Test Bank for Exploring Sociology A Canadian Perspective 3rd Ed by Ravelli

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Test Bank for Exploring Sociology A Canadian Perspective 3rd Ed by Ravelli

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank of Exploring Sociology A Canadian Perspective 3rd Ed by Ravelli

 

1) A theme underlying all of the modern social theories is that of

  1. power.
  2. social problems and their causes.
  3. face-to-face interaction.
  4. social networks and their consequences for individuals.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 67

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

2) What does Western Marxism refer to?

  1. Independent and critical forms of Marxism
  2. Dogmatic forms of Marxism, practised by Soviet and Chinese regimes
  3. Neo-Marxist ways of thinking
  4. Forms of Marxism associated with Karl Marx

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 67

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

3) Which of the following does not describe Gramscis analysis of capitalism?

  1. Gramsci accepted the idea proposed by Marx of the struggle between the ruling class and the subordinate class.
  2. Gramsci proposed a new form of control and manipulation outside of the force and coercion originally proposed by Marx that is subtle and insidious.
  3. Gramsci explained that the ruling class solely dominates through force and coercion.
  4. Gramsci proposed that Marxs analysis left absent the ideological control and manipulation of the ruling class.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68-70

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

4) The concept of hegemony refers to

  1. direct physical and violent coercion.
  2. control by the police and military.
  3. dominant ideas that reflect the interests of the working class to mask social inequality.
  4. ideological control and consent of the subordinate class.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

5) Gramscis civil society refers to

  1. people treating each other with civility and respect.
  2. how schools, media, religion, trade unions, and cultural associations establish hegemony.
  3. how the economic base is a force that shapes social relations.
  4. a society that has equal opportunity for all.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

6) While sitting in a coffee shop, you overhear someone say, Homeless people are so lazy, if they just worked hard enough, they could be successful. Gramscis concept of hegemony would inform this statement by suggesting that

  1. it is an ingrained notion associated with capitalism that allows for the smooth operation of contemporary society, despite pervasive inequality.
  2. it is true.
  3. the idea of hegemony argues that those who are lazy, unproductive, and without motivation deserve what they get.
  4. it is a natural aspect of capitalist society that those who work hard do not always achieve success.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

7) The difficulty that many Canadians have imagining the viability of a political economic system other than capitalism reveals the __________ status that capitalism holds at present.

  1. domineering
  2. ideological
  3. hegemonic
  4. repulsive

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68-70

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

8) According to Gramsci, hegemony is a process that is

  1. deeply static.
  2. relatively static, but open to some negotiation.
  3. continuously negotiated and renegotiated.
  4. so invisible that it is virtually unchallengeable.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

9) Theorists refer to dominant cultural forms of sexuality and masculinity that are considered to represent a natural state of affairs as

  1. hegemonic masculinity.
  2. bourgeois masculinity.
  3. hegemonic maleness.
  4. domineering masculinity.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 70

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

10) This theorist is renowned for having developed highly critical approaches to objectified and androcentric forms of knowledge.

  1. Said
  2. Smith
  3. hooks
  4. Foucault

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

11) Which of the following statements best reflects feminist theories?

  1. Men and women should be social and political equals.
  2. Men and women are social and political equals.
  3. Interests of society reflect those of both men and women.
  4. Feminist theories argue that society is characterized by equality between men and women.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 70

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

12) Which of the following does not reflect Dorothy Smiths sociological approach?

  1. The objective is to explicate how peoples lives are socially organized.
  2. Contemporary sociological theory produces objectified forms of knowledge.
  3. Sociology is and has been male-centred.
  4. Her approach is not interested in how peoples everyday/night lives are organized.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71-73

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

13) Smith refers to the influential social relations that are not wholly discoverable within our everyday worlds as

  1. extenuating circumstances.
  2. structural variables.
  3. external social facts.
  4. extra-local social relations.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 72

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

14) Extra-local social relations refers to

  1. how race is inextricable from gender.
  2. how societal relations organize people not just locally but outside these worlds.
  3. how peoples knowings are constituted through discourse.
  4. Smiths use of the term standpoint.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 72-73

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

15) The starting point of sociological inquiry, according to Smith, should be

  1. experience.
  2. class location.
  3. gender.
  4. the Archimedean point.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

16) Which answer best reflects Dorothy Smiths sociology?

  1. It is macrosociological in focus because it produces accounts of social processes.
  2. It is microsociological in focus because it is rooted in the microcosms of daily life.
  3. It is a sociology of people.
  4. Its aim is to produce workable accounts, located in peoples actual experiences, which tell people how things happen.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71-73

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

17) My life experiences had shown me that the two issues were inseparable, that at the moment of my birth, two facts determined my destiny, my having been born black and my having been born female. This statement was written by _______ and supports _______.

  1. bell hooks; race is inextricable from gender
  2. Dorothy Smith; race is inextricable from gender
  3. bell hooks; the intersection of androcentrism and feminism
  4. Dorothy Smith; the intersection of race, class, and gender

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 73

Skill: Applied

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

18) A central concern in the writings of hooks is how black womens identities have too often been

  1. erased.
  2. marginalized.
  3. ridiculed.
  4. ignored.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

19) Post-structuralism is concerned with

  1. how scientific knowledge is key to human freedom.
  2. how scientific knowledge and ideas about truth stand outside of power relations.
  3. how knowledge is produced scientifically.
  4. how knowledge is produced socially.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

20) Post-structuralists challenge the view that scientific knowledge, or ideas about absolute truth, can ever stand outside of __________ relations.

  1. class
  2. gender
  3. power
  4. Eurocentric

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

21) Which of the following is not true of Michel Foucault?

  1. He was interested in the ways power and knowledge work together.
  2. He was critical of Marxism for not emphasizing class and the political economy as being the key principles in social organization.
  3. He argued that Marx marginalized race, gender, and sexuality in his analysis of society.
  4. He would suggest that truth is socially constructed.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75-77

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

22) Foucault was primarily interested in the ways that power and ____________ work together.

  1. sexuality
  2. social movements
  3. knowledge
  4. formal politics

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

23) When Jared eats only nutritious foods, carefully reading labels in order to avoid bad choices (such as items containing trans fat), he is doing what Foucault would call ______________ his body.

  1. improving
  2. empowering
  3. punishing
  4. disciplining

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75-76

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

24) Discourse for Foucault

  1. intersects with what is considered to be truth and fact.
  2. guides how we think and act.
  3. refers to a socially disorganized activity among people.
  4. authorizes certain individuals to speak.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

25) We are encouraged to exercise on a regular basis, eat nutritious foods, and stay away from bad choices via the discourse of health. This suggests that discourse leads to

  1. people becoming motivated to produce certain realities.
  2. doing what is best for our health.
  3. disarray.
  4. knowledge.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75-76

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

26) _________ refers to the social process by which some practices and ways of living are marked as normal and others are marked as abnormal.

  1. Normalizing
  2. Abnormalizing
  3. Othering
  4. Hegemonizing

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

27) According to queer theorists, our political and intellectual pursuits must rest on the basis of which general principle?

  1. Sameness
  2. Equality
  3. Difference
  4. Uniqueness

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

28) As described in the text, which of the following is not a main area of queer theory?

  1. Desire
  2. Sameness
  3. Language
  4. Identity

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 77-79

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

29) With respect to sexuality, queer theory is concerned with _____________ sexuality.

  1. marginalized
  2. everybodys and all forms of
  3. non-reproductive
  4. historically subjugated

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

30) With respect to identity, queer theorists emphasize that it is

  1. highly contextual.
  2. somewhat contextual.
  3. generally stable.
  4. indescribable.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

31) Which is not true of post-colonial theory?

  1. It focuses on the political and cultural effects of colonialism.
  2. It incorporates the concepts of colonialism and imperialism.
  3. It is concerned solely with events that happened after colonialism.
  4. It is also called colonial discourse studies.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79-83

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

32) In Saids analysis, literary representations that draw fundamental distinctions between the Orient (East) and the Occident (West) exemplify which kind of Orientalism?

  1. Academic
  2. Imaginative
  3. Institutional
  4. Creative

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

33) When considering the invasion of both Iraq and Afghanistan, which social theory would argue that we can see lingering imperial notions from the West as it continues to seek control?

  1. Queer theory
  2. Orientalism
  3. Hegemony
  4. Post-structuralism

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79-81

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

34) Critical race theory is associated with all of the following tenets except this one:

  1. Racism is endemic to American life.
  2. Claims of neutrality and objectivity are questioned.
  3. It argues for a historical analysis of the law.
  4. It argues for the need to recognize experiential knowledge.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 83-84

Skill: Factual

Objective: Define the principle tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

35) Whiteness as a racial identity began to be theorized at this time:

  1. 1960s
  2. 1970s
  3. 1980s and 1990s
  4. Post 2000

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Define the principle tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

36) When Hurricane Katrina hit the US city of New Orleans, approximately what percentage of the poor people affected by the storm were African-American?

  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 70%
  4. 90%

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Factual

Objective: Define the principle tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

37) As theorized by Seidman, the relative invisibility of whiteness in everyday life is indicative of

  1. privilege.
  2. self-conscious domination.
  3. marginality.
  4. ignorance.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 86

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Define the principle tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

38) ________ refers to a mechanism that aids in shifting social relations from local to global contexts.

  1. Time-space distanciation
  2. Disembedding mechanism
  3. Time-space mechanism
  4. Symbolic token

 

Answer: a

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

39) According Giddens, globalization is not only about economic interdependence, but about the transformation of ___________ in our lives.

  1. time and space
  2. reality and virtuality
  3. self and other
  4. politics and religion

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

40) Globalization is best described as

  1. society being more and more distant.
  2. an inevitable feature of modernity.
  3. local happenings no longer being shaped by events occurring outside our borders.
  4. purely economical.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

41) Who argued that, historically, black womens identities have been erased?

  1. Harriet Martineau
  2. Dorothy Smith
  3. Michel Foucault
  4. bell hooks

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

42) Which of the following is a post-structuralist?

  1. bell hooks
  2. Michel Foucault
  3. Edward Said
  4. Charles Horton Cooley

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

43) According to Dorothy Smith, the problem of sociology is

  1. androcentric world presented as universal.
  2. androcentric world presented as subjective.
  3. that the world is constituted through difference.
  4. the overuse of positivism.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

44) Dorothy Smiths primary interest is in

  1. producing accounts of peoples experience.
  2. seeing experience as the starting point of inquiry.
  3. how face-to-face interactions determine our everyday worlds.
  4. macrosociology.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

45) bell hooks is a critical figure in

  1. multicultural feminism.
  2. post-structuralism.
  3. queer theory.
  4. post-modernism.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 73

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

46) What is Dorothy Smiths approach organized around?

  1. A desire to meet womens political demands
  2. Relations of ruling
  3. Bifurcated consciousness
  4. A desire to produce a sociology for women

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

47) Gramsci differed from Marx in his analysis of

  1. the division of groups in society.
  2. the need for the proletariat to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
  3. political control.
  4. capitalism.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

48) The television sitcom Will & Grace is an example of

  1. queer theory.
  2. challenging heterosexual hegemony.
  3. maintaining heterosexual hegemony.
  4. hegemonic femininity.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 69-70

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

49) What is the theme that runs through all modern social theories?

  1. Focus on experience
  2. Power
  3. Patriarchy
  4. Quantitative in nature

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 67

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

50) According to Marx, the organization of society and peoples experiences of society are influenced by

  1. alienation.
  2. class consciousness.
  3. forces of production.
  4. relations of ruling.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 67

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

51) Dorothy Smith views sociology as producing

  1. a shared truth.
  2. an objective reality.
  3. a map for people.
  4. equality of the masses.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

52) Foucault would argue that taking care of our health through exercise and proper diet is an example of

  1. discipline.
  2. normalization.
  3. relations of ruling.
  4. the looking glass self.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75-76

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

53) Normalization is a type of

  1. feminist theory.
  2. Marxist theory.
  3. discourse.
  4. standardizing.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 76-77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

54) Queer theorists argue that our political and intellectual pursuits must rest on

  1. equality based on sameness.
  2. equity based on difference.
  3. desire and identity.
  4. language.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

55) Queer theory is largely influenced by

  1. Dorothy Smith.
  2. Michel Foucault.
  3. Amy McGrath.
  4. Emile Durkheim.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

56) While Foucault understands that knowledge is inseparable from power, queer theorists argue that it is impossible to disentangle ____________ from power.

  1. identity.
  2. desire.
  3. language.
  4. knowledge.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

57) Which of the following theorists is a proponent of post-colonial theory?

  1. Alexander Sung
  2. Everett Soronsen
  3. Edward Said
  4. Max Weber

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

58) The Disney movie Aladdin is an example of

  1. Imaginative Orientalism.
  2. Entertainment Orientalism.
  3. Institutional Orientalism.
  4. Academic Orientalism.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 81

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

59) Critical race theory allows us to view contemporary social situations through a lens of

  1. injustice.
  2. social exclusion.
  3. historical racism.
  4. profiling.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 84

Skill: Factual

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

60) Anthony Giddens links globalization to institutions such as

  1. schools.
  2. media.
  3. capitalism.
  4. government.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

61) Jeff has decided that he does not need a cellphone, but most of his friends are having a hard time understanding his decision, as they cannot understand how anyone could live without one.  This is an example of what process at work?

  1. Consent
  2. Domination
  3. Hegemony
  4. Civil society

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

62) According to Dorothy Smith, the fact that classical sociology tends to focus on mainly male theorists such as Marx, Durkheim, and Weber is an example of

  1. patriarchy.
  2. macrosociology.
  3. androcentrism.
  4. ruling relations.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Applied

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

63) According to Dorothy Smith, the whistling woman represents

  1. social relations between men and women.
  2. womens position within the academic academy.
  3. sexual harassment.
  4. women who challenge the existing patriarchal social order.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Skill: Applied

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

64) According to bell hooks, out of the following famous people, whom would we be least likely to talk about?

  1. Martin Luther King
  2. Michelle Obama
  3. Hillary Clinton
  4. Stephen Harper

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Applied

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

65) According to Foucault, the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, which features real women in instead of models, would be an example of

  1. discipline.
  2. alternative femininities.
  3. Normalization.
  4. discourse.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 77

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

66) The majority of births used to occur at home, attended by skilled midwives, but over time were moved into hospitals and attended by medical professionals; home births became looked at as the exception rather than the norm. This is an example of Foucaults concept of _____________________ at work.

  1. discipline
  2. alternative femininities
  3. surveillance
  4. discourse

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

67) The practice of fat shaming in North American society is an example of Foucaults concept of

  1. surveillance.
  2. alternative femininities.
  3. normalization.
  4. discourse.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 76-77

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

68) According to queer theory, identity is:

  1. a coherent entity that emerges from within our souls, making us who we are.
  2. fixed and unchanging throughout the life course.
  3. socially produced and fluid and multiple.
  4. the product of both genetics and socialization.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

69) The practice of taking afternoon tea in many former British colonies is an example of

  1. globalization.
  2. Orientalism.
  3. imperialism.
  4. colonialism.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 79

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

70) The fact that many Americans criticize Saudi Arabia for not allowing women to obtain drivers licences while several American states are passing legislation intended to limit, control, or otherwise regulate womens reproductive rights is an example of Saids concept of

  1. academic Orientalism.
  2. institutional Orientalism.
  3. cultural inferiority complex.
  4. colonialism.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 80

Skill: Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

71) The fact that Halle Berry is often referred to by the media as a famous black actor while Cameron Diaz is referred to as a famous actor is an example of

  1. gendered Orientalism.
  2. the deracializing of whiteness.
  3. normalization.
  4. bias in the media.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 86

Skill: Applied

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

72) PayPal and other forms of payment for online businesses that allow customers to buy products from all over the world are an example of

  1. global standardization.
  2. time-space distanciation.
  3. symbolic tokens.
  4. expert systems.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

73) The fact that we now google it as opposed to going to a direct source to get required information is an example of ______________ at work.

  1. global standardization.
  2. time-space distanciation.
  3. symbolic tokens.
  4. expert systems.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

74) According to Giddens, the fact that most people are acutely aware of the time, relying on watches and cellphones to help them organize their day, is closely associated with processes of

  1. globalization.
  2. time standardization.
  3. technological reliance.
  4. expert systems.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

75) The fact that paler skin is associated with higher status in many developing and underdeveloped countries is an example of

  1. deracialization of whiteness.
  2. gendered Orientalism.
  3. globalization.
  4. white power and privilege.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 86

Skill: Applied

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

1) Compare and contrast the theories of Marx and Gramsci, and particularly their concepts of ideology and hegemony.

 

Answer:

Gramsci accepted Marxs analysis of the struggle between the ruling class and the subordinate working class, but he diverged from Marx in his analysis of how the ruling class ruled. Marx had explained that the ruling class dominated through both force and coercion, using the strong arm of the statethat is, the police and the military. However, absent from this analysis, according to Gramsci, was a consideration of the ruling classs subtle yet insidious ideological control and manipulation.

Hegemony refers to ideological control and consent. According to Marx and Engels, the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas. Ideological control, then, means that a societys dominant ideas reflect the interests of the ruling class and help to mask social inequalities. Note that hegemony also involves consent. Gramsci argued that regardless of how authoritarian a regime may be, no regime would be able to maintain its rule by relying principally on organized state power and armed force. Rather, to enjoy longevity and stability of rule, a regime must have the allegiance of the masses. So, the hegemony of the dominant groups ideas and cultural forms works by bringing about the consent of the subordinate class.

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 68-70

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

2) Compare and contrast Smiths and Marxs ideas of ruling relations and where the power lies in society.

 

Answer:

Marx argued that the ruling class dominated through both force and coercion, using the strong arm of the statethat is, the police and the military, as well as through ideological control; the ruling ideas. He and Engels stated that, the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas. Ideological control, then, means that a societys dominant ideas reflect the interests of the ruling class and help to mask social inequalities.

Smith argues that experiences are often the result of ruling relations in everyday circumstances. She uses the concept of ruling to indicate the socially-organized exercise of power that shapes peoples actions and their lives. Ruling relations are the abstract, conceptual, and extra-locally organized relations of state, professions, corporations, academic discourses, mass media and so on. These ruling relations exist in a generalized form and work to coordinate, from outside the local sites of our bodies, what people do (their actions). After all, our experiences are not entirely shaped by daily interactions; rather, our experiences are often the result of ruling relations in everyday circumstances.

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 68-73

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony; outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

3) Develop an essay in which you discuss the US governments response to Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans from a critical race theory perspective.

 

Answer:

Critical race theory allows us to view contemporary social situations through a lens of historical racism. In this way, we can connect historical inequities to contemporary practices and situations. Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, and the vast majority of those affected were poor and African-American. Many social scientists have focused on how the relations between race and social class were implicated in the evacuation of citizens, rescue efforts, and governmental action and inaction. After the hurricane, there was a lack of an organized government rescue response for citizens trapped in New Orleans because of flooding. Those who had made their way to the Superdome stadium lived in appalling conditions in terms of food and sanitation. Many social theorists argue that the natural disaster of Hurricane Katrina was so devastating precisely because of decades of institutionalized racial inequality. Hurricane Katrina revealed for the world the enduring effects of racial segregation and racial inequalities in housing and occupation.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 84-85

Skill: Applied

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

4) Explain how post-structuralists challenge the views of Enlightenment thinkers, with support from Foucaults theories of knowledge and power.

 

Answer:

Enlightenment thinking views scientific knowledge as being the key to human freedom. As such, truth or knowledge is something that can be produced outside of power relations and therefore can be objective. Post-structuralists challenge this view, arguing that scientific knowledge, or ideas about absolute truth, cannot stand outside power relations. This means that to study the underlying structures of a cultural object, such as a text or a filmas structuralists dois to analyze it from the perspective of social relations that already exist. Post-structuralists, then, are concerned with how knowledge is socially produced.

According to Foucault, power is linked with knowledge in that truths or facts are contextual, meaning that they can never be separated from the relations of power that they are produced within. To know something (particularly the truth about something or someone) is to exercise power.

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 74-75

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michael Foucault.

 

5) Discuss how Foucaults concepts of power, discourse, and discipline lead to the process of normalization, and discuss the consequences of this process.

 

Answer:

According to Foucault, power is not a thing possessed by one individual over another. Rather, he views power relations as being created within social relationships. As such, power relationships are multidirectional, can be found everywhere, and are always at work. Power relations, then, can produce particular forms of behaviour. Power is also linked with knowledge. Truths and facts come together in systems that Foucault refers to as discourses, which guide how we think, act, and speak about a particular thing or issue, as well as determine who is authorized to speak. Moreover, discourses not only tell us what the world is, but also what the world ought to be like. Foucault uses the term discipline to mean how we come to be motivated to produce these particular realities. Power operates by producing some behaviours while discouraging others. Such disciplinary power is exemplified by the normalizing judgmenta type of internalized (self-policing) coercion that divides, classifies, and controls through regulation. The consequences of this process is that power, discourse, and discipline together create normalization, a social process by which some practices and ways of living are marked as normal and others are marked as abnormal. Normalization, then, is a method of standardizing, of creating the standards by which we live in our society. Those that are considered abnormal, or live by different standards, find themselves having to resist these structures of power.

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 75-77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michael Foucault.

 

6) Discuss and explain the three main areas of queer theory.

 

Answer:

 

  1. Desire: Queer theory wants to open up the concept and reality of desire as wide as possible. It is not solely concerned with marginalized sexualities. Queer theory aims to disrupt categories of normal sexuality and acceptable sexuality and allow instead for sexualitys diverse and numerous expressions.
  2. Language: Queer theory is concerned with how language is related to power. It is impossible to disentangle language from knowledge since language is the vehicle of knowledge. Queer theorists ask us to consider the fact that language is not transparent. Rather, queer theorists argue that it is value-laden as opposed to being a neutral description of some reality.
  3. Identity: Not some coherent entity that emerges from within our souls, making us who we are. Rather, identity is socially produced and is fluid and multiple. Our understanding of others and even of ourselves is always partial and contextual. Identity is constructed through social relations and through discourses around gender (man versus woman) and sexuality (straight versus gay) and thus there are no core identities. Queer theorists use this idea as a way to reveal and renegotiate the social inequalities in society. That is, if everyones identity is constructed, then no one persons identity (including ones sexuality) should be the standard by which anothers identity is measured. Ones identity is no more normal than, say, the comparison of paintings wherein one is considered normal compared with another onethey are simply different.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 77-79

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

7) Outline Saids three kinds of Orientalism, and discuss the consequences of this type of thought.

 

Answer:

  1. Academic Orientalism refers to knowledge that is produced by academics, government experts, historians, sociologists, and anyone else who is producing information or writing about the Orient. Said perceives that this knowledge is not neutral but is embedded in power relations.
  2. Imaginative Orientalism refers to any representation making a basic distinction between the Orient and the Occident. These representations may include art, novels, poems, images, and social descriptions.
  3. Institutional Orientalism refers to the institutions created by Europeans such that they could gain authority over, alter, and rule the Orient.

The consequences of this type of thought is that the East is characterized as inferior, childlike, and incapable of progress and development. This is in stark contrast to the characterization of the West as superior, rational, and developed. As such, the East is to be feared and is in need of being controlled (by pacification, research, and complete occupation). This leads to negative foreign relations between Western and Eastern nations.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 80-81

Skill: Conceptual/Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

8) Explain Saids concept of Orientalism and discuss some of the criticisms against it. In your opinion, are these criticisms valid? Why or why not?

 

Answer:

Orientalism is a Western style of thought that creates a false opposition between the Orient (East) and the Occident (West). He views Orientalism as a discourse of power, one that works to naturalize the East as being inferior to the West.

Critics of Saids work point out that he fails to consider how non-Westerners view themselves and the West. Many of those living in the East resist the imposition of Western culture, and try to maintain their own cultures and/or fashion new hybrid cultures. Bhabha argues that the West has a more ambivalent relationship with the East than Said describes, in that Western discourses also reveal a longing or attraction to the East. Bhabha points out that the West and the East are enmeshed in a relationship that is not completely oppositional, but involves identification, a mix of repulsion and attraction, and a standpoint of dominance that is always in danger of reversal. He reminds us that power does not flow only from colonizer to colonized but is multidirectional, even if the colonizers do occupy a more powerful position. After all, the colonizers must always rely on the colonized to uphold their rule.

Opinions will vary by student.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 79-81

Skill: Conceptual/Applied

Objective: Describe the approach of post-colonial theory in general, and Edward Saids Orientalism in particular.

 

9) How does the Canadian case of R.D.S. vs. The Queen demonstrate that, according to critical race theorists, legal principles such as justice is blind are not always upheld?

 

Answer:

In this case, a black youth in Nova Scotia was arrested and charged with assaulting a white police officer as the officer tried to arrest another youth. The original judge in the case, Judge Corrine Sparks, was the only black woman judge in Nova Scotia. Judge Sparks acquitted the youth and made reference to tensions between the police and non-white persons. Critical race theorists point out that white judges make decisions based on their experiences daily, but when a black woman judge made reference to racial tensions, the case was appealed to the Supreme Court. The Court upheld the original acquittal and accepted the argument that a reasonable person would use his or her knowledge of the social context of the community and race relations, as long as that knowledge was relevant, not based on stereotype, and did not prevent a fair decision. As such, this case challenges the notion of colour-blindness within the Canadian justice system.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 85

Skill: Applied

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

10) Discuss what does Giddens means by the quote In high modernity, trust and risk are inseparable and its relation to globalization.

 

Answer:

This quote has to do with Giddenss ideas of our reliance on expert systems in an ever-globalizing world. This reliance shifts the centre of our lives away from the local to the abstract, expert systems of knowledge that may be distant. Think about how traditional societies operated: if you had questions about child rearing or how to grow healthy crops, you would rely on people in your local social network. Today, though, we rely on those trained in abstract knowledge. We do not even have to actually go to experts to be reliant on expert systems of knowledge; their dominance permeates all of society.

In addition, expert systems implicate us in relations of trust and risk. We trust that engineers and architects know something about construction, such that we do not fear that the roof will cave in as we enter a building. When boarding an airplane, we are both risking and trusting in an expert system that states that the aircraft is fit to fly. In modern society, we have no choice but to put our trust in expert systems, and as such, we are always at risk of their failure.

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 89

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

1) Gramsci accepted Marxs analysis of the struggle between the ruling class and the subordinate working class but diverged from Marx in how the ruling class ruled.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Factual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

2) According to Gramsci, no regime can maintain its rule by relying principally on organized state power and armed force.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 68

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Describe Antonio Gramscis Marxist concept of hegemony.

 

3) According to Dorothy Smith, ruling refers to a socially organized activity among people.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 71

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

4) According to Dorothy Smith, by giving primacy to the concepts and topics recognized by the discipline of sociology, sociology has failed to move beyond hegemonic ways of knowing.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Challenging

Type: TF

Page Reference: 71-73

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

5) According to bell hooks, the womens movement in the 1960s paid little attention to the realities of black womens lives.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 73-74

Skill: Factual

Objective: Outline second- and third-wave feminist thinking using the examples of Dorothy Smith and bell hooks.

 

6) According to Foucault, power is distinct from knowledge.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Factual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

7) According to Foucault, power is something possessed by one individual over another.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 75

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

8) Going on a diet is an example of self-policing, from a Foucauldian perspective.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 76

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

9) Queer theory is based on liberal humanist assumptions.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 77

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the three principal areas of queer theory.

 

10) Whiteness studies highlight whiteness as a racial identity like any other.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 86

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

11) A disproportionately high number of poor African-Americans were adversely affected by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 84-85

Skill: Factual

Objective: Define the principal tenets of critical race theory and the approach to whiteness as a racial identity.

 

12) In Giddenss analysis, globalization is an inevitable feature of modernity based on a non-Western worldview.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approaches to globalization.

 

13) Post-structuralists argue that scientific knowledge is always value laden.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 78

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

14) When females wear makeup and high heels, they are disciplining their bodies, according to Foucault.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 74

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Explain the major post-structural concepts of Michel Foucault.

 

15) Waking up at 6:45 a.m., turning on your computer, and surfing the Internet to find out what the weather is like in Australia is an example of Giddenss time-space distanciation.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 87

Skill: Applied

Objective: Explain Anthony Giddenss theoretical approach to globalization.

 

1) Family is one of the most ___________ concepts in the English language.

  1. contradictory
  2. misused
  3. ambiguous
  4. normative

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 285

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

2) The nuclear family refers to

  1. a family consisting of an adult male, adult female, and their offspring.
  2. a family consisting of multiple generations of adults living with their spouses and children.
  3. a family consisting of either an adult male, adult female, and their offspring, or an adult male, adult male (or adult female and adult female) and their offspring.
  4. the family into which individuals are born.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 286

Skill: Factual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

3) The family of procreation refers to

  1. the family an adult or adults created by having children or adopting children.
  2. the family into which adults are born.
  3. the family into which adults live together with other family members.
  4. the family based on agreed social arrangements.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 286

Skill: Factual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

4) Which category makes reference to the family into which you were born?

  1. Extended family
  2. Family of procreation
  3. Nuclear family
  4. Family of orientation

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 286

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

5) Eichler, in her reference to the monolithic bias, refers to all of the following except

  1. how we tend to think of an ideal type of family as normal.
  2. that the nuclear family type is the ideal family.
  3. that a family consisting of an adult male, adult female, and their offspring is considered to be ideal.
  4. the failure of a social arrangement to be understood as a family.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 288

Skill: Factual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

6) To resist the monolithic bias, Eichler recommends that we do this to our definition of family.

  1. Expand it.
  2. Narrow it.
  3. Reject it.
  4. Clarify it.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 288

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

7) All of the following factors contributed to the need to re-examine the boundaries of what we consider families to be except

  1. a focus on human rights and equality.
  2. the conservative reaction.
  3. the role of law.
  4. the feminist movement.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 288

Skill: Factual

Objective: Understand the factors involved in developing a definition of family.

 

8) In what year was the legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada formalized through the passing of Bill C-38 (the Civil Marriage Act)?

  1. 1968
  2. 2000
  3. 2005
  4. 2007

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 288

Skill: Factual

Objective: Review the significant legislative changes and overall trends in marriage and divorce in Canada.

 

9) Prior to the 1968 Divorce Act, which of the following was not considered grounds for divorce?

  1. Adultery
  2. Desertion
  3. Imprisonment
  4. Irreconcilable differences

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 289

Skill: Factual

Objective: Review the significant legislative changes and overall trends in marriage and divorce in Canada.

 

10) Which bill was responsible for the most recent significant shift in marriage in Canada? What year was it introduced?

  1. Bill C-38/2005
  2. Bill C-38/2001
  3. Divorce Act/1968
  4. Divorce Act/1985

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 289

Skill: Factual

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