Test Bank for Psychological Science Modeling Scientific Literacy 2nd edition by Krause

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Test Bank for Psychological Science Modeling Scientific Literacy 2nd edition by Krause

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CHAPTER QUIZ

1. Psychology can be considered a collection of many related fields of study. What is one of the features that all of these fields have in common?
a. The use of the scientific method
b. The study of mental illness
c. The belief that the unconscious mind determines human behavior
d. The use of introspection
Answer: A
Module 1.1

2. _____ are built from _____ that are repeatedly tested and confirmed.
a. Theories; hypotheses
b. Hypotheses; theories
c. Predictions; observations
d. Observations; predictions
Answer: A
Module 1.1

3. The biopsychosocial model assumes that:
a. behavior often can be fully explained only by combining multiple perspectives.
b. biological factors are more important than social factors in determining behavior.
c. all living organisms form social groups, based on their physical and psychological needs.
d. the simplest explanation for behavior is usually the best.
Answer: A
Module 1.1

4. Which of the following is true about the concept of scientific literacy?
a. Only trained scientists are considered scientifically literate.
b. Scientific literacy is the ability to answer basic science questions without looking up their answers.
c. A person who can understand, analyze, and apply scientific information is demonstrating scientific literacy.
d. Knowledge of scientific terminology is the most important part of scientific literacy.
Answer: C
Module 1.1

5. _____ is the belief that knowledge comes through observation and experience.
a. Determinism
b. Parsimony
c. Skepticism
d. Empiricism
Answer: D
Module 1.2

6. Psychology has been a science since
a. around 470 BC.
b. the early 1600s.
c. the late 1800s.
d. the mid-1900s.
Answer: C
Module 1.2

7. How did physiologists and physicists, like Gustav Fechner, contribute to the development of psychology as a science?
a. They studied the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world.
b. They demonstrated that the brain was responsible for consciousness.
c. They identified the locations of specific functions within the brain.
d. They extended Darwins theory of evolution to behavior and cognitive abilities.
Answer: A
Module 1.2

8. The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on a persons behavior is part of which early approach to psychology?
a. Structuralism
b. Functionalism
c. Psychoanalysis
d. Behaviorism
Answer: C
Module 1.2

9. The question of nature and nurture relationships centers on how _____ (nature) and _____ (nurture) influence behavior and mental processes.
a. environment; heredity
b. heredity; environment
c. emotion; logic
d. logic; emotion
Answer: B
Module 1.2

10. Why was the perspective followed by Wilhelm Wundt and his followers called structuralism?
a. They wanted to identify the major brain structures.
b. Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind.
c. They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system.
d. Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience.
Answer: D
Module 1.2

11. Which school of psychology questioned whether psychologists should study the mind, which was thought to be unobservable?
a. Psychoanalysis
b. Behaviorism
c. Gestalt psychology
d. Humanism
Answer: B
Module 1.2

12. You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and lifes meaning. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
a. Behaviorism
b. Humanistic psychology
c. Functionalism
d. Psychodynamics
Answer: B
Module 1.2

13. _____ psychologists are generally interested in how the behavior of individuals can be influenced by other people.
a. Social
b. Gestalt
c. Behavioral
d. Humanistic
Answer: A
Module 1.2

14. Dr. Fernwood is a research psychologist. The main focus of her research is the use of psychological knowledge to find ways to reduce bullying in schools. Dr. Fernwoods research could be described as _____ psychology.
a. Basic
b. forensic
c. applied
d. I/O
Answer: C
Module 1.3

15. In which field is someone with a background in psychology likely to work?
a. Advertising
b. Teaching
c. Management
d. Any of the above
Answer: D
Module 1.3

MAIN TEST BANK

Multiple Choice Items

Module 1.1: The Science of Psychology
Know
the key terminology of this module
Understand
the steps of the scientific method
the concept of scientific literacy
Apply
the biopsychosocial model to behavior
the steps in critical thinking
Analyze
the use of the term scientific theory

1. According to your authors, the discipline of psychology is best thought of as
A) a field of self-help principles to eliminate mental problems.
B) a mixture of anecdotes and personal intuition about human behavior and mental processes.
C) a process for encouraging people to reach their ultimate potential.
D) the scientific study of behavior, thought, and experience.
Answer: D
Rationale: Psychology includes many different fields of study and has a variety of goals, but the two qualities shared by all psychological fields are the use of the scientific method, and the study of behavior (including perceptions, thoughts and emotions).
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 1.1Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline.
% correct 95 a= 0 b= 5 c= 0 d= 95 r = .42

2. Liam mentions to a friend that he is currently taking an introduction to psychology course. Why would you want to do that? asks his friend, Psychology is mostly therapists analyzing peoples problems and self-help gurus selling books. What should Liams response be?
A) No, psychology has nothing to do with helping people.
B) Actually, psychology is a vast discipline that covers much more than mental health and self-help.
C) Ok, those self-help gurus usually arent real psychologists, but all real psychologists are trained to really help people improve their lives.
D) Psychology is actually about studying how chemicals in the brain interact.
Answer: B
Rationale: Psychology includes many different fields of study and has a variety of goals. While some psychologists try to help people with mental health and well-being issues, many psychologists work in other areas including learning, memory, animal behavior, sensation and perception, and many others.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 1.1Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline.

3. Psychology can be considered a collection of many related fields of study. What is one of the features that all of these fields have in common?
A) the use of the scientific method
B) the study of mental illness
C) the belief that the unconscious mind determines human behavior
D) the use of introspection
Answer: A
% correct 92 a= 92 b= 5 c= 3 d= 0 r = .21
Rationale: Psychology includes many different fields of study and has a variety of goals, but the two qualities shared by all psychological fields are the use of the scientific method, and the study of behavior (including perceptions, thoughts and emotions).
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 1.1Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

4. All types of psychology involve
A) interactions between patients and therapists.
B) replicating what is already known via common sense.
C) treating peoples behavioral and emotional problems.
D) the use of scientific method.
Answer: D
Rationale: All types of modern psychology rely on the scientific method (which often yields results that conflict with common sense explanations). Not all psychologists work with patients and treat psychological problems.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 1.1Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline.

5. Caroline is interested in determining how squirrels find the caches of nuts they buried several months earlier. She watches the squirrels in a park and notices that they tend to bury food near landmarks, such as trees or benches. She predicts that moving these landmarks after the squirrels have buried their food will prevent them from finding it later on, and designs an experiment to test her prediction. Carolines approach is an example of
A) pseudoscience.
B) the scientific method.
C) the psychoanalytic model.
D) the biopsychological model.
Answer: B
Rationale: Caroline is clearly using the scientific method, which involves collecting observations, making predictions, and then testing the predictions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

6. Collecting observations, testing predictions about how to best explain the observations, and developing theories are all part of
A) the scientific method.
B) pseudoscience.
C) the biopsychosocial model.
D) the psychoanalytic model.
Answer: A
Rationale: The scientific method is a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, stating predictions about how to best explain the observations, developing theories to explain the observations, and using the theories to make predictions about future events. It involves a dynamic interaction between hypothesis testing and the construction of theories.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

7. Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive. According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a(n)
A) theory.
B) untestable statement.
C) hypothesis.
D) fact.
Answer: C
Rationale: A hypothesis is a testable prediction that can be confirmed or rejected. In this example, an experiment could be designed to test whether children who watch violent cartoons do or do not become more violent. The statement is not a theory, because a theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

8. As part of the scientific method, scientists form testable predictions that can be observed and measured. These are called
A) theories.
B) proofs.
C) hypotheses.
D) models.
Answer: C
Rationale: A hypothesis is a testable prediction that can be confirmed or rejected. In contrast, a theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

9. In order to be considered scientific, a hypothesis must be
A) testable.
B) believed true by a majority of experts.
C) proven.
D) stated in very general terms.
Answer: A
Rationale: Scientific hypotheses should be precise, and must be testable (i.e., it must be possible to demonstrate if they are false). Hypotheses that withstand testing are said to be confirmed not proven.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.
% correct 90 a= 90 b= 0 c= 10 d= 0 r = .31

10. Which of the following is a good scientific hypothesis?
A) Everything happens for a reason.
B) Happiness is the meaning of life.
C) People born with the zodiac sign Taurus have higher IQ scores on average than others.
D) All humans are connected by an unseen force that cannot be measured or observed.
Answer: C
Rationale: Scientific hypotheses must be testable (i.e., it must be possible to demonstrate if they are false). Although it would probably be shown to be false, people born with the zodiac sign Taurus have higher IQ scores on average than others is the only option that would be testable.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 3
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

11. Randi is a practitioner of crystal healing: the use of different crystals to treat medical disorders ranging from headaches to cancer. Crystal healers like Randi use scientific terminology (e.g., energy, vibrations, etc.) when explaining the technique to patients, but do not use the scientific method to develop or test their treatments. This makes crystal healing a
A) metascience.
B) pseudoscience.
C) episcience.
D) protoscience.
Answer: B
Rationale: Ideas that are presented as science, but do not use the basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure, are called pseudoscience.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

12. The term pseudoscience refers to
A) the scientific study of psychology and related phenomena.
B) hypotheses that have been rejected through observation and testing.
C) ideas that are presented as science but in fact do not use the basic principles of scientific thinking procedure.
D) the belief that the mind is separate from the body.
Answer: C
Rationale: Ideas that are presented as science, but do not use the basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure, are called pseudoscience.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

13. __________ refers to a claim or statement that superficially appears to be scientific but is not.
A) Misinformation
B) Hypothesis
C) Pseudoscience
D) Theory
Answer: C
Rationale: Ideas that are presented as science, but do not use the basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure, are called pseudoscience.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

14. In science, a theory can be defined as
A) an educated guess.
B) an explanation that explains and integrates numerous findings and observations into a coherent whole.
C) a personal understanding of natural laws.
D) a testable prediction.
Answer: B
Rationale: While nonscientists often use the word theory to describe a guess or a prediction, in science, a theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Analyze the use of the term scientific theory.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

15. __________ are built from __________ that are repeatedly tested and confirmed.
A) Theories; hypotheses
B) Hypotheses; theories
C) Predictions; observations
D) Observations; predictions
Answer: A
Rationale: Theories are built from hypotheses that are repeatedly tested and confirmed. While theories can also lead to new hypotheses, in the scientific method, hypotheses are directly tested and confirmed, not theories.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

16. What property do hypotheses and theories both share?
A) They are both types of educated guesses.
B) They both integrate numerous findings and observations.
C) They are both types of opinions or beliefs.
D) In order to be scientific, they both must be capable of being proven false.
Answer: D
Rationale: Hypotheses are specific predictions, while theories are explanations for a broad range of observations. In order to be scientific, both hypotheses and theories must be falsifiable (i.e., it must be possible to demonstrate that they are not true).
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the steps of the scientific method.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

17. When a psychologist uses the term scientific theory, he or she is referring to something that
A) is guaranteed to be true.
B) explains a wide range of observations.
C) is no more or less plausible than any other theory.
D) is an educated guess.
Answer: B
Rationale: While nonscientists often use the word theory to describe a guess or a prediction, in science, a theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Analyze the use of the term scientific theory.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

18. Which of the following is true about scientific theories?
A) All theories are equally plausible.
B) The quality of a theory cannot be measured by the number of people who believe it to be true.
C) Theories are the same thing as opinions or beliefs.
D) A theory is only valid if it has been proven to be true.
Answer: B
Rationale: There are many misconceptions about theories. The textbook specifically addresses three common issues: theories are not the same thing as opinions or beliefs, all theories are not equally plausible, and a measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Factual
Objective: Analyze the use of the term scientific theory.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

19. Lidia gives a talk at a psychology conference in which she presents her new theory about the causes of autism. At one point, an audience member interrupts and says but thats just your theory. What is the problem with this statement?
A) A theory is not the same thing as an opinion or belief.
B) If Lidia is presenting the theory at a psychology conference it must be true.
C) If most of the psychologists in the audience agree with Lidia, then the theory is likely to be true.
D) The audience member should have used the term hypothesis, not theory.
Answer: A
Rationale: theories are not the same thing as opinions or beliefs, which is implied by the audience members critique. The validity of a theory is measured by scientific testing, not by who believes in it, or where it is presented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4
Skill: Applied
Objective: Analyze the use of the term scientific theory.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.

20. Dr. Preston is a psychologist studying why some people develop depression, while others do not. She realizes that the reasons are probably complicated, and include factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, how individuals might experience events differently, and how family members and others influence each other. Dr. Prestons approach is an example of
A) pseudoscience.
B) the biopyschosocial model.
C) the psychoanalytic model.
D) gestalt psychology.
Answer: B
Rationale: The biopsychosocial model is a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Psychologists who use the biopsychosocial model believe that many behaviors can only be fully explained by combining these multiple perspectives.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Skill: Applied
Objective: Apply the biopsychosocial model to behavior.
APA SLO: 1.3Use concepts, language and major theories of the discipline to account for psychological phenomena.

21. A perennial question for educational psychologists is, Why do some students in a class succeed while others perform poorly? According to the biopsychosocial model, which of the following is a possible explanation for this phenomenon?
A) biological differences in brain structures and chemistry
B) social and cultural differences between students
C) cognitive, emotional, and personality differences between students
D) each students biological makeup, social and cultural background, and their cognitive abilities, emotional state, and personality combine to make them different from any other student in the class
Answer: D
Rationale: The biopsychosocial model is a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Psychologists who use the biopsychosocial model believe that many behaviors can only be fully explained by combining these multiple perspectives.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Skill: Applied
Objective: Apply the biopsychosocial model to behavior.
APA SLO: 1.3Use concepts, language and major theories of the discipline to account for psychological phenomena.

22. The biopsychosocial model assumes that
A) behavior often can only be fully explained by combining multiple perspectives.
B) biological factors are more important than social factors in determining behavior.
C) all living organisms form social groups, based on their physical and psychological needs.
D) the simplest explanation for behavior is usually best.
Answer: A
Rationale: The biopsychosocial model is a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Psychologists who use the biopsychosocial model believe that many behaviors can only be fully explained by combining these multiple perspectives.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Apply the biopsychosocial model to behavior.
APA SLO: 1.4Explain major perspectives in psychology (e.g., behavioral, biological, cognitive, evolutionary, humanistic, psychodynamic, and sociocultural).
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

23. Which of the following is true about the concept of scientific literacy?
A) Only trained scientists are considered scientifically literate.
B) Scientific literacy is the ability to answer basic science questions without looking it up.
C) A person who can understand, analyze, and apply scientific information is demonstrating scientific literacy.
D) Knowledge of scientific terminology is the most important part of scientific literacy.
Answer: C
Rationale: Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. A person does not need to be an expert or a scientist to be scientifically literate, but should be able to read and interpret scientific information, or know where to go to find out more.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 6
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 3.4Approach problems effectively.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

24. The ability to understand analyze, and apply scientific information is called
A) the biopsychosocial model.
B) scientific literacy.
C) skepticism.
D) empiricism.
Answer: B
Rationale: Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 3.4Approach problems effectively.

25. Ms. Patel is a 3rd grade teacher. Several children in her class have been having trouble concentrating and sitting still in her class, so she finds several articles from psychology journals on hyperactivity and attention in young children. Although she is not a scientist, Ms. Patel is able to understand the articles and then use the information to redesign her classroom schedule to help improve attention. This is an example of
A) the scientific method.
B) the biopsychosocial model.
C) scientific literacy.
D) empiricism.
Answer: B
Rationale: Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. A person does not need to be an expert or a scientist or even use the scientific method to be scientifically literate, but should be able to read and interpret scientific information, and be able to apply it to real-world situations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6-7
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 3.4Approach problems effectively.

26. Which of the following techniques could be described as massing?
A) Studying for a test by breaking up your lecture notes into sections and mastering each section before moving on to the next.
B) Studying for a chapter test by reading through the entire chapter before going back to the beginning and starting over again.
C) Studying each flash card in a large pile before starting over again.
D) A football player learning the playbook by reviewing each play once before starting over again.
Answer: A
Rationale: Massing involves concentrating all of the studying of a single piece of information into a short period of time. In contrast, spacing spreads the studying of a single piece of information out over a longer period of time. Studying for a test by breaking up lecture notes into sections and mastering each section by itself is a form of massing because the studying of each section is concentrated into a short period of time. In contrast, all of the other examples involve spacing.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 7
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 4.4Apply psychological concepts, theories, and research findings as these relate to everyday life.

27. A friend of yours has 30 Spanish vocabulary words to learn by tomorrow. Which of the following is the best way for her to use flashcards to study?
A) Study each card only once.
B) Divide the cards into five piles and then study each pile four times before moving on to the next pile.
C) Go through the entire pile of 25 cards four times.
D) Divide the cards into 10 piles and then study each pile four times before moving on to the next pile.
Answer: C
Rationale: Going through the entire pile of 25 cards four times involves spacing, because there is a relatively long period of time before each card is reviewed again. All of the other options involve massing the studying of each card into a shorter period of time, which has been demonstrated to be less effective.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 7
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 4.4Apply psychological concepts, theories, and research findings as these relate to everyday life.

28. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from the massing versus spacing experiment discussed in the textbook?
A) Massing is better than spacing for all types of learning.
B) Massing is better than spacing for studying vocabulary.
C) Spacing is better than massing for all types of learning.
D) Spacing is better than massing for studying vocabulary.
Answer: D
Rationale: The 2009 study discussed in the textbook showed that spacing was better than massing when studying vocabulary flashcards. The study did not, however, provide enough evidence that spacing works for all types of learning. More research would be needed to support this conclusion.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 7
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 4.4Apply psychological concepts, theories, and research findings as these relate to everyday life.

29. Jose reads in an article from a psychology journal that people tend to remember the first and last few items in long lists of information, but have the most trouble remembering the items in the middle. He immediately starts thinking of how he can use this information to change the way he studies the long list of vocabulary terms for his upcoming exam. Which part of the scientific literacy model does this demonstrate?
A) application
B) scientific explanation
C) knowledge gathering
D) critical thinking
Answer: A
Rationale: Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. In this example, Jose is specifically applying psychological information to his own life and a specific situation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 7
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand the concept of scientific literacy.
APA SLO: 4.4Apply psychological concepts, theories, and research findings as these relate to everyday life.

30. Carolines best friend tells her that eating a chili pepper with each meal will increase her metabolism and help her burn more calories. That sounds interesting, says Caroline, but is there any evidence to back up this claim? Carolines question illustrates what element of critical thinking?
A) the principle of parsimony
B) cynicism
C) tolerating ambiguity
D) skepticism
Answer: D
Rationale: Skepticism involves not automatically excepting statements as fact, and instead asking to see the evidence behind it. This is not the same as being cynical or scornful of other peoples beliefs.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

31. Being skeptical about a claim means
A) asking if there is sound evidence to support it.
B) realizing that most complex issues do not have easy answers.
C) not believing the claim, no matter what.
D) believing the claim unless evidence to the contrary is presented.
Answer: A
Rationale: Skepticism involves not automatically excepting statements as fact, and instead asking to see the evidence behind it. This is not the same as being cynical or scornful of other peoples beliefs.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

32. As a critical thinker, what habit is most likely to keep you from basing your conclusions on poor research?
A) examine assumptions and biases
B) examine the nature and source of the evidence
C) tolerate ambiguity
D) avoid overly emotional thinking
Answer: B
Rationale: While all of the options are important skills, the reason critical thinkers are encouraged to examine the nature and source of evidence is specifically to avoid basing conclusions on unreliable or poor evidence.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Apply the steps in critical thinking
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

33. For a class project, Brenda read about the results of several studies investigating the causes of schizophrenia. Some of the studies seemed to indicate that schizophrenia is genetic, while others indicated that schizophrenia could be triggered by environmental factors. Eventually, Brenda had to accept that schizophrenia is a complicated disease, and that there probably is not a clear-cut reason why some people develop it. This illustrates what critical thinking habit?
A) examine assumptions and biases
B) examine the nature and source of the evidence
C) tolerate ambiguity
D) consider alternatives
Answer: C
Rationale: Tolerating ambiguity refers to the ability to accept situations where there is not a clearly defined answer. People who tolerate ambiguity recognize that most complex issues do not have clear-cut answers.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Skill: Applied
Objective: Apply the steps in critical thinking
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

34. Which of the following is true about critical thinking?
A) If used properly, everyone who uses it will come to the same conclusion.
B) It forces us to break persistent mental habits that almost everyone uses.
C) It often requires being negative or arbitrarily critical of other peoples ideas.
D) It always guarantees a correct answer.
Answer: B
Rationale: Truly engaging in critical thinking can be challenging. One thing it asks us to do is break some persistent mental habits employed by nearly everyone, even the best scientists and most rational thinkers. It does not, however, guarantee a correct answer, nor is it meant to make everyone come up with the same answer. Critical thinking means respecting other viewpoints, while at the same time recognizing that some ideas can be incorrect.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9-10
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Apply the steps in critical thinking
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

35. ____________ holds that, when dealing with competing theories, the simplest one should be chosen.
A) Skepticism
B) Ambiguity
C) The principle of parsimony
D) Critical thinking
Answer: C
Rationale: Scientific and critical thinking involves the use of the principle of parsimony, which means that the simplest of all competing explanations (the most parsimonious) of a phenomenon should be the one we accept.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of this module.
APA SLO: 2.1Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology.
% correct 51 a= 13 b= 8 c= 51 d= 28 r = .38

36. Leonard is missing a sock. His sister suggests that a friend of his may have snuck into his room while he was sleeping and took the sock as a practical joke. However, Leonard decides it is much more likely that the sock was simply lost when he last did the laundry. What element of critical thinking most likely influenced his decision?
A) skepticism
B) the principle of parsimony
C) tolerance of ambiguity
D) avoiding overly emotional thinking
Answer: B
Rationale: Leonard is demonstrating the principle of parsimony: the simplest of all competing explanations should be the one we accept. While both explanations for the missing sock are possible, Leonards is simpler than his sisters, and should therefore be favored.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10
Skill: Applied
Objective: Apply the steps in critical thinking.
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.
% correct 41 a= 36 b= 41 c= 10 d= 13 r = .39

37. According to the principle of parsimony, reports of alien abduction are unlikely to be true because
A) there are several other explanations that are much simpler.
B) aliens do not really exist.
C) eyewitness reports should never be believed.
D) anyone who thinks they were abducted by aliens is clearly mentally unstable.
Answer: A
Rationale: According to the principle of parsimony: the simplest of all competing explanations should be the one we accept. Because there are several alternative explanations for reports of abductions that are simpler than the explanation that real aliens traveled to Earth, evaded detection, and secretly kidnapped people before returning them, this idea should be rejected.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10
Skill: Applied
Objective: Apply the steps in critical thinking.
APA SLO: 3.1Use critical thinking effectively.

Module 1.2: How Psychology Became a Science
Know
the key terminology of psychologys history
Understand
how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology
Apply
your knowledge to distinguish among the different specializations in psychology
Analyze
how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.

38. ______________ is the belief that knowledge comes through observation and experience.
A) Determinism
B) Parsimony
C) Skepticism
D) Empiricism
Answer: D
Rationale: Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge about the world comes from careful observation, not commonsense or speculation.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

39. A research psychologist is interested in whether children who play violent videogames display above average violent behavior in real life. Which approach to this question could the psychologist take that would be consistent with the principles of empiricism?
A) Use common sense to determine if there is a connection.
B) Ask children to speculate about the connection.
C) Carefully measure the type and amount of videogame play in children and observe their behavior.
D) Ask parents and teachers to speculate about the connection.
Answer: C
Rationale: Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge about the world comes from careful observation, not commonsense or speculation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Applied
Objective: Analyze how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

40. Which of the following questions represents the concept of empiricism?
A) Would Martin Luther King, Jr., have been a good president?
B) What is the meaning of life?
C) Was the Civil War necessary?
D) Is there life on other planets?
Answer: D
Rationale: Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge about the world comes from careful observation, not commonsense or speculation. The question of life on other planets could be answered by observation (data from space probes, receiving radio signals from another planet, etc.), whereas the other questions can only be addressed by speculating.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

41. Dr. Patel is a school psychologist who has noticed that a 5th grade student has recently begun to misbehave and fall behind academically. He decides there must be a reason for the students sudden problems and decides to try to figure out what it is. Dr. Patels belief that the students behavior is the result of some unknown cause is an example of
A) determinism.
B) parsimony.
C) skepticism.
D) empiricism.
Answer: A
Rationale: Determinism is the belief in cause-and-effect relationships, for example, if you do X, then Y will be the result. In this example, Dr. Patel assumes that the students behavior did not change spontaneously, and that it must be the result of one or more factors.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Applied
Objective: Analyze how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

42. According to the principle of _______________, human behavior is the result of factors that influence us is predictable ways.
A) free will
B) materialism
C) determinism
D) empiricism
Answer: C
Rationale: Determinism is the belief in lawful, cause-and-effect relationships. As it relates to psychology, determinism means that behavior is determined or influenced by many factors and natural laws.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Analyze how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

43. The belief that behavior follows lawful, cause-and-effect relationships is known as
A) free will.
B) materialism.
C) empiricism.
D) determinism.
Answer: D
Rationale: Determinism is the belief in lawful, cause-and-effect relationships. As it relates to psychology, determinism means that behavior is determined or influenced by many factors and natural laws.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

44. The concept of free willthe idea that we are in charge of our own behavioris often in conflict with the concept of
A) empiricism.
B) determinism.
C) parsimony.
D) materialism.
Answer: B
Rationale: Determinism is the belief in lawful, cause-and-effect relationships. The debate about whether we are in charge of our own behavior or whether human behavior is determined is often referred to as free will vs. determinism.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Analyze how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

45. Psychological science is
A) both empirical and deterministic.
B) empirical but not deterministic.
C) deterministic but not empirical.
D) neither empirical or deterministic.
Answer: A
Rationale: Psychological science is both empirical and deterministic. Our understanding of behavior comes from observing what we can see and measure, and behavior is caused by a multitude of factors.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Analyze how the philosophical ideas of empiricism and determinism are applied to human behavior.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

46. Psychology has been a science since
A) around 470 BC.
B) the early 1600s.
C) the late 1800s.
D) the mid 1900s.
Answer: C
Rationale: Although the scientific method started to take hold around 1600, psychology didnt become a science until the late 1800s due to zeitgeist.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

47. During the Victorian period in Europe, sexuality of any kind was considered taboo. Today of course, most adults are more open about their sexuality. This is an example of how the ____________ of different periods can affect the way people behave and think.
A) psychophysics
B) zeitgeist
C) dualism
D) materialism
Answer: B
Rationale: Zeitgeist refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history. In this example, the zeitgeist of Victorian Europe was extremely conservative about sex, which greatly affected the way people thought about the body and relationships between the sexes.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

48. In a given culture, certain periods of its history are dominated by a general set of beliefs and attitudes known as a
A) zeitgeist.
B) metaperspective.
C) parsimony.
D) gestalt.
Answer: A
Rationale: Zeitgeist refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history. For example, the zeitgeist of Victorian Europe was extremely conservative about sex.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

49. According to the authors of the textbook, what is a key reason why psychology took almost 300 years longer than physics, biology, and chemistry to become scientific?
A) Early scientific methodology was too primitive to use to study the mind.
B) Laws were passed in the 1600s that made studying the mind illegal.
C) Few people were interested in the mind and behavior prior to the 20th century.
D) The zeitgeist of the 1600s prevented people from believing that science could be applied to the study of the mind.
Answer: D
Rationale: The power of the Zeitgeist can be very strong and there are several ways it prevented psychological science from emerging in the 1600s. Perhaps most important is that people were not ready to accept a science that could be applied to minds. To the average person of the 1600s, viewing human behavior as the result of predictable physical laws was troubling.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

50. According to the authors of the textbook, scholars in the 1600s did not apply scientific methodology to the study of the mind and human behavior because of what belief?
A) that scientific methodology did not work
B) that science needed more time to develop
C) that humans were not just physical machines, and could not be studied using science
D) that it was a religious sin to try to understand the nature of the mind
Answer: C
Rationale: A likely reason why the science of psychology did not develop in the 1600s is that people were not ready to accept a science that could be applied to minds. To the average person then, viewing human behavior as the result of predictable physical laws was troubling. Doing so would seem to imply the philosophy of materialism: the belief that humans, and other living beings, are comprised exclusively of physical matter. This would mean that we are nothing more than complex machines that lack a self-conscious, self-controlling soul.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

51. The belief that the mind or soul is separate from the physical body is known as ____________, whereas the belief that humans are completely physical beings is called _____________.
A) determinism; empiricism
B) empiricism; determinism
C) dualism; materialism
D) materialism; dualism
Answer: C
Rationale: Dualism refers to the belief that the mind or soul is not part of the material body. In contrast, materialism is the belief that humans are entirely made of physical matter, including our conscious minds.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

52. The philosopher and mathematician Ren Descartes famously believed that the mind was not made of physical matter, and could exist outside of the body. Descartes belief in the relationship between mind and body could be described as
A) determinism.
B) empiricism.
C) materialism.
D) dualism.
Answer: D
Rationale: Dualism refers to the belief that the mind or soul is not part of the material body. In contrast, materialism is the belief that humans are entirely made of physical matter, including our conscious minds.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

53. How did physiologists and physicists, like Gustav Fechner, contribute to the development of psychology as a science?
A) They studied the relationship between the physical world and mental representation of that world.
B) They demonstrated that the brain was responsible for consciousness.
C) They identified the locations of specific functions within the brain.
D) They extended Darwins theory of evolution to behavior and cognitive abilities.
Answer: A
Rationale: Fechner researched psychophysics, which is the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.
Item appears in end-of-chapter quiz

54. Brenda is a participant in an experiment. She is told to watch a series of lights and to identify which one is the brightest. It is likely that Brenda is participating in a(n) ________________ experiment.
A) psychophysics
B) anthropometric
C) phrenology
D) eugenics
Answer: A
Rationale: Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world. In this example, the experimenters appear to be studying how different physical stimuli (the lights) are perceived. The experiment is unlikely to involve anthropometry or phrenology, which both involve relating physical features to psychological characteristics, or eugenics, which is the discredited belief in the genetic superiority of some individuals.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

55. Psychophysics is the study of
A) how the mind controls the body.
B) the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world.
C) the relationship between mental abilities and bumps on the head.
D) how information is stored in the brain.
Answer: B
Rationale: Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world. It involves determining how physical stimuli (e.g., light, sound, pressure) are detected and represented by the nervous system.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

56. Which of the following is true regarding Darwins theory of evolution?
A) it applies to physical characteristics, but not behavior
B) it applies to behavior, but not physical characteristics
C) it applies to physical characteristics as well as behaviors
D) it was discredited along with Francis Galtons concept of eugenics
Answer: C
Rationale: Charles Darwin recognized that natural selection could shape behavior, as well as physical characteristics.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

57. Who proposed that emotions and other behaviors were the result of natural selection?
A) Spurzheim
B) Wernicke
C) Freud
D) Darwin
Answer: D
Rationale: Charles Darwin recognized that natural selection could shape behavior, as well as physical characteristics.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

58. Suppose a small number of geese are born with a genetic mutation that makes them spend more time caring for their eggs. As a result, more chicks hatch from these eggs that then survive to reproduce themselves. According to the principle of natural selection, which of the following would be the likely result?
A) Other genetic mutations would start occurring at a faster rate.
B) The genetically inherited behavior would become more common after many generations.
C) The genetically inherited behavior would become less common after many generations.
D) The rate of genetic mutations would slow drastically.
Answer: B
Rationale: Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection states that genetically inherited traits that contribute to survival and reproductive success are more likely to flourish within the breeding population. In this example, the genetically inherited trait improves the chance of survival for the chicks, many of which will inherit the gene from their parent. Therefore, the trait will become more common over time. This process generally does not affect the rate of genetic mutations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

59. How would Charles Darwin likely explain maternal aggression when something or someone threatens a mothers children?
A) Young girls learn to protect their children by watching their mothers.
B) Maternal aggression is an inherited trait that is selected for because it contributes to the survival of the offspring.
C) Mothers are rewarded for being protective of their children.
D) Mothers learn to be protective of their children through trial and error.
Answer: B
Rationale: Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection states that genetically inherited traits that contribute to survival and reproductive success are more likely to flourish within the breeding population. In this example, maternal aggression improves the chance of survival for the child, who may have inherited the trait from the mother. Therefore, the trait will become more common over time.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16
Skill: Applied
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

60. Brain localization refers to the idea that
A) the brain is wired for the spatial mapping of our surroundings.
B) neurons in the brain only communicate with nearby neurons.
C) the brain, and not the heart, is the seat of the human consciousness.
D) certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics.
Answer: D
Rationale: Brain localization is the idea that specific brain regions are associated with specific functions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

61. Which two physicians developed phrenology?
A) Gall and Spurzheim
B) Broca and Wernicke
C) Mesmer and Freud
D) Galton and Wundt
Answer: A
Rationale: Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim developed the now discredited theory of phrenology.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

62. Which of the following is true regarding phrenology?
A) it is still used by forensic psychologists
B) it was an early approach to brain localization
C) it was developed by Karl Wernicke and Paul Broca
D) it was developed in the 1950s
Answer: B
Rationale: Phrenology, which is the study of how raised features on the surface of the skull correspond to mental traits, was developed primarily by Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim in the mid 1800s. Although considered a pseudoscience today, phrenology is still notable as an early approach to the localization of specific abilities within the brain.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

63. Kelly notices a bump on the side of Rogers head and points it out to him. He replies, That means Im a passionate person! Rogers joke is based on the theory of
A) phrenology.
B) eugenics.
C) parsimony.
D) psychophysics.
Answer: A
Rationale: Phrenology is the study of how raised features on the surface of the skull correspond to mental traits. Rogers comment is clearly a joke, because phrenology was discredited long ago.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Applied
Objective: Know the key terminology of psychologys history.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.
% correct 54 a= 54 b= 21 c= 13 d= 13 r = .41

64. Which early approach to brain localization was used by physicians like Paul Broca, and was more scientific than phrenology?
A) using electricity to stimulate different brain regions
B) surgically removing brain regions
C) studying the behavior of patients who had experienced brain injuries
D) studying the shape and size of the human skull
Answer: C
Rationale: An early approach to studying brain localization was to study how specific brain injuries, such as strokes, affected behavior. Paul Broca famously discovered that patients with damage to a specific brain region lost the ability to speak. He therefore concluded that language production was located in that region, which is known as Brocas area.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas of psychology: theory and research representing general domains, the history of psychology, relevant levels of analysis, the overarching themes, and relevant ethical issues.

65. Which two doctors were able to identify important language centers in the brain by studying their patients?
A) Gall and Spurzheim
B) Broca and Wernicke
C) Mesmer and Freud
D) Galton and Wundt
Answer: B
Rationale: Paul Broca and Karl Wernicke are well known for discovering brain regions that, when damaged, lead to difficulty speaking (Brocas area) and understanding (Wernickes area) language.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17
Skill: Factual
Objective: Understand how various philosophical and scientific fields became major influences on psychology.
APA SLO: 1.2Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content are

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