acid.
c. the flow of alternating current at the tip of an electrode.
d. the flow of electrical current through an electrode.
e. cutting of brain tissue using a retractable knife.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-11
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. overstimulation of glutamate receptors by kainic acid.
Rationale:A lesion technique that is selective for cell bodies involves overstimulation of glutamate receptors by kainic acid.

5.1-12. A key advantage of ________ lesions is that they affect only neural cell bodies and do not damage axons passing through the region.
a. hypoxic
b. aspiration
c. 6-hydroxydopamine
d. radio-frequency
e. excitotoxic
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-12
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: e. excitotoxic
Rationale: A key advantage of excitotoxic lesions is that they affect only neural cell bodies and do not damage axons passing through the region.

5.1-13. Molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific ________ that in turn will kill specific types of neurons.
a. antigens
b. receptors
c. kainic acid
d. antibodies
e. autoreceptors
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-13
Page Ref: 133
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. antibodies
Rationale: Molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific antibodies that in turn will kill specific types of neurons.

5.1-14. A(n) ________ allows an experimenter to determine whether a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect.
a. sham-lesion control group
b. pseudo-control group
c. aspiration device
d. cooling electrode
e. microdialysis probe
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-14
Page Ref: 133-134
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. sham-lesion control group
Rationale: The advantage of a sham-lesion control group is to allow an experimenter to determine whether a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect.

5.1-15. The key advantage of a reversible lesion is that
a. axons of passage are not affected by reversible procedures.
b. each animal can serve as its own control.
c. cell bodies are not affected by reversible procedures.
d. such lesions affect brain tissue near the tip of the lesion device.
e. kainic acid is inexpensive.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-15
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. each animal can serve as its own control.
Rationale: The key advantage of a reversible lesion is that each animal can serve as its own control.

5.1- 16. Which of the following chemicals can be used to create a reversible lesion in brain tissue?
a. saline
b. a local anesthetic such as lidocaine
c. glutamate
d. flurogold
e. 6-hydroxydopamine
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-16
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. a local anesthetic such as lidocaine
Rationale: A local anesthetic such as lidocaine infused into a brain region will create a temporary lesion.

5.1-17. ________ is (are) a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery.
a. The fornix
b. The optic chiasma
c. Bregma
d. The parasagittal sutures
e. The zero point
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-17
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Stereotaxic Surgery
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. Bregma
Rationale: Bregma is a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery.

5.1-18. A temporary disruption of neural activity within a region of brain can be produced by
a. using a knife to cut brain tissue.
b. using an injection of muscimol into the brain region.
c. local heating of the brain using radiofrequency waves.
d. injection of kainic acid.
e. stimulation of bregma.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-18
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. using an injection of muscimol into the brain region.
Rationale: An injection of muscimol can temporarily inactivate a brain region.

5.1-19. The three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas refer to
a. anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates.
b. drill-bit diameter, length, and approximate size of lesion.
c. the settings on a stereotaxic apparatus for mice versus rats.
d. the strain, age, and weight of an animal.
e. camparison of coordinates for rats, primates, and humans.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-19
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Stereotaxic Surgery
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates.
Rationale: The three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas refer to anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates.

5.1-20. Of the following, which term does not belong with the other four terms?
a. electrical stimulation of the brain
b. visual examination of a stained section
c. cutting the brain
d. staining the brain
e. fixing the brain
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-20
Page Ref: 134-136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. electrical stimulation of the brain
Rationale: Electrical stimulation activates neurons whereas the other techniques involve assessing brain damage.

5.1-21. The surgical instrument used to implant an electrode or cannula into the brain is termed a
a. stereotaxic apparatus.
b. electroencephalogram.
c. cryoloop.
d. macroelectrode.
e. magnetrode.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-21
Page Ref: 134-135
Topic: Stereotaxic Surgery
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. stereotaxic apparatus.
Rationale: A stereotaxic apparatus is used to implant an electrode or cannula into the rat brain.

5.1-22. Successive pages of a stereotaxic atlas refer to
a. various distances relative to the bottom of the brain.
b. the distance from the top of the skull.
c. various distances relative to bregma.
d. various distances relative to the midline.
e. horizontal sections of the brain.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-22
Page Ref: 134
Topic: Stereotaxic Surgery
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. various distances relative to bregma.
Rationale: Successive pages of a stereotaxic atlas refer to various distances relative to bregma.

5.1-23. Which of the following is true of stereotaxic surgery?
a. A stereotaxic instrument does not require coordinates from a brain atlas.
b. The carrier arm can be manipulated in two dimensions.
c. The head-holder is designed to fix the skull in a rigid position.
d. The stereotaxic instrument is useful for implanting magnetic coils into brain.
e. The surgery can be accomplished by inserting an electrode by hand into the brain.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-23
Page Ref: 134-135
Topic: Stereotaxic Instruments
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. The head-holder is designed to fix the skull in a rigid position.
Rationale: The head-holder of a stereotaxic instrument is designed to fix the skull in a rigid position.

5.1-24. The most common fixative of nerve tissue is
a. saline.
b. lidocaine.
c. flurogold.
d. kainic acid.
e. formalin.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-24
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Applied
Answer: e. formalin
Rationale: Formalin is the common nerve tissue fixative.

5.1-25. ________ refers to a histological procedure in which blood is drained and replaced by another fluid, such as a salt solution.
a. Microdialysis
b. Perfusion
c. Fixation
d. Staining
e. Desanguination
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-25
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. Perfusion
Rationale: Persfusion refers to a histological procedure in which blood is drained and replaced by another fluid, such as a salt solution.

5.1-26. Formalin is useful in the histology laboratory because it
a. introduces microorganisms that to help decompose the brain after death.
b. halts the enzyme process that breaks down brain tissue after death.
c. quickly removes the blood from the brain.
d. softens the brain tissue.
e. produces a reversible lesion of the brain.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-26
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. halts the enzyme process that breaks down brain tissue after death.
Rationale: Formalin is useful in the histology laboratory because it halts the enzyme process that breaks down brain tissue after death.

5.1-27. The ________ instrument is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination.
a. microtome
b. stereotaxic
c. cryocoil
d. microiontophoretic
e. microscopy
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-27
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. microtome
Rationale: The microtome is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination.

5.1-28. A ________ is a thin slice of brain used in histology.
a. cell fragment
b. brain cut
c. section
d. horizontal view
e. tissue segment
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-28
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. section
Rationale: A section is a thin slice of brain used in histology.

5.1-29. The fine details of neuron structure in a brain slice or section are revealed by
a. albumin fixation.
b. stains.
c. immersion in xylene.
d. cyanoacrylate glue.
e. visual examination of raw brain slices using MRI.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-29
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. stains.
Rationale: The fine details of neuron structure in a brain slice or section are revealed by stains of sectioned tissue.

5.1-30. Of the structures in the following list, cresyl violet stains ________ most intensely.
a. dendrites
b. axons
c. synapses
d. cell bodies
e. terminal buttons
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-30
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. cell bodies
Rationale: Creyl violet intensely stains cell bodies.

5.1-31. Which of the following structures can be visualized with the light microscope?
a. nucleus
b. synaptic vesicles
c. neurotransmitter receptors
d. microtubules
e. microfilaments
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-31
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. nucleus
Rationale: The nucleus can viewed using a light microscope

5.1-32. The RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in cell bodies are collectively referred to as
a. cytoplasm.
b. amino acids.
c. Nissl substance.
d. gangliosides.
e. nucleotides.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-32
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. Nissl substance.
Rationale: The Nissl substance is comprised of the RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in neuron cell bodies.

5.1- 33. Dyes such as methylene blue and cresyl violet were originally developed to
a. stain nerve cell bodies.
b. dye cloth.
c. stain neuron axons.
d. stain glial cells in brain.
e. halt autolysis of dead nerve tissue.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1- 33
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. dye cloth.
Rationale: Dyes such as methylene blue and cresyl violet were originally developed as clothing dyes.

5.1-34. Which of the following techniques can reveal the three-dimensional detail of the cells within a brain section?
a. transmission electron microscopy
b. staining produced by methylene blue
c. scanning electron microscopy
d. an anterograde labeling method
e. computational tomography
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-34
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. scanning electron microscopy
Rationale: Scanning electron microscopy can reveal the three-dimensional detail of the cells within a brain section.

5.1- 35. The limit of magnification at which a light microscope can resolve the fine details of brain structure is X
a. 50.
b. 150.
c. 900.
d. 1,500.
e. 5,000.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1- 35
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. 1,500.
Rationale: The limit of magnification at which a light microscope can resolve the fine details of brain structure is X 1,500.

5.1-36. Which of the following is true of confocal laser scanning microscopy?
a. This technique is limited to a magnification of X100.
b. The confocal laser scanning microscope uses an electron beam to scan a thin slice of tissue.
c. The procedure can be used to visualize living brain cells.
d. This technique can only be used for tissue subjected to formalin.
e. This technique has less resolution than does light microscopy.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-36
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. The procedure can be used to visualize living brain cells.
Rationale: Confocal laser scanning microscopy can be used to visualize living brain cells.

5.1-37. Which of the following is true of the anterograde labeling procedure?
a. A target molecule is injected into the gut.
b. The target molecule is transported from the axon terminals back to the soma and dendrites.
c. The target molecule is taken up by the dendrites of cells in the injection zone and transported through axons.
d. Eventually most the target molecule fills cell bodies.
e. A light microscopy method is used to visualize the cells in a section that contain the target molecules.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-37
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. The target molecule is transported from the axon terminals back to the soma and dendrites.
Rationale: In the anterograde labeling procedure, a target molecule is transported from the axon terminals back to the soma and dendrites.

5.1-38. The ________ technique would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region.
a. retrograde labeling method
b. staining produced by methylene blue
c. scanning electron microscopy
d. anterograde labeling method
e. computerized tomography
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-38
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. anterograde labeling method
Rationale: The anterograde labeling method would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region.

5.1-39. Which term below means moving forward?
a. antigen
b. retrograde
c. antibody
d. anterograde
e. axoplasmic transport
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-39
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. anterograde
Rationale: The term anterograde means moving forward.

5.1-40. Immunocytochemical techniques take advantage of the specific affinity of antibodies for
a. dopamine receptors.
b. glial cell nuclei.
c. cytogens.
d. a peptide or protein molecule.
e. white blood cells.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-40
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. a peptide or protein molecule.
Rationale: Immunocytochemical techniques take advantage of the specific affinity of antibodies for a peptide or protein molecule.

5.1-41. A recently developed method for tracing efferent axons involves
a. PHA-L.
b. cresyl violet.
c. methylene blue.
d. iodinated glutamate.
e. formalin.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-41
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. PHA-L.
Rationale: A recently developed method for tracing efferent axons involves injection of PHA-L into brain tissue.

5.1-42. ________ are produced by some white blood cells and act to destroy invading microorganisms in the body.
a. Antibodies
b. Autogens
c. Antigens
d. Receptors
e. Astrocytes
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-42
Page Ref : 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. Antibodies
Rationale: Antibodies are produced by some white blood cells and act to destroy invading microorganisms in the body.

5.1-43. The key use of PHA-L, a lectin made by kidney beans, in neuroscience is to
a. preserve brain tissue.
b. create neuronal lesions.
c. degrade acetylcholine molecules.
d. label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport.
e. create a reversible lesion that can temporarily alter behavior.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-43
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport.
Rationale: PHA-L, a lectin made by kidney beans, is used in neuroscience to label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport.

5.1-44. Which term below means moving backward?
a. antigen
b. retrograde
c. antibody
d. anterograde
e. axoplasmic transport
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-44
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. retrograde
Rationale: The term retrograde means moving backward.

5.1-45. The ________ labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons.
a. retrograde
b. axoplasmic
c. anterograde
d. heterosynaptic
e. homosynaptic
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-45
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. anterograde
Rationale: The anterograde labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons.

5.1-46. The ________ technique could be used to trace axons that are afferent to the injected region.
a. retrograde labeling
b. electrolytic lesion
c. anterograde labeling
d. microdialysis
e. axoplasmic transport
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-46
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. retrograde labeling
Rationale: The retrograde labeling technique could be used to trace axons that are afferent to the injected region.

5.1-47. The ________ method can be used to identify the neural inputs to a brain region.
a. retrograde labeling
b. electrolytic lesion
c. anterograde labeling
d. microdialysis
e. transdialysis
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-47
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. retrograde labeling
Rationale: The retrograde labeling method can be used to identify the neural inputs to a brain region.

5.1-48. Imagine that prior research has suggested that neurons from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to control eating behavior. To confirm this suggestion, your next step might be inject PHA-L into the ________ and confirm its transport to the ________.
a. PVN; vagal neurons that control chewing
b. PFC; vagal neurons that control chewing
c. PFC; PVN
d. vagal neurons that control chewing; PFC
e. PVN; PFC
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-48
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Applied
Answer: e. PVN; PFC
Rationale: Your next step might be to inject PHA-L into the PVN and confirm its transport to the PFC.

5.1-49. The chemical ________ can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons.
a. 6-hydroxydopamine
b. cresyl violet
c. methylene blue
d. fluorogold
e. PHA-L
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-49
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. fluorogold
Rationale: Flurogold can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons.

5.1-50. The usefulness of pseudorabies virus for histological analyses is
a. for the tracing of serial synaptic connections.
b. for the tracing of afferent fibers.
c. because it is an excitotoxin like kainic acid.
d. for the tracing of efferent fibers.
e. that this virus only affects nerve cells outside the brain and spinal cord.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-50
Page Ref: 141-142
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. for the tracing of serial synaptic connections.
Rationale: The pseudorabies virus is useful for histological analyses for the tracing of serial synaptic connections.

5.1-51. The ________ is used to identify a series of interconnected neurons in brain in a retrograde fashion.
a. 6-hydroxydopamine
b. pseudorabies virus
c. methylene blue
d. fluorogold
e. PHA-L
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-51
Page Ref: 141-142
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. pseudorabies virus
Rationale: The pseudorabies virus is used to retrogradely identify a series of interconnected neurons in brain.

5.1-52. A key advantage of the method using pseudorabies virus relative to that of anterograde and retrograde labeling techniques is that
a. the pseudorabies virus technique can be used in living brains.
b. the pseudorabies virus can identify serial connections among two or more neurons.
c. anterograde and retrograde labeling procedures take weeks as opposed to hours to trace connections.
d. the pseudorabies virus technique provides three-dimensional detail of cell anatomy.
e. levels of the virus in an area are an indication of the relative activity of that area. .
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-52
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. the pseudorabies virus can identify serial connections among two or more neurons.
Rationale: An advantage of the pseudorabies virus procedure is that this method can identify serial connections among two or more neurons.

5.1-53. Anterograde transneuronal tracing involves the injection of ______ into a brain region and subsequent release from axon terminals onto _______.
a. flurogold; axon terminals
b. PHA-L; axons
c. herpes simplex virus; axons
d. pseudorabies virus; glial cells
e. herpes simplex virus; dendrites
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-53
Page Ref: 141 -142
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Applied
Answer: e. herpes simplex virus; dendrites
Rationale: Anterograde transneuronal tracing involves the injection of herpes simplex virus into a brain region and subsequent release from axon terminals onto dendrites.

5.1-54. Study of the function of the living human brain in the past was difficult because
a. it is difficult to induce brain damage in humans for the purpose of research.
b. brain damage is uniform from case to case.
c. brain damage is too common.
d. researchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human.
e. by the time researchers obtain a brain, it has undergone significant degradation.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-54
Page Ref: 142
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. researchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human.
Rationale: A key difficulty of past research studies of the human brain is that researchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human.

5.1-55. Of these techniques for visualizing the living human brain, the first developed was
a. computerized tomography.
b. diffusion tensor imaging.
c. magnetic resonance imaging.
d. microdialysis.
e. PET scanning.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-55
Page Ref: 142
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. computerized tomography.
Rationale: Computerized tomography was the first visualization technique for living human brain.

5.1-56. The ________ technique uses a radio frequency wave to excite hydrogen atoms in the brain to create an image of the living human brain.
a. computerized tomography
b. microdialysis
c. magnetic resonance imaging
d. retrograde tracing
e. PET scan
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-56
Page Ref: 143-144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. magnetic resonance imaging
Rationale: The magnetic resonance imaging technique uses a radio frequency wave to excite hydrogen atoms in the brain to create an image of the living human brain.

5.1-57. The ________ technique is used to visualize axon bundles in living human brain.
a. computerized tomography
b. diffusion tensor imaging
c. magnetic resonance imaging
d. confocal scanning microscope
e. PET scan
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-57
Page Ref: 144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. diffusor tension imaging
Rationale: Axon bundles can be visualized in living human brain using diffusion tensor imaging.

5.1- 58. A scientist wishing to locate small bundles of axons in the human brain would be advised to use the _______ technique.
a. transneuronal tracing
b. PET scan
c. fMRI
d. diffuser tension imaging
e. computerized tomorgaphy
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-58
Page Ref: 144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. diffusor tension imaging
Rationale: The diffusor tension imaging method can locate small axon bundles in the living human brain.

5.1-59. The ________ technique can be used to visualize differences between white matter and gray matter in a living subject.
a. confocal laser scanning microscopy
b. transneuronal tracing procedure
c. magnetic resonance imaging
d. stereotaxic procedure
e. computerized tomography
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-59
Page Ref: 144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. magnetic resonance imaging
Rationale: The magnetic resonance imaging technique can be used to visualize differences between white matter and gray matter in a living subject.

5.1-60. What is the source of the electrical potentials recorded from the scalp of a human subject?
a. the natural current found in skin
b. the signals generated by the contraction of muscle fibers that lie under the scalp
c. the summated activity of nerve cell action potentials and postsynaptic potentials
d. the signals generated by the activity of the sweat glands
e. the movements of our eyes
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-60
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. the summated activity of nerve cell action potentials and postsynaptic potentials
Rationale: The summated activity of nerve cell action potentials and postsynaptic potentials are the source of the electrical potentials recorded from the scalp of a human subject.

5.1-61. Single-unit recordings
a. represent summated neural activity of many neurons.
b. are made using macroelectrodes placed on the skull surface.
c. indicate that serotonergic neuron activity is nil during REM sleep.
d. suggest that serotonin-containing neurons excite REM sleep.
e. do not require elaborate amplifiers and equipment.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-61
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. indicate that serotonergic neuron activity is nil during REM sleep.
Rationale: Single unit recordings indicate that brain serotonergic neuron activity is nil during REM sleep.

5.1-62. The ________ is a device used to detect the electrical activity of a single nerve cell in the brain.
a. micromyograph
b. macroelectrode
c. electroencephalograph
d. microelectrode
e. microdialysis probe
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-62
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. microelectrode
Rationale: The electrical activity of a single nerve cell in the brain can be detected using a microelectrode.

5.1-63. The term ________ is a common name for a device used to display the changes in voltage recorded from the scalp over time.
a. tricorder
b. autoradiograph
c. polygraph
d. CT scanner
e. XY recorder
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-63
Page Ref: 147-148
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. polygraph
Rationale: The term polygraph is a common name for a device used to display the changes in voltage recorded from the scalp over time.

5.1-64. The ________ is a device used to record and amplify the electrical activity of the brain from the scalp.
a. microdialysis probe
b. macroelectrode
c. polygraph
d. microelectrode
e. micromyograph
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-64
Page Ref: 147-148
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. polygraph
Rationale: A polygraph is a device used to record and amplify the electrical activity of the brain from the scalp.

5.1-65. A transient ischemic attack involves the
a. temporary loss of neural function brought on by blood clots in the brain.
b. permanent cell death induced by loss of blood flow through the brain.
c. fits of rage associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.
d. alteration of neural function due to a burst blood vessel in the brain.
e. loss of brain function during hypothermia.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-65
Page Ref: 148
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. temporary loss of neural function brought on by blood clots in the brain.
Rationale: A transient ischemic attack involves the temporary loss of neural function brought on by blood clots in the brain.

5.1-66. How did the neurosurgeons detect the fact that clamping off Mrs. F.s left common carotid artery produced insufficient blood flow to her brain?
a. Her EEG record showed spike wave activity.
b. Her EEG record showed slow wave activity.
c. Her EMG records were greater on the left side of her body relative the right side.
d. Her EEG record showed a flat line.
e. Her heart stopped beating.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-66
Page Ref: 148
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Applied
Answer: b. Her EEG record showed slow wave activity.
Rationale: An indication of poor brain blood flow was when her EEG record showed slow wave activity.

5.1-67. The ________ is a device that takes advantage of the tiny magnetic fields that are produced by the electrical activity of the brain to produce a record of neural activity in the awake brain.
a. micromyograph
b. PET scanner
c. electroencephalograph
d. microelectrode
e. neuromagnetometer
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-67
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: e. neuromagnetometer
Rationale: The neuromagnetometer is a device that takes advantage of the tiny magnetic fields that are produced by the electrical activity of the brain to produce a record of neural activity in the awake brain.

5.1-68. The ________ technique uses photographic emulsions to record the activity of discrete neurons in the brain.
a. neuromagnetometer
b. microdialysis
c. electroencephalograph
d. superconducting quantum devices (SQUID)
e. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-68
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: e. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography
Rationale: The 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography technique uses photographic emulsions to record the activity of discrete neurons in the brain.

5.1-69. The ________ technique takes advantage of the requirement of active nerve cells for more fuel to identify areas of neural activity.
a. neuromagnetometer
b. microdialysis
c. electroencephalograph
d. c-Fos
e. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-69
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: e. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography
Rationale: The 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography technique takes advantage of the requirement of active nerve cells for more fuel to identify areas of neural activity.

5.1-70. Which of the following methods cannot reveal the metabolic activity of regions of the rat brain?
a. PET scans
b. fMRI scans.
c. 2-DG autoradiography
d. measurement of Fos protein
e. injection of kainic acid
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-70
Page Ref: 132, 152
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions; Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: e. injection of kainic acid
Rationale: Kainic acid destroys tissue and is thus not a marker of metabolic activity in brain.

5.1-71. A useful attribute of immediate early genes for neuron visualization techniques is that
a. immediate early genes fluoresce when active.
b. these genes quickly reduce their activity level.
c. immediate early genes control glucose utilization.
d. the presence of the gene product in the nucleus is a marker of neuron activation.
e. immediate early gene activation can be detected by CT scans.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-71
Page Ref: 150
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. the presence of the gene product in the nucleus is a marker of neuron activation.
Rationale: A useful attribute of immediate early genes for neuron visualization techniques is that the presence of the gene product in the nucleus is a marker of neuron activation.

5.1-72. The primary disadvantage of the positron emission tomography (PET) scan technique relates to
a. the operating cost of the scanner.
b. the long-half life of the radioactive 2-deoxyglucose molecule.
c. the inherent danger posed by the technique.
d. an inability of the technique to assess changes in metabolic activity.
e. the fact that the technique can measure neuron volume, but not activity.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-72
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: a. the operating cost of the scanner.
Rationale: The primary disadvantage of the positron emission tomography (PET) scan technique relates to the operating cost of the scanner.

5.1-73. Which of the following is an advantage of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique?
a. fMRI scanners can be built cheaply.
b. Oxygen has a long-half life in brain.
c. The fMRI technique has a moderate degree of inherent danger.
d. The technique is slower than PET but is easier to compute.
e. The fMRI scan has a higher resolution relative to the PET scan.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-73
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: e. The fMRI scan has a higher resolution relative to the PET scan.
Rationale: An advantage of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique is that this method has a higher resolution relative to the PET scan.

5.1-74. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique measures changes in ________ to image brain metabolic activity.
a. GABA
b. x-ray diffraction
c. blood oxygen level
d. magnetic waves
e. glucose levels
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-74
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. blood oxygen level
Rationale: The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique measures changes in blood oxygen level to image brain metabolic activity.

5.1-75. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique is used to
a. record the electrical activity of individual neurons.
b. induce the secretion of neurotransmitters from neurons.
c. record the neural activity of particular brain regions.
d. localize receptors within brain tissue sections.
e. electrically stimulate neurons.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-75
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. record the neural activity of particular brain regions.
Rationale: The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique is used to record the neural activity of particular brain regions.

5.1-76. Neurons can be activated by
a. infusion of GABA.
b. radiofrequency stimulation.
c. ablation.
d. chemical stimulation.
e. aspiration.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-76
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. chemical stimulation.
Rationale: Neurons can be activated by chemical stimulation.

5.1-77. Infusion of low doses of ________will excite neurons.
a. GABA
b. glycine
c. lidocaine
d. glutamate
e. 6-hydroxydopamine
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-77
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Applied
Answer: d. glutamate
Rationale: Glutamate activates glutamate receptors, which in turn excite neurons.

5.1-78. The major advantage of chemical stimulation using glutamate infusion is that
a. it activates cell bodies but not axons.
b. it only activates neurons in cortex.
c. it is less complicated to achieve than is electrical stimulation.
d. it activates axons, but not cell bodies.
e. dendrites are inactivated by the technique.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-78
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. it activates cell bodies but not axons.
Rationale: The major advantage of chemical stimulation using glutamate infusion is that it activates cell bodies but not axons.

5.1-79. A key disadvantage of the electrical stimulation technique is that
a. it cannot be used to inactivate neurons.
b. the procedure cannot be used in live animals.
c. behavioral changes are rarely noted after electrical stimulation of the brain.
d. the stimulation does not always duplicate natural neural processes.
e. it is more expensive than is the chemical stimulation technique.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-79
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. the stimulation does not always duplicate natural neural processes.
Rationale: A key disadvantage of the electrical stimulation technique is that the stimulation does not always duplicate natural neural processes.

5.1-80. The ________ technique of takes advantage of the fact that a particular ________ can open voltage-gated ion channels in neurons.
a. excitotoxicity; GABA
b. phototoxicity; light
c. optogenetic; light
d. TMS; light
e. photostimulation; magnetic waves
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-80
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Optogenetic Methods
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. optogenetic; light
Rationale: After certain light sensitive proteins have been incorporated in the cells of a brain region, certain lights will open ion channels resulting in cell activation of inhibition.

5-1.81 A brain region that has been infected with a virus that contains the photoprotein NpHR will exhibit ________when illuminated with ________ light.
a. neuronal inhibition; yellow
b. opening of NA channels; yellow
c. neuronal excitation; blue
d. neuronal inhibition; blue
e. apoptosis; blue and yellow
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-81
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Optogenetic Methods
Skill: Applied
Answer: neuronal inhibition; blue
Rationale: A brain region that has been infected with a virus that contains the photoprotein NpHR will exhibit neuronal inhibition when illuminated with blue light.

5.1-82. The ________ procedure uses magnetic waves to alter brain neural activity.
a. magnetic cytochemistry
b. microiontophoresis
c. endocytotic
d. in situ hybridization
e. transcranial magnetic stimulation
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-82
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: e. transcranial magnetic stimulation
Rationale: The transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure uses magnetic waves to alter brain neural activity.

5.1-83. Peptides or proteins can be localized in the brain using
a. immunocytochemistry.
b. microiontophoresis.
c. in situ hybridization.
d. high-performance liquid chromatography.
e. microelectrodes.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-83
Page Ref: 156
Topic: Finding Neurons That Produce Particular Neurochemicals
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. immunocytochemistry.
Rationale: Peptides or proteins can be localized in the brain using immunocytochemistry.

5.1-84. A transmitter such as acetylcholine can be localized in the brain by
a. immunocytochemistry.
b. detecting the enzyme that produces acetylcholine.
c. macroelectrodes.
d. microelectrodes.
e. optogenetic tracing.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-84
Page Ref: 156-157
Topic: Finding Neurons That Produce Particular Neurochemicals
Skill: Factual
Answer: b. detecting the enzyme that produces acetylcholine.
Rationale: A transmitter such as acetylcholine can be localized in the brain by detecting the enzyme that produces acetylcholine.

5.1-85. A key advantage of the microdialysis technique is
a. it can assess brain function on a moment-by-moment basis.
b. the ability to sample transmitter substances in an awake living organism.
c. that it uses radioactive molecules that break down quickly.
d. that it can be easily used in humans.
e. that only very small computers are needed for this technique to monitor brain function.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-85
Page Ref: 158
Topic: Measuring Chemicals Secreted in the Brain
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. the ability to sample transmitter substances in an awake living organism.
Rationale: A key advantage of the microdialysis technique is the ability to sample transmitter substances in an awake living organism.

5.1-86. The ________ method uses an antibody linked to a radioactive molecule to bind to a peptide or an enzyme in brain tissue.
a. immunocytochemistry
b. autoradiography
c. immunochemistry
d. microiontophoresis
e. optogenetic
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-86
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Localizing Particular Receptors
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. in situ hybridization
Rationale: The immunocytochemistry method uses an antibody linked to a radioactive molecule to bind to a peptide or an enzyme in brain tissue.

5.1-87. Which of the following techniques can be used to detect the location of acetylcholine in brain?
a. in situ hybridization
b. autoradiography
c. immunocytochemistry aimed at choline acetyltransferase
d. microiontophoresis
e. fMRI
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-87
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Localizing Particular Receptors
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: c. immunocytochemistry aimed at choline acetyltransferase
Rationale: The location of acetylcholine in brain can be determined using an immunocytochemistry assay aimed at choline acetyltransferase. Microiontophoresis is not a method used to detect receptors in brain.

5.1-88. Microdialysis is not done in humans for research purposes owing to
a. the prohibitively high cost of the procedure has led most insurers to refuse to pay for such research.
b. difficulty in obtaining human volunteers.
c. problems related to the surgical implantation of probes into human brain.
d. ethical problems because the procedure is invasive.
e. the levels of transmitters within human brain are below the level of detection of the technique.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-88
Page Ref: 159
Topic: Measuring Chemicals Secreted in the Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. ethical problems because the procedure is invasive.
Rationale: Microdialysis is not done in humans for research purposes owing to ethical problems because the procedure is invasive.

5.1-89. Twins that share a particular trait are ________ for the trait.
a. concordant
b. discordant
c. dissimilar
d. similar
e. dizygotic
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-89
Page Ref: 161-162
Topic: Twin Studies
Skill: Factual Answer: a. concordant
Rationale: Twins that share a particular trait are concordant for the trait.

5.1-90. ________ have identical genotypes.
a. Monozygotic twins
b. Dizygotic twins
c. Fraternal twins
d. First cousins
e. Parents and adopted children
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.1-90
Page Ref: 161-162
Topic: Twin Studies
Skill: Factual
Answer: a. Monozygotic twins
Rationale: Monozygotic twins have identical genotypes.

5.1-91. Which of the following is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to a behavior?
a. Adopted children resemble their biological families with regard to a trait.
b. Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins.
c. Dizygotic twins have a lower concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
d. Adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait.
e. None of the above are correct.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-91
Page Ref: 161
Topic: Adoption Studies
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: d. Adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait.
Rationale: The observation that adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to that trait.

5.1-92. Which of the following is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a behavior?
a. Dizygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
b. Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins.
c. Dizygotic twins have a lower concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
d. Adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait.
e. Family members are less similar for a trait than are members of the general population.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.1-85
Page Ref: 161
Topic: Twin Studies
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: b. Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins.
Rationale:The observation that monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate for a trait than do dizygotic twins is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a trait.

5.1-93. Targeted mutations involve
a. injecting chemicals that block the production of transmitters in the brain.
b. inserting genes to overproduce a functional protein.
c. manipulating genes to impair the production of a protein.
d. the induction of random genetic mutations.
e. altering genetic material to allow an organism to more readily adapt to its niche.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-93
Page Ref: 161-162
Topic: Targeted Mutations
Skill: Factual
Answer: c. manipulating genes to impair the production of a protein.
Rationale: Targeted mutations involve manipulating genes to impair the production of a protein.

5.1-94. In the ________ technique, a modified strand of RNA or DNA binds with specific molecules of mRNA, thereby preventing the protein encoded by the mRNA from being produced.
a. autoradiography
b. knockout
c. immediate early gene
d. antisense oligonucleotide
e. optogenetic protein
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.1-94
Page Ref: 162
Topic: Antisense Oligonucleotides
Skill: Factual
Answer: d. antisense oligonucleotide
Rationale: In the antisense oligonucleotide technique, a modified strand of RNA or DNA binds with specific molecules of mRNA, thereby preventing the protein encoded by the mRNA from being produced.

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

5.2-1. ________ kills nerve cells through the process of overexcitation.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-1
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Factual
Answer: Kainic acid (or glutamate)

5.2-2. The textbook suggests that brain tissue can be fixed with ________ to prevent autolysis.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-2
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: formalin

5.2-3. ________ refers to a histological procedure in which blood is drained and replaced by another fluid, such as a salt solution.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-3
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: Perfusion

5.2-4. ________ is the most common stain used to visualize cell bodies in brain tissue.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-4
Page Ref: 137
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: Cresyl violet

5.2-5. Produced by some white blood cells, ________ are used by neuroscientists to bind specific proteins in the nervous system.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-5
Page Ref: 140
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Factual
Answer: antibodies

5.2-6. The textbook suggests that ________ is a common drug that can be used in retrograde tracing procedures.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.2-6
Page Ref: 141
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Factual
Answer: fluorogold

5.2-7. ________ scans can differentiate white matter from gray matter in the living human brain but cannot be used to identify small bundles of axons.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-7
Page Ref: 143-144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: MRI

5.2-8. ________ scans can be used to classify small collections of axon bundles.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-8
Page Ref: 144
Topic: Studying the Structure of the Living Human Brain
Skill: Factual
Answer: diffuser tension imaging

5.2-9. A ________ is used to record the electrical potentials from the human scalp.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-9
Page Ref: 147-148
Topic: Recording Neural Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: polygraph

5.2-10. ________ can be translated as writing with ones own radiation.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-10
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: Autoradiography

5.2-11. The ________ autoradiography technique takes advantage of the requirement of active nerve cells for more fuel.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-11
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: 2-DG or 2-deoxyglucose

5.2-12. Activation of specific nuclei in brain can be measured using the presence of ________ protein.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-12
Page Ref: 150
Topic: Recoding the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: Fos

5.2-13. The scanning technique that has the best spatial and temporal resolution is the ________.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-13
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: fMRI

5.2-14 A serious disadvantage of the ________ scan method is the operating cost of producing radioactive tracers.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-14
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: PET

5.2-15. The photoprotein NpHR controls a ________ channel and is sensitive to yellow light.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-15
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: chloride

5.2-16. The technique of ________ takes advantage of the fact that light can alter voltage-gated channels in neurons.Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-16
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: optogenetic photostimulation

5.2- 17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to temporarily ________ local regions of cortex.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-17
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Recording the Brains Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
Skill: Factual
Answer: inactivate

5.2-18. The ________ method uses an antibody linked to a radioactive molecule to bind to a peptide or an enzyme in brain tissue.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.2-18
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Finding Neurons that Produce Particular Neurochemicals
Skill: Factual
Answer: immunocytochemistry

5.2-19. Twins that share a particular trait are ________ for the trait.
Difficulty: 3
Question ID: 5.2-19
Page Ref: 161
Topic: Twin Studies
Skill: Factual
Answer: concordant

5.2-20. Identical twins have identical ________.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.2-20
Page Ref: 161
Topic: Twin Studies
Skill: Factual
Answer: genotypes

Essay Questions

5.3-1. What is the rationale for experimental ablation method?
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.3-1
Page Ref: 132
Topic: Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: The notion is that changes in behavior noted after the removal of brain tissue can be related to the function of that brain region.

5.3-2. Explain the significance of the sham-lesion procedure.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.3-2
Page Ref: 133
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: In the sham-lesion procedure, stereotaxic surgery is used to place an electrode or
cannula into brain without passing damaging current or making a microinjection. Comparison of the lesion group with that of the sham-lesion group allows for the determination of the lesion effect apart from that of the anesthesia/surgical procedure.

5.3-3. Explain how the activity of a brain region can be temporarily inactivated.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.3-3
Page Ref: 134, 152, 154
Topic: Producing Brain Lesions; Stimulating Neural Activity
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: Injection of muscimol will inactivate a brain region (as will lidocaine). Transcranial magnetic stimulation will also inactivate a brain region. Finally, the optogenetic insertion of the NpHR, which controls a chloride channel, and is sensitive to yellow light can be used to temporarily inactivate a brain region.

5.3-4. Explain how and why the brain is preserved during the histology process.
Difficulty: 1
Question ID: 5.3-4
Page Ref: 136
Topic: Histological Methods
Skill: Factual
Answer: The brain is perfused with saline to remove blood from the tissue and is fixed in
formalin to harden the brain tissue and to halt autolysis, a process that would otherwise destroy the brain after death.

5.3-5. Contrast efferent and afferent tracing procedures.
Difficulty: 2
Question ID: 5.3-5
Page Ref: 139-142
Topic: Tracing Neural Connections
Skill: Conceptual
Answer: In the efferent tracing procedure, a chem

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