Test Bank for Career Information Career Counseling and Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown

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Test Bank for Career Information Career Counseling and Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown




Test Bank for Career Information Career Counseling and Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown


Chapter 2

        Ethical and Legal Guidelines and the Competencies Needed for Career Development Practice



Learning Objectives


Students should be able to:


  1. Identify ethical principles that govern career development practitioners work


  1. Outline the requirements for the Master Career Counselor, Master Career Development Professional, and Career Development Facilitator credentials


  1. Identify the major competencies needed by career development professionals.



Key Terms/Concepts


Ethical principles                                 Legal standards

MCC                                                      Regulation of career counseling

MCDP                                                    Career coaching process



NCDA Career Counseling Competencies

APA and ACA Codes of Ethics



Suggested Activities


  1. Invite a member of the state licensure board for counselors and psychologists to speak to the class about the ethical issues that confront these licensing boards.



Class Discussion Questions


  1. Why are codes of ethics needed? Who benefits?


  1. Advocacy has been included in the 2005 code of ethics? Is this needed? Why? Give several examples of times when career counselors in various settings might need to become advocates?


  1. How could a career counselor do harm to his/her clients?


4        What aspects of career counseling practice might, if not properly done, result in a liability suit?



Examination Questions for Chapter 2




  1. The Master Career Development Professional was developed by the National Career Development Association as a special membership category for people who have many of the same types of skills and a similar educational credentials as the Master Career Counselor, but are not as actively involved in career counseling


  1. The Global Career Development Facilitator is a special category of Master Career Counselors


  1. Professional organizations tend to issue ethical guidelines to cover new areas of practice not included in their current code of ethics


  1. Because of the of relatively low level of concerns dealt with by Career Development Facilitators the issue of doing harm to their clients is essentially a non-issue


  1. The newest code of ethics of the American Counseling Association makes no mention of the need for client advocacy.


  1. The competencies needed by Master Career Counselors is essentially the same as those required for the Career Development Facilitator, but MCCs must study these areas in depth.



Multiple Choice


  1. Which of the following is not a prerequisite to becoming a Master Career Counselor?
  2. A masters degree in career counseling or closely related field
  3. Three years of experience in career counselor
  4. NCDA membership
  5. Certification as a National Certified Counselor


  1. The Career Development Facilitator credential was developed as
  2. A means of recognizing people who qualify to be a Master Career Counselor but are working in administration
  3. Have completed a post-masters course of study
  4. Have 5 years of supervised on-the-job experience
  5. Have completed a prescribed course of study to become a paraprofessional


  1. Online career counseling may not allow which of the following?
  2. The use of personality inventories
  3. The use of sophisticated occupational information
  4. In depth exploration of the career related problem
  5. None of the above


  1. With regard to the ethical issues involved in Internet-based career counseling, it is probably most accurate to say
  2. The ethical issues are about the same as those in typical career counseling.
  3. The ethical concerns are less because the privacy of the client can be protected more easily
  4. The ethical issues involving Internet based career counseling are greater due to communication problems that may arise
  5. We have too little information to draw conclusions about potential ethical issues involving Internet career counseling.


  1. The statement that best describes the extent to which clients who seek career counseling are protected from unethical practice is
  2. They are well protected because all 50 states have licensing laws for psychologists and counselors who provide career counseling
  3. Clients who see psychologists in public institutions such as colleges are probably better protected than those who see counselees because of differences in the licensing laws for the two groups
  4. They are well protected because of codes of ethics and licensing laws
  5. None of the above reflect the current situation


  1. The code of ethics most likely to be followed by career practitioners in private practice was developed by
  2. ACA and APA
  3. NCDA
  4. ASCA
  5. NBCC


  1. Sub-sections of state level licensing laws for counselors and psychologist
  2. Identify career counselors as a specialty but do not regulate them
  3. Identify career counseling within the broad context of practice
  4. Regulate career counseling as a specialty
  5. Generally fail to regulate career counseling per s


  1. Career counseling via the Internet is a relatively new idea. As a result
  2. Few guidelines for practicing web-counseling are available.
  3. Practice guidelines are available but ethical guidelines are not available
  4. Practice guidelines have emerged from research in this area
  5. None of the above


  1. The situation that best describes the status of licensing laws for counselors is that ________ states have enacted these laws.
  2. 30
  3. 40
  4. 49
  5. 50


  1. The author identifies conflicts in cultural values as potentially doing harm to the client. Assuming that the counselor is a white person with traditional Eurocentric values, what conflicts might they encounter with a Hispanic client?
  2. Meeting on time
  3. Importance of self-direction
  4. Disclosure of pertinent material
  5. a & b above


  1. Which of the following should not appear in advertisements offering career counseling services.
  2. Licenses and certifications
  3. Degrees unrelated to the practice of career counseling
  4. Years of experience
  5. Consultations with business and industry.


  1. The ultimate aim of advocacy as it pertains to career counseling is
  2. Problem solving
  3. Making a statement about social justice
  4. Representing the client
  5. Empowering the client


  1. FERPA is a federal law that sets forth rules and regulations regarding
  2. Group test scores
  3. Verbal communication
  4. The maintenance of records
  5. All of the above


  1. If you were asked to offer advice to a counselor who wished to avoid a successful liability suite it should be
  2. Stay within the limits of your skills
  3. Follow your code of ethics
  4. Be aware of the laws that regulate your practice
  5. All of the above


  1. In the simplest terms possible privileged communication laws are
  2. Guarantees to our clients that their information will be protected from disclosure
  3. Guarantees to career counselors that they cannot be forced to disclose confidential information
  4. protection for counselors so longs as they follow the law.
  5. The same a ethical guidelines about confidentiality


  1. In todays litigious society ethical and legal principles are most likely to conflict on the matter of
  2. Sexual misconduct
  3. Confidentiality
  4. The general area of relationships to clients
  5. The duty to warn parents and authorities of potential harm to others.


Answer Key for Chapter 2



  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. F
  6. F


Multiple Choice

  1. D
  2. D
  3. D
  4. C
  5. B
  6. A
  7. D
  8. D
  9. D
  10. D
  11. B
  12. D
  13. C
  14. A
  15. A
  16. C



Short Answer Essay Questions


  1. Outline the major ethical principles that should govern the work of career develop practitioners.


  1. Tell why career coaches as described in Chapter 4 are often viewed as unprofessional by career counselors.


  1. Identify and describe the different types of licensing laws


  1. Identify times when career counselors might no follow their codes of ethics.


  1. What are the conditions under which a successful liability suit might be lodges against a career counselor?



Long Answer Essay Questions


  1. Identify the similarities and differences between the MCC and the MCDP


  1. Identify the major competencies needed by MCCs.



Suggested Additional Assignments


American Counseling Association (2005) American Counseling Association code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author


Visit the NCDA website (NCDA.org) and study the requirements for the MCC and MCCDP



















Chapter 3

Person-Environment Congruence (PEC) Theories: Frank Parson, Theory of Work Adjustment, John Holland, a Values-Based Approach, and their Applications



Learning Objectives


Students should be able to:


  1. Understand and explain the theories discussed in this chapter and their applications.


  1. Be able to critique theories of career choice and development using the criteria outlined in the chapter


  1. Differentiate among various trait and factor theories (e.g. TWA and Hollands Theory)


  1. Apply theories discussed in the chapter to various ethnic groups.


  1. Use at least two theories to explain career-related behavior of a variety of individuals.



Key Terms/Concepts



Criteria for evaluating theories                         Self-actualization

Person-oriented occupation                               Career development theory and racism

Physiological need                                               Cognized needs

Characteristic interpersonal environment

Psychological needs                                            ASVAB

Interests vs values                                               Realistic/investigative/artistic/

Congruence/consistency                                    Social/enterprising/conventional


Environmental press                                           Sex role socialization

Growth/exploration/establishment/                 Social learning theory

Assimilation                                                          Trait and factor theory

Hollands hexagon                                              TWA (theory of work adjustment)


Cultural values                                                     Work values

Logical positivism                                               TWA



Suggested Exercises/Activities


  1. Select three or four mature adults that you know well and who work in a variety of occupations, develop a career history for each and match each one against a major theory. If possible, select adults from different cultural backgrounds.
  2. Match several of the major theories against your own career development experiences and plans.
  3. Select several schoolmates with whom you have maintained contact, match their career development against several major theories.
  4. Consider the constructs of logical positivism Can human behavior be studied and the results generalized? Do you believe in cause and effect relationships? Why or why not?


Class Discussion Questions


  1. Describe individuals you know who represent stereotypes of Hollands basic types.


  1. Are separate theories of career development needed for women? Various minority groups? Why or why not?


  1. Compare your own career development to the points in Browns or Hollands theory? Which makes the most sense from your perspective?


  1. Contrast the impact of culture, family, and neighborhood on career choices of the following groups:
  2. Average middle class, American family.
  3. Urban single parent, low income family.
  4. Recent Asian American immigrant family.
  5. Wealthy suburban professional family.
  6. African American youth (middle class)
  7. Native American woman (rural)
  8. Recent Mexican American immigrant (undocumented)


  1. List your most important values.  In what roles are they being satisfied?


  1. What are your work values? How do you know?


  1. John Holland has said some positive things about TWA. Why do you believe TWA has not been utilized widely? (Although the values scale on O*NET is based on TWA).



Examination Questions for Chapter 3




  1. Parsons proposed his tripartite model of career choice in 1909.



  1. Personal characteristics such as abilities, attitudes, interests, limitations, and skills are classified as traits in trait and factor theory.


  1. The Theory of Work Adjustment and Hollands theory are trait-and-factor theories


  1. The two most important aspects of work adjustment are personal satisfaction and compatibility of work role and other life roles according to the Theory of Work Adjustment.


  1. One unique aspect of Browns values-based theory is that he suggests that job satisfaction may be primarily due to feedback from others.


  1. In Browns theory values are defined as cognized interests.


  1. Cultural values influence the career decision-making process according to Brown.


  1. Hollands theory is, at least in terms of inventories sold, the most popular of the existing theories.


  1. Congruence in Hollands theory is analogous to correspondence in TWA.


  1. The basic premise of trait and factor theories that have been presented since 1909 have changed.


  1. A good theory can be determined by the extent to which it identifies cause and effect relationships.


  1. The best theories contained carefully defined constructs.


  1. It appears that the interest in developing theories for indifferent groups is on the wane.


14      Blustein has criticized traditional career theory because it does not contain a social justice component. Assuming that he is correct one way to correct this oversight is to add advocacy as a part of the application component of the theory.

  1. In Hollands theory, identity has to do with clarity or self-understanding of interests and goals.


  1. If you wanted to pick a symbol that depicted Hollands realistic type a computer would be good choice,


Multiple Choice


  1. Using a hexagon to show interrelationships among components of the personality is associated with:
  2. Ginzberg
  3. Holland
  4. Lofquist
  5. Gottfredson


  1. Which of the following would not be viewed as a constraint on the occupational decision making process by Brown?
  2. Holding am individualism social value
  3. The gender of the decision maker
  4. Membership in a group with a history of discrimination
  5. Holding a collateral social value


  1. In working with a disadvantaged African American counselee, the counselor:
  2. Can gain some useful clues from available career development theories
  3. Can apply available theories without any qualification.
  4. Should disregard any inferences that can be drawn from available theories.
  5. Should wait until proof has been obtained that occupations for the disadvantaged can be predicted.


  1. A personality is attracted to a compatible work environment is associated with:
  2. Holland
  3. Hoppock.
  4. Roe
  5. Super


  1. Which of the following statements is a central proposition of the theory of work adjustment?
  2. Optimal career choice occurs when the needs of the person are reinforced by the job
  3. Success on the job can be predicted if information about the skills, aptitudes, and personality structure of the person are known
  4. The skills required by the job are posed by the individual in the job
  5. The values of the person and the supervisor match


  1. The construct of congruence is used to describe the relation between __________________ in Hollands theory.
  2. Personality types on the hexagon
  3. Scores on the Self-Directed Search, an instrument that measures Holland types.
  4. Interests and skills
  5. Relationship of an individuals personality to the characteristics of the people who work on a job


  1. The process by which individuals develop the values of their native culture is
  2. Cultural assimilation
  3. Enculturation
  4. Acculturation
  5. Cultural self-creation


  1. In TWA two primary factors seem to be factors in work adjustment. These are:
  2. Celerity and rhythm
  3. Pace and endurance
  4. Satisfaction and satisfactoriness
  5. Values and needs


  1. Based on Hollands theories which of the following are most likely to be turned off by educational activities?
  2. Social and Conventional
  3. Investigative and Social
  4. Realistic and Enterprising
  5. Enterprising and Artistic


  1. The cultural value that is most likely to influence decision-making style is
  2. Activity (e.g., doing, being, being-in-becoming)
  3. Time (past-future, future, present, circular)
  4. Person/Nature Relationship (people should dominate, nature dominates)
  5. Social relationships (collateral, individualism, lineal)


  1. In Hollands theory, it is assumed that how many of the clients six letter code (RIASEC) influence career decision making?
  2. One; the strongest

b        The first three including ties

  1. The first three
  2. All six


  1. Work environments may influence personality change. The person environment relationship that is most likely to produce change in personality is

a        Realistic person, Investigative work environment

  1. Person with low consistency in personality type; highly consistent work environment   
  2. Artistic person; social environment
  3. The premise of the question is wrong; work environments do not produce personality change


  1. The Ability Profiler, an instrument incorporated into O*NET measures (according to the developer)
  2. Needs
  3. Values
  4. Interests
  5. Abilities


  1. Some authorities have equated interests, needs, and values. Which of the following theorist is most likely to agree with this supposition.
  2. Brown

b        Lofquist

  1. Holland
  2. Hartung


  1. Gender is considered as a constraining factor on occupation choice by Brown because
  2. Women are more likely to choose from a restricted range of occupations for a variety of reasons
  3. Rampant discrimination in certain segments of the workplace
  4. Research shows a genetic link between gender and interests
  5. Women delay choosing an occupation because of developmental factors


  1. Although many theories of career development have been proposed for subgroups such as women and minorities in the U. S., none has been widely adopted. The most likely reason for this is
  2. They belong to a common culture that highly influences career choice
  3. The occupational structure forces people into a common set of choices and patterns; thus special theories have little practical application.
  4. Women have rejected the idea that they chose occupations differently than men.
  5. There are more similarities than difference in the factors that influence occupational choice


  1. D
  2. B
  3. A
  4. D


Short Essay Questions


  1. In a brief paragraph for each, identify the main points of two major trait and factor theories.


  1. Using one of the theories in this chapter, explain briefly how people make decisions. Identify the theory you are using in your answer.


  1. Briefly describe the theoretical positions of a trait-and-factor and a developmental theorist.


  1. Identify the major propositions of Browns values-based theory.


  1. Select two of the theories you studied and defend their use with cultural and ethnic minorities.


  1. Select one of the theories in Chapter 3 and explain its limitations with regard to use with cultural minorities.



Long Essay Questions


  1. Hollands theory and the theory of work adjustment are both trait-and-factor theories. Identify the major propositions of each theory.  Then identify the similarities and  differences between the two theories.



  1. Select one of the trait and factor theories and outline it in detail and describe how it can be appropriate applied.



Suggested Assignments


Brown, D., & Associates (2002).  Career choice and development (4th Ed.). San   Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass. (provides a comprehensive statement of many of the theories discussed in Chapters 3& 4.


Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of personalities and work environments (3rd Ed.) Odessa Fl: PAR.



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