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Psychology Perspectives and Connections 3rd by Gregory J. Feist Erika L. Rosenberg tb
________________ means that biological systems involved in thought and behaviorgenes,brain structures, brains cells, and so onare inherited but open to modification from the environment.
A _____________ can be defined as a coiled-up thread of DNA.
B. chromosome C.
D. glial cell
A(n)____________ is a large coiled molecule that contains genes.
A. DNA B.
4.A(n) _____________ is a small segment of DNA that contains information for producing protein(s). A.
_________ can be defined as all the genetic information contained in DNA.
Different forms of a gene are known as __________.
7.____________ show their effect even if there is only one copy of that gene in the pair. A.
Samantha inherits one blue-eye allele and one brown-eye allele. Her eye color is most likely to be
blue because it is the dominant gene
blue because it is the recessive gene
brown because it is the dominant gene
brown because it is the recessive gene
A ________________ shows its effects only when both alleles are the same.
A person will be lactose intolerant only if he or she __________.
inherits two lactose persistence alleles from each parent
inherits two defective alleles for lactose persistence from each parent
inherits one lactase persistence allele from the mother
inherits one defective allele for lactose persistence from the father
Which of the following traits can be determined in a person by a single gene?
C.Major depressive disorder
Traits that are determined by a single gene are termed as ____________.
13. Which of the following conditions occurs through monogenic transmission? A. Huntingtons disease
Fragile X syndrome is a single-gene cause of mental retardation and is therefore passed on from a parent to an offspring. This is an example of ___________.
Skin color and mental disorders that are determined by an interaction of many genes are examples of
A. polymorphism B.
The extent to which a characteristic is influenced by genetics is termed as ____________.
17.Fraternal twins develop from: A.
two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm.
B.two different eggs fertilized by one sperm.
C.one egg fertilized by two sperms on separate occasions.
D.one fertilized egg split into two independent cells.
18.Identical twins develop from:
A.two different eggs fertilized by two different sperms.
B.a single fertilized egg that splits into two independent cells.
C.one egg that is fertilized by two sperms on separate occasions.
D.one egg fertilized by two different sperms.
Identical twins are __________ alike genetically, whereas fraternal twins share ___________ of their genes.
A.100 percent; 75 percent
B.50 percent; 75 percent
C.100 percent; 50 percent
D.75 percent; 50 percent
20.____________ studies allow researchers to assess how genetic differences interact with environment to produce certain behavior in some people but not in others.
The term _____________ can be defined as the study of changes in the way genes are activated or deactivated without changing the sequence of DNA.
Which of the following statements is true about epigenetics?
Epigenetics involves heritable changes to DNA that are independent of the genetic sequence yet influence its expression.
Genes are simply the end points for biological structures.
Psychological traits such as dementia, agression, and others are untraceable to epigenetic effects.
Epigenetic studies have confirmed that experience does not shape peoples nature.
The secondary form of inheritance via epigenetics is sometimes referred to as ______ inheritance.
According to the research conducted by National Human Genome Research Institute in 2010, at least half of the genes present in the human genome code for ______________ in the human brain.
The ________________ is the part of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord.
A.autonomic nervous system
B.somatic nervous system
C.peripheral nervous system
D.central nervous system
26.The ________________ transmits sensory information to the brain and spinal cord and from the brain and spinal cord to the skeletal muscles.
A.autonomic nervous system
B.somatic nervous system
C.sympathetic nervous system
D.parasympathetic nervous system
Kelly, who is blind, wants to turn on the fan in her room. She searches for the switch on the wall and turns it on. Kelly knew when her hand found the fans switch because the ______________ relayed this information to her brain.
autonomic nervous system
B.enteric nervous system
C.parasympathetic nervous system
D.somatic nervous system
28.The _______________ serves the involuntary systems of the body, such as the internal organs and glands.
A.autonomic nervous system
C.central nervous system
D.somatic nervous system
29.The two main branches of the autonomic nervous system are the _____________ and the
B.somatic nervous system; enteric nervous system
C.sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
D.brain; spinal cord
The main function of the _________________ is activating the body in times of emergency, for example, by increasing the heart rate, dilating the pupils of the eyes, or inhibiting digestion.
A.somatic nervous system
B.sympathetic nervous system
C.central nervous system
31.The role of the parasympathetic nervous system is to _____________. A.
prepare the body for fight-or-flight responses
B.transport information about arm and leg movements to the brain
C.organize information transport between the brain and the spinal cord
D.return the body to a less active, restful state
32.All of the systems that are aroused by the _____________ are relaxed by the ________________.
A.autonomic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system
B.parasympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system
C.somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system
D.sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
33.Melinda sees a bear in the woods and becomes extremely scared. She decides to run away as fast as she can. When she gets home, she calms down, because the bear did not follow her. In this situation, the
________________ prepared Melindas body to deal with this emergency, and the ______________
relaxed her body after the crisis.
A.sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
B.central nervous system; sympathetic nervous system
C.parasympathetic nervous system; central nervous system
autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system
___________ are the central nervous system cells that provide structural support, promote efficient communication between neurons, and remove cellular debris.
_______________ play an important role in communication between neurons, produce the material that insulates neurons, and aid cell metabolism.
36._____________ are the cells that process and transmit information throughout the nervous system.
37.Within the brain, ____________ receive, integrate, and generate messages.
38.Information is transmitted between neurons by means of chemicals called ___________.
39.The cell body of a neuron is called a(n) ________.
40.A(n) _______________ contains a nucleus and other components needed for cell maintenance and function.
41.The _____________ transmits electrical impulses toward the adjacent neuron.
________________ are fingerlike projections from a neurons soma that receive incoming messages from other neurons.
43.The axons of some neurons are wrapped in a fatty ____________.
44.The myelin sheath insulates the ___________ so that the impulse travels more efficiently and strengthens the connection to adjacent neurons.
Axons that become ____________ are insulated and can transmit impulses more efficiently.
46.The junction between the axon and the adjacent neuron is known as the __________.
47.At the end of the axon, at each synapse, is a(n) _________ containing tiny sacs of neurotransmitters.
48.When an electrical impulse reaches the terminal button, it triggers the release of neuro transmitter molecules into the gap between neurons, known as the __________.
49.Any sensation one receives activates ____________ which take the message to the brain for processing.
D. sensory neurons
As Salma views a famous Impressionist painting that is hung on a wall, her ___________ receive visual information about the art and carry this information to her brain.
51._______________ take commands from the brain and carry them to the muscles of the body.
52.Karl catches a football and runs down the field toward the end zone, attempting to score a touchdown. Neurologically, ________________ are taking prompts from Karls brain and transmitting this information to his legs, commanding them to run.
D. Schwann cells
After three-month-old Sayuri watches her father stick out his tongue, she sticks out her own tongue too. It is likely that ____________ neurons are involved in Sayuris learning and imitation of this behavior.
___________ can be defined as neurons that communicate only with other neurons.
55.____________ are the most common kind of neuron in the brain.
The ______________ is the impulse of positive charge that runs one way down an axon.
57.The neuron, like all cells in the body, is surrounded by a(n) ___________.
______ can be defined as the chemically charged particles that predominate in bodily fluids and are found both inside and outside cells.
The myelin sheath
59.Channels in the membrane of the neuron allow ions to flow between the inside and outside of the cell. Of these, ___________ open only when certain electrical conditions are met.
C.synthetic ion channels
D.inositol trisphosphate receptor
60.Which of the following is true for when a neuron is in its resting state?
A.Impulses are bring transmitted.
B.The fluid outside the axon has a positive charge.
C.There is an excess of positively charged particles inside the axon.
D.The charge difference between the inside and the outside of the axon is -30 millivolts.
The charge difference between the inside and outside of the axon is known as a _________.
62. When a neuron is at rest, the charge difference between the inside and the outside of the axon is -70millivolts (mV). This value is the __________ of the neuronal membrane.
63.While the neuron is returning to its resting state, it temporarily becomes super negatively charged. This brief period is known as the _____________.
64.During the _______________, the neuron cannot generate another action potential.
65.The all-or-none principle states that:
A.if a neuron is not used for a certain period of time, it will disintegrate.
B.only specific neurotransmitters will exert effects on some brain regions.
once the threshold has been crossed, an action potential either fires or it does not.
D. an individual has a dense concentration of mirror neurons or none at all.
66.Neurotransmitters are packaged in sacs called ___________ in the terminal button. A.
In the process of ___________, enzymes specific to that neurotransmitter bind with the neurotransmitter and destroy it.
One of the ways to remove excess neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft is the ________ method that returns excess neurotransmitter to the presynaptic neuron for storage in vesicles and future use.
69.During the process of reuptake, excess neurotransmitter _________. A.
is returned to the presynaptic neuron for storage in vesicles and future use
is disengaged from the receptor and floats away
D.is transported to the myelin sheath
70.After a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the postsynaptic neuron, a series of changes occur in that neurons cell membrane. These small changes in membrane potential are called _____________.
Which of the following does NOT follow the all-or-none principle?
72.__________________ neurotransmitters create graded potentials that decrease the likelihood of a neuron firing.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a(n) ____________ neurotransmitter.
74.__________________ neurotransmitters create graded potentials that increase the likelihood of an action potential.
75._______________ is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
76._________________ increase the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
The __________ potentials bring the neuron closer to threshold, while the _______ potentials bring it farther away from threshold.
The ______________ in the postsynaptic neuron integrates the various graded potentials.
79.The neurotransmitter _________________ controls muscle movement and plays a role in mental processes such as learning, memory, attention, sleeping, and dreaming.
80.Madeline is an elderly person who takes medicine to treat memory loss that accompanies her Alzheimers disease. Madelines medication likely enhances the effects of the neurotransmitter ______________.
______________ is involved in voluntarily controlling muscles and is released during feelings of pleasure or reward.
82.Cocaine blocks reuptake of the neurotransmitter ____________, thereby increasing its availability in the synaptic cleft and stimulating feelings of euphoria.
83.Both ___________ and ____________ are produced in the brain and by the adrenal glands that rest atop the kidneys.
84.People who suffer from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to have unusually low levels of ___________.
D.gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
85.______________ plays a role in dreaming and in controlling emotional states such as anger, anxiety, and depression.
86.Sarah has major depressive disorder. The medication she takes to treat her symptoms likely increases the availability of ____________ in her brain.
______________ is a street drug that makes people feel social, affectionate, and euphoric by causing heightened availability of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain.
88.Of the following, ____________ is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
89.Without the neurotransmitter ______________, the nervous system would literally be out of control, never ceasing activity.
90._____________ facilitates growth and change in neurons and the migration of neurons to different sites in the brain, all of which are basic processes of early brain development.
Juan is diagnosed with schizophrenia. He is treated with a new medication that concentrates on restoring
______________ function, thereby allowing him to decipher important from less important information in his environment.
D.gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
92.The information in neural transmission which always travels in one direction in the neuron first goes through the ____________.
Which of the following does information in neural transmission, that always travels in one direction in the neuron go through the last?
94.In terms of evolution, which of the following human brain regions was the first to emerge?
The medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum are three main parts of the ______.
96.Extending directly from the spinal cord, the ____________ regulates breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
97.The _____________ is involved in various kinds of reflexes, such as coughing, swallowing, sneezing, and vomiting.
A.parts of the brain that play an important role in attention and cognitive control.
B.inborn and involuntary behaviors that are elicited by very specific stimuli.
C.the network of nerves that runs through both the hindbrain and the midbrain.
D.the bridges between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity.
99.The ____________ serves as a bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity.
100.The _______________ contains more neurons than any other single part of the brain.
101.The cerebellum is responsible for: A.
inborn and involuntary behaviors such as coughing, swallowing, sneezing, or vomiting.
B.the activation of bodily systems during prolonged stress.
C.body movement, balance, coordination, and fine motor skills.
D.outward family resemblances, such as the shape of the nose and the face.
The ______ evolved after the hindbrain, and is the smallest of the three major brain areas.
103.People with Parkinsons disease have problems with __________ functioning.
104.The midbrain, the medulla, and the pons together are often collectively referred to as the
105.A network of nerves called the ________________ runs through both the hindbrain and the midbrain.
D. reticular formation
106.When the ____________ of a cat is lesioned, the cat goes into a deep coma and will never regain an alert state.
A. amygdala B.
The ______ was the last major brain region to evolve, and was the largest part of the human brain.
108.The forebrain consists of the ___________.
109.From the bottom up, the first forebrain structure is the ______________.
110.The _____________ receives input from the ears, eyes, skin, or taste buds and relays sensory information to the part of the cerebral cortex most responsible for processing that specific kind of sensory information.
111.The ____________ is made up of the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the cingulate gyrus.
The _______________ structures are important in emotion and motivation.
113.The ___________ regulates almost all of our major drives and motives, including hunger, thirst, temperature, and sexual behavior.
The hypothalamus controls the _____________, which is responsible for producing and controlling the hormones our body produces.
115.The __________, wrapped around the thalamus, plays a vital role in learning and memory.
116.Sensory information from the sense organs goes to the _____________.
Neuroscientists conducted research with taxicab drivers in London and found that taxicab drivers, who are required to learn and navigate large areas of cities, had the _______________ that was larger than that of other drivers.
118.The ____________ is a small, almond-shaped structure located directly in front of the hippocampus.
By virtue of its prime location, the ______________ plays a key role in determining the emotional significance of stimuli, especially when they evoke fear.
If researchers lesion (cut or destroy) the amygdala of a cat, what would be the likely result?
A.The cat will not wake up from its sleep.
B.The cat will show an increased aversion to humans.
C.The cat will become extremely aggressive.
D.The cat will show no fear.
121.Portions of the ____________, a beltlike structure in the middle of the brain, play an important role in attention and cognitive control.
122.The _________________ are a collection of structures surrounding the thalamus involved in voluntary motor control.
123.The uppermost portion of the brain, the _____________, is folded into convolutions, or folds, and divided into two large hemispheres.
124.The outer layer of the brain, with all its convolutions, is called the ___________.
125.The cerebrum is composed of four large areas called ___________.
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