The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

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The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

CHAPTER_2_Majoritarian_or_Pluralist_Democracy_

 

 

 

1. The ancient Greeks classified governments as autocracies, oligarchies, or democracies based on

  a. the fundamental purposes for which the government was instituted.
  b. the extent of government power.
  c. the types of elected officeholders.
  d. the kinds of decisions the government was responsible for.
  e. the number of citizens involved in governing.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

2. An autocracy is a political system ruled by

  a. a few.
  b. one individual.
  c. the military.
  d. a majority.
  e. a few powerful, wealthy individuals.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

3. Members of which of the following groups would be most likely to support immigration reform that includes a path to citizenship?

  a. Tea Party
  b. Democrats
  c. Chamber of Commerce
  d. Republicans
  e. Heritage Foundation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   A

 

4. The concept of democracy was initially defined centuries ago in ancient

  a. Syria.
  b. Egypt.
  c. Greece.
  d. Rome.
  e. India.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

5. The Greek word demos, which is the root of the term democracy, means

  a. common people.
  b. power.
  c. participation.
  d. foundation or base.
  e. order.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

6. The Greek word kratos, one of the roots of the word democracy, means

  a. power.
  b. authority.
  c. common man.
  d. rule.
  e. form.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

7. A politician who appeals to and often deceives the masses by manipulating their emotions and prejudices is a(n)

  a. politico.
  b. delegate.
  c. oligarch.
  d. legacy.
  e. demagogue.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

8. A form of government that puts power in the hands of an elite is a(n)

  a. oligarchy.
  b. democracy.
  c. autocracy.
  d. dictatorship.
  e. theocracy.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 LO3
NOTES:   F

 

9. The procedural view of democracy is most concerned with

  a. the level of popular participation in decision making.
  b. the equality of government decisions.
  c. minority protections.
  d. the impact of government decisions.
  e. how government decisions are made.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

10. Which of the following is not a question asked by procedural democratic theory?

  a. Who should participate in decision making?
  b. What democratic outcomes violate the rights of minorities?
  c. How much should each participants vote count?
  d. How many votes are needed to reach a decision?
  e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

11. The idea that all adults within the boundaries of a political community should be allowed to vote is known as

  a. universal participation.
  b. political equality.
  c. majority rule.
  d. plurality rule.
  e. suffrage.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

12. A country abiding by the principle one man, one vote is practicing

  a. representative democracy.
  b. political equality.
  c. equal suffrage.
  d. substantive democracy.
  e. a free and fair election system.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

13. Whereas majority rule is defined as decision making by 50 percent plus one person, _________ is defined as decision making by most participants.

  a. rule by the people
  b. acquiescence
  c. political equality
  d. universal participation
  e. plurality rule

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

14. All of the following are principles of procedural democracy except

  a. government responsiveness to public opinion.
  b. minority rights.
  c. universal participation.
  d. majority rule.
  e. political equality.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

15. Participatory democracy today

  a. is rare in the United States but commonly practiced in Europe.
  b. is common in the United States and in other democracies.
  c. is common in the United States but rare in other democracies.
  d. is common in the United States and Europe, but rare in other democracies.
  e. is rare in the United States and in other democracies.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

16. New England town meetings are an example of

  a. substantive democracy.
  b. oligarchies.
  c. representative democracy.
  d. civil democracy.
  e. participatory democracy.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

17. The concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making is

  a. majoritarianism.
  b. plurality rule.
  c. political equality.
  d. one person, one vote.
  e. universal participation.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

18. _________ theory prescribes that a group should decide to do what the majority of its participant wants to do.

  a. Democratic
  b. Pluralist
  c. Procedural
  d. Doctrinal
  e. Substantive

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

19. In a system of participatory democracy,

  a. neighborhoods are the basic units of political engagement.
  b. representatives are required to interact regularly with citizens.
  c. citizens govern themselves, without electing representatives.
  d. the national government always defers to state governments.
  e. state governments always defer to the national government.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

20. Portlands incorporation of neighborhood associations into its municipal government is an example of

  a. majoritarianism.
  b. pluralism.
  c. political equality.
  d. participatory democracy.
  e. universal participation

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

21. Why do most democracies give power to representatives rather than directly to citizens?

  a. Bringing large numbers of citizens together for discussions and votes is difficult.
  b. Decisions may require specialized knowledge not possessed by the average citizen.
  c. Discussion of political issues consumes more time than most people are willing to spend.
  d. Options a, b, and c are true.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32-33
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

22. __________ allows a person to acquire information and documents online and also provides a medium to register opinions and complaints to government officials.

  a. E-government
  b. The Federal Communications Commission
  c. The Telecommunications Act
  d. The Secretary of State
  e. Fox News

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   33
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

23. The principle of responsiveness requires that legislators

  a. follow the general contours of public opinion.
  b. cast their ballots on the basis of what the people think back home.
  c. pay especial attention to groups that are highly organized.
  d. support public opinion in all matters related to electoral politics.
  e. consider the views of their fellow legislators more than the views of constituents.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

24. The Bill of Rights is at the core of our

  a. procedural theories of democracy.
  b. majoritarian theories.
  c. participatory theories of democracy.
  d. substantive theories of democracy.
  e. representative theories of democracy.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

25. The basic standard of substantive democracy is that government must guarantee

  a. economic rights.
  b. civil rights and liberties.
  c. social equality.
  d. Options a, b, c, and d are true.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

26. Agreement among substantive theorists breaks down when the discussion moves from civil rights to

  a. freedom of expression.
  b. social rights.
  c. religious rights.
  d. economic rights.
  e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

27. In August of 2010, a federal judge overturned a decision by the voters of California that had banned gay marriage. This judicial decision is an example of

  a. majoritarian theory.
  b. the interest group model.
  c. elite theory.
  d. substantive democracy.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

28. According to the ____________ view of democracy, anti-gay marriage laws are democratic.

  a. substantive
  b. authoritarian
  c. oligarchic
  d. Greek
  e. procedural

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

29. According to procedural theory, the government should do

  a. whatever the most insistent interest group wants.
  b. whatever the majority wants.
  c. whatever they judge to be right.
  d. whatever the most influential elites want.
  e. whatever they think the framers of the constitution would have done.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   A

 

30. In 2005, voters in Texas voted by over a 60% margin to ban gay marriage. Arguing that gay marriage should be allowed in Texas anyway implies a reliance on the _____________ view of democracy.

  a. populist.
  b. procedural.
  c. substantive.
  d. majoritarian.
  e. elite.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   A

 

31. Civil libertarians commonly assert that We dont put our fundamental rights, like freedom of speech, up for a vote! This statement reflects the __________ view of democracy

  a. bureaucratic.
  b. elitist.
  c. procedural.
  d. majoritarian.
  e. substantive.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   A

 

32. Bible readings in public schools would violate a _________ principle, freedom of religion.

  a. democratic
  b. procedural
  c. doctrinal
  d. substantive
  e. pluralist

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

33. Americans tend to define democracy in terms of

  a. democratic processes.
  b. institutions and organizations.
  c. social benefits.
  d. political parties.
  e. freedoms, rights, or liberties.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

34. One of the weaknesses of the procedural model of democracy is that

  a. it does not provide clear criteria on which to judge whether a government is democratic.
  b. its reliance on rules may lead to rigidity and inefficiency.
  c. it neglects the standards of classic Greek democracy.
  d. it permits policies that violate standards of substantive democracy.
  e. too much attention is paid to protecting minority rights.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

35. _________ theorists have a narrower view of the scope of social and economic rights that should be guaranteed by a democratic government than _________ theorists.

  a. Liberal, conservative
  b. Substantive, procedural
  c. Conservative, liberal
  d. Majoritarian, pluralist
  e. Procedural, substantive

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

36. In most democracies other than the United States, there is __________ support for the view that jobs and incomes for the unemployed are a right.

  a. much less
  b. a little less
  c. about equal
  d. a little more
  e. much more

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

37. An important problem with the procedural view of democracy is that it can clash with

  a. minority rights.
  b. the majoritarian view.
  c. voting rights.
  d. political parties.
  e. democratic government.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   C

 

38. Suppose a majority of Congress passes a law to permit organized prayer in public schools and the Supreme Court declares that the Constitution forbids this rule; this would be an example of

  a. procedural democracy.
  b. substantive democracy.
  c. the majoritarian model.
  d. participatory democracy.
  e. constitutional democracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   36
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 LO1
NOTES:   F

 

39. Which of the following can be considered an institutional mechanism in politics?

  a. Interest groups
  b. Political parties
  c. Legislatures
  d. Elections
  e. All of the above may be considered institutional mechanisms in politics.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   36
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 LO3
NOTES:   C

 

40. A popular election is the primary mechanism for democratic government in which model?

  a. Substantive democracy
  b. Procedural democracy
  c. The majoritarian model
  d. The pluralist model
  e. The integrated model

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

41. A referendum is best described as a(n)

  a. statement of legislative goals.
  b. do-over of a previous election.
  c. ballot without true competition for offices.
  d. election on a policy issue.
  e. decision that resolves a legal issue.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

42. A citizens group gathers enough signatures on a petition to force a popular vote on a statewide lottery proposal. This proposal would represent a(n)

  a. recall election.
  b. referendum.
  c. initiative.
  d. popular law.
  e. citizens proposal.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

43. An election on a public policy issue is called a(n)

  a. initiative.
  b. referendum.
  c. primary.
  d. recall.
  e. procedure.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

44. When citizens circulate petitions to gather signatures to put a policy question on the ballot, it is called a(n)

  a. initiative.
  b. referendum.
  c. primary.
  d. recall.
  e. procedure.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

45. In 2011, the state of Ohio approved an initiative to

  a. teach creationism in public schools.
  b. increase the minimum wage.
  c. restrict abortion.
  d. create a school voucher program.
  e. overturn a law that had weakened unions.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

46. Although they are instruments of majoritarian democracy, initiatives are often sponsored by

  a. government officials.
  b. interest groups.
  c. members of the judiciary.
  d. foreign multinational corporations.
  e. small numbers of average citizens.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

47. What rules govern the use of referenda at the federal level?

  a. They can only be used to propose constitutional amendments.
  b. They require a two-thirds vote of all Americans.
  c. They must be approved by a two-thirds vote of Congress.
  d. They can only be used for a declaration of war.
  e. No provisions exist for the use of referenda at the federal level.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

48. An organized group that seeks to influence government policy is called a(n)

  a. interest group.
  b. pluralist group.
  c. elite group.
  d. oligarchy.
  e. substantive group.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

49. In 2014, voters in Switzerland approved an initiative to

  a. recognize civil rights at a national level.
  b. join the European Union.
  c. limit immigration.
  d. ban involvement in military conflicts.
  e. leave the European Union.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

50. Which of the following is not an assumption of the majoritarian model of democracy? Citizens

  a. are knowledgeable about government and politics.
  b. want to participate in the political process.
  c. are raised in families that encouraged active political participation.
  d. make rational decisions in voting.
  e. All of the above are assumptions of the majoritarian model.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

51. Based on polls testing how closely Americans follow news about politics, the text implies that policymakers should

  a. pay more attention to polls on policy questions.
  b. solicit more input from citizens before casting votes.
  c. institute public policy educational programs.
  d. place less credence in polls measuring public opinion on policy questions.
  e. pass legislation banning polls on public policy issues.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   A

 

52. Although public opinion does not fluctuate erratically, change can occur

  a. as a result of a presidential state of the union address.
  b. when older voters change their minds collectively on an issue.
  c. when different generations with different experiences enter the electorate.
  d. when pollsters refine their questions to get the answers they are looking for.
  e. None of the above is likely to have an impact on public opinion.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   A

 

53. Compared with majoritarian thought, the pluralist model of democracy shifts the focus of democratic decision making from __________ to _________.

  a. organized groups; the mass electorate
  b. representatives; voters
  c. procedures; substance
  d. substance; procedures
  e. the mass electorate; organized groups

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   39
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

54. Cohesive political parties with well-defined programs contribute to the

  a. pluralist model of democracy.
  b. majoritarian model of democracy.
  c. republican theory of democracy.
  d. elite theory of democracy.
  e. substantive theory of democracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

55. For some years our two congressional parties have been increasingly polarized, working less together to fashion compromise legislation. This is consistent with the _________ of democracy.

  a. pluralist model
  b. substantive theory
  c. procedural theory
  d. elite theory
  e. majoritarian model

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

56. A sign that pluralist democracy might not be working well in the United States is the

  a. fact that the best represented sectors in Washington are business and professional groups.
  b. declining number of interest groups in Washington.
  c. decentralization of the American government.
  d. increased representation for low income Americans.
  e. generally low levels of political knowledge among Americans.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

57. The idea that the most important government decisions are made by an identifiable and stable minority that shares certain characteristics particularly wealth and business connections is called

  a. substantive democracy.
  b. elite theory.
  c. pluralist theory.
  d. the interest group model.
  e. aristocracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

58. Suppose that top government jobs for both political parties are filled only from an inner circle of top corporate leaders. This would be evidence for

  a. elite theory.
  b. substantive democracy.
  c. pluralist theory.
  d. the interest group model.
  e. aristocracy.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

59. Studies on decision making concerning public policy issues suggest that much of the elites power comes from the ability of elites to

  a. win seats in Congress.
  b. become governors of states.
  c. finance candidates for president of the United States.
  d. keep issues off the political agenda.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

60. In America, when the wealthy and the rest of the population have differing policy goals

  a. the preference of the majority will most likely prevail.
  b. the preference of progressive interest groups normally prevails.
  c. there is no way to predict which side will win.
  d. the preference of the wealthy will most often prevail.
  e. Social scientists have not studied this question, so it is impossible to say which side will likely prevail.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   C

 

61. The principal drawback of the pluralist model is that it

  a. doesnt adequately take public opinion into account.
  b. has been used by authoritarians to repress their populations.
  c. favors groups who need help the least.
  d. gives unfair advantages to poor people.
  e. has been shown to be a poor method of representation.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   42
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   A

 

62. Studies of the congressional agenda demonstrate that it is characterized by

  a. an emphasis on legislation concerned with the poor.
  b. an emphasis on legislation concerned with immigration.
  c. an emphasis on legislation concerned with increasing taxes on the wealthy.
  d. an emphasis on business-related legislation.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   42-43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 LO2
NOTES:   F

 

63. Democratization is the

  a. process of moving from procedural to substantive democracy.
  b. process of institutionalizing the rules of procedural democracy and establishing substantive democratic policies.
  c. act of electing leaders in a way that conforms to the criteria of substantive democracy.
  d. process of moving from a demand to a market economy.
  e. requirement that freedoms and rights be protected by written covenant.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 LO3
NOTES:   C

 

64. Whether a political system is democratic is chiefly defined by

  a. its amount of participation.
  b. its political equality and majority rule.
  c. government responsiveness to public opinion.
  d. its tolerance for freedom of speech and association.
  e. It cannot be simply defined by any of the above.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 LO3
NOTES:   F

 

65. According to the text, in the past few yea

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