The Economy Of Nature 6th Edition By Ricklefs Test Bank

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The Economy Of Nature 6th Edition By Ricklefs Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
The Economy Of Nature 6th Edition By Ricklefs Test Bank

Name Test Bank Chapter 02
Description
Instructions It is particularly concerned about water quality on this tract because the existing
park is widely known for its pristine streams. You visit the tract and begin
conducting an on-site assessment of stream water quality. Several important
issues arise as you begin this assessment. Please put your knowledge of the
properties of water to work in answering the following questions about this
assessment.
Question 1
Essay
Question You begin by measuring the acidity of one small stream (called Soft
Branch) on this tract and find that its pH is 4.5. What would this finding lead you
to conclude?
Answer The stream is abnormally acidic, given that the typical range of pH for
small ponds and streams is between 6 and 9. The cause of the acidity
should be determined. One might check for the existence of
anthropogenic sources of acidity, such as acidic drainage from mining
wastes.
Question 2
Essay
Question Your survey of the watershed of Soft Branch reveals no unusual
sources of acidity, such as old mine tailings. Can you suggest another potential
cause of the streams acidity?
Answer Streams draining areas with bedrock deficient in calcium and
magnesium (such as granite) may be naturally acidic, and this acidity
may be exacerbated by acidic precipitation. Thus one might wish to
determine the bedrock geology in the watershed of this stream. Data
on the acidity of precipitation in the region might also be useful.
Question 3
Essay
Question You discover that populations of mollusks (such as snails, clams,
and mussels) are relatively low in Soft Branch, compared with populations of
these animals in streams of similar size in the adjacent Great Smoky
Mountains National Park. What is one of the first things you might suspect as a
cause of the scarcity of mollusks?
Answer The scarcity of hard-shelled animals might be due to a scarcity of
calcium, essential for the formation of shells. Acidic streams are soft,
which means they carry relatively high levels of hydrogen ions (the
case here) and low concentrations of calcium ions. As is the case for
the previous question, one might wish to explore the cause of the
acidity and low calcium further.
Question 4
Essay
Question The acidity of Soft Branch suggests that soils in the adjacent
watershed may also be acidic. If so, water in these soils will also be acidic,
ultimately contributing to the acidity and chemical makeup of the stream.
Hydrogen ions in soil water play an important role in dissolving essential
elements (such as calcium) from the minerals in rocks and soils. This capability
may also have negative environmental consequences in certain landscapes.
Why?
Answer Hydrogen ions can dissolve naturally occurring toxic heavy metals,
such as arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. These metals will then be
carried into streams, where they create undesirable health effects for
stream residents and animals feeding on aquatic organisms from
these streams.
Question 5
Essay
Question You survey another small stream (called Hard Branch) flowing
through the same tract of land. To your surprise, you discover that this stream
is alkaline (pH in excess of 7). Upon further analysis the water is found to be
hard with a relatively high concentration of calcium ions. What possible cause
of this alkalinity might you consider?
Answer The alkalinity of this stream may be a reflection of bedrock geology. In
particular, one might wish to consult a geological map of the area to
determine whether this stream may drain an area with abundant
limestone bedrock. The occurrence of such calcium-rich bedrock
could explain the alkalinity of this stream.
Question 6
Essay
Question The physical world provides the context for life, but also constrains
its expression. Using an example from this chapter, show that you understand
the meaning of this quotation.
Answer There are many possible answers. Each kind of habitat provides
space and resources for organisms, but also constrains these
organisms. The brine shrimp (Artemia) thrive in the Great Salt Lake
(where the salinity can be as much as 8 times more than normal
seawater) by excreting salt at a prodigious rate. To do so they incur a
high energy cost, requiring an abundant food supply, in this case the
photosynthetic bacteria that live in their hypersaline environment.
Question 7
Essay
Question In this chapter, Dr. Ricklefs draws an analogy between biological
systems and buildings. Please summarize this analogy in your own words.
Answer Living organisms have a purposeful existence that transcends the
constraints imposed by physical laws. In a similar fashion, architecture
is constrained by the properties of building materials, but buildings
have functions and purposes that transcend these constraints.
Question 8
Essay
Question What is acidity in aquatic systems and how is the acidity of water
commonly expressed? Why do ecologists typically determine the acidity of
aquatic systems?
Answer Acidity is the concentration of hydrogen ions, expressed as pH, the
negative of the common logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration.
Acidity, in turn, is important in dissolving minerals, determining the
availability of nutrients, and regulating many life processes. Acidity
may be used, along with other indicators, as a means of assessing the
health of an aquatic system. For example, an unusually acidic lake in
a particular region may have been affected by acidic seepage from
mine tailings or acidic atmospheric deposition.
Question 9
Essay
Question The need to acquire carbon dioxide from the atmosphere creates a
unique problem for terrestrial plants. As small amounts of carbon dioxide enter
the leaf through tiny openings (called stomates), what essential resource are
plants losing to the atmosphere?
Answer In order to gain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the plant must
also lose prodigious amounts of water vapor to the atmosphere. For
every gram of carbon assimilated, a plant will transpire approximately
500 grams of water.
Question 10
Essay
Question How do terrestrial plants regulate the amount of water they
transpire? What negative consequences might result from prolonged reduction
of the amount of water transpired?
Answer By closing their stomates, plants can reduce the amount of water lost
to the atmosphere by transpiration. However, in so doing, plants also
prevent the carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis from entering
the leaf. As transpiration is reduced, so also is the essential flux of
water and nutrients into the plant from the soil. Finally, the evaporation
of water from leaf surfaces helps cool the leaves, which might
otherwise overheat if exposed to direct sunlight.
Question 11
Multiple Choice
Question Sperm whales dive to great depths, spending more than an hour
underwater before returning to the surface to breathe. During their extended
dives, where do they store oxygen to maintain their metabolic processes?
Answer in the lungs (as a gas)
in the blood (bound to hemoglobin) and in the muscles
(bound to myoglobin)
in the brain (bound to neurons) and in the heart (bound to
the pericardium)
in extracellular fluids (as dissolved oxygen)
Question 12
Multiple Choice
Question Diving birds living in very cold regions (like the Adlie penguin
described in the text) rely on what kind of insulation against the extreme cold of
their surroundings?
Answer a layer of fat beneath their skin
a layer of specialized proteins beneath their skin
air trapped in their plumage
water trapped in their plumage
Question 13
Multiple Choice
Question Water has an unusual property relevant to its significance as the
basis of life as we know it. Which property is it?
Answer
Water has an immense capacity to dissolve inorganic
compounds, facilitating the chemical processes of living
systems.
The high density of water achieves the concentrations of
molecules necessary for rapid chemical reactions.
No other common substance is liquid under most conditions at
the earths surface.
Question 14
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following properties of water is most important in
preventing the bottoms of large bodies of water (lakes and oceans) from
freezing solid?
Answer Water conducts heat rapidly.
Water is most dense at 4C.
Water is capable of dissolving a wide array of substances.
Freezing of water requires the removal of 80 times as much
heat as that needed to lower the temperature of the same
quantity of water by 1C.
Question 15
Multiple Choice
Question The bodies of many plants and animals are denser than the water in
which they live. Which of the following attributes helps prevent these organisms
from sinking?
Answer gas-filled swim bladder (some fish)
filamentous appendages (some tiny marine animals)
accumulation of fats and oils (many aquatic organisms)
all of the above
Question 16
Multiple Choice
Question Of the nutrients listed below, all except one are required by all
organisms. Which is it? (Hint: This element is required by diatoms.)
Answer nitrogen
phosphorus
potassium
sulfur
silicon
Question 17
Multiple Choice
Question The element molybdenum is required in relatively large amounts by
which of the following organisms?
Answer
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
all bacteria
all plants
all animals
Question 18
Multiple Choice
Question With the exception of oxygen, carbon, and some nitrogen, plants
acquire their essential elements in what form?
Answer as elements occurring in atmospheric gases
as elements occurring in minerals in soils and rocks
as elements occurring in ions dissolved in water
all of the above
Question 19
Multiple Choice
Question By the time rivers deliver water to the oceans, that water is enriched
in many dissolved substances. Given that water droplets that condense from
water vapor in the atmosphere are essentially pure water, what is the source of
these dissolved substances?
Answer atmospheric gases
minerals acquired from particles of dust and droplets of
ocean spray in the atmosphere
minerals acquired from rocks and soils
all of the above
Question 20
Multiple Choice
Question The oceans of the earth have been receiving substances dissolved
in water for much of the earths history, resulting in the present levels of
dissolved salts (about 3.4% by weight). Of the two important oceanic solutes
listed below, one reached its current level eons ago, while the other is still
gradually increasing today. Which is still increasing today?
Answer calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
sodium chloride (NaCl)
Question 21
Multiple Choice
Question How would you characterize the acidity/alkalinity of most naturally
occurring surface waters?
Answer highly acidic
moderately acidic
approximately neutral
moderately alkaline
highly alkaline
Question 22
Multiple Choice
Question Phosphorus often limits plant production in terrestrial environments.
Why is this the case?
Answer Phosphorus forms volatile compounds that are rapidly lost to
the atmosphere.
Phosphorus binds with heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and
mercury), forming compounds toxic to plants.
Phosphorus, even when abundant, forms compounds in the
soil that do not dissolve easily in water.
Phosphorus typically exists as phosphate ions (PO4
3-), which
are not biologically active.
Question 23
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following size classes of soil mineral particles, which are the
smallest, thus having the greatest surface area per unit volume of soil?
Answer
clay
silt
sand
All of the above are equivalent in size and surface area per
unit volume.
Question 24
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following size classes of soil mineral particles, which
contribute the most to water-holding capacity of a soil?
Answer
clay
silt
sand
All of the above are equivalent in contribution to waterholding
capacity
Question 25
Multiple Choice
Question Water molecules tend to adhere to the surfaces of soil particles. This
physical force determines the matric potential of the soil, which in turn
contributes to the water potential of the soil. As a soil dries out, the remaining
water molecules are bound more __________ to the soil mineral particles,
resulting in an increasingly __________ soil matric potential.
Answer loosely, positive
loosely, negative
tightly, positive
tightly, negative
Question 26
Multiple Choice
Question Equal volumes of dry mineral soil are placed in two containers. The
containers are designed to retain the soils they contain, but both have bottoms
that are freely permeable to water. One soil is clayey and the other is sandy.
Water is applied to the top of each container until it drains freely from the
bottom of the container. No additional water is added, and each container is
allowed to stand until no water drains from the bottom. Which container retains
more water?
Answer
The container with the clayey soil.
The container with the sandy soil.
Both will contain the same amount of water.
Neither will contain any water.
Question 27
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following soil matric potentials is considered by
agronomists to represent the wilting point?
Answer -0.01 MPa
-0.1 MPa
-1.5 MPa
-10 MPa
Question 28
Multiple Choice
Question When a membrane permeable to water separates water of more
negative potential on one side of the membrane from water of less negative
potential on the other, what will be the tendency of the water molecules?
Answer There will be a net diffusion of water molecules across the
membrane from the side of more negative potential to the side
of less negative potential.
There will be a net diffusion of water molecules across the
membrane from the side of less negative potential to the side
of more negative potential.
There will be equal movement of water molecules across the
membrane in both directions.
There will be no movement of water molecules across the
membrane.
Question 29
Multiple Choice
Question How do plants cause water to move from the soil into their roots?
Answer They actively pump water molecules across the cell
membranes of their root cells.
They excrete substances from their roots that push water
molecules into their root cells.
They maintain low concentrations of solutes in their root cells.
They maintain high concentrations of solutes in their root cells.
Question 30
Multiple Choice
Question How do plants prevent the depletion of solutes from their root cells
into the dilute aqueous solution contained in the surrounding soil?
Answer They actively pump solute molecules from the soil solution,
across their cell membranes, and into their root cells.
They have semipermeable membranes surrounding their root
cells.
They maintain large molecules, such as soluble carbohydrates
and proteins, in their root cells.
all of the above
Question 31
Multiple Choice
Question How do plants growing in deserts and salty environments obtain
water from the soil?
Answer by greatly expanding the surface area of their root systems
by actively pumping water molecules from the soil into their
root cells
by increasing the concentrations of solutes in their root cells
by decreasing the concentrations of solutes in their root cells
Question 32
Multiple Choice
Question According to the cohesion-tension theory of water movement in
plants, what generates the force needed to move water from the roots to the
tops of the tallest trees?
Answer pressure generated by molecular pumps located in the root
cells
pressure generated by molecular pumps located in the xylem
cells of the stem
the highly negative potential generated when water
evaporates from leaf cells into the atmosphere
none of the above
Question 33
Multiple Choice
Question Transpiration occurs when water evaporates from leaf cell surfaces
into the air spaces within the leaves, exiting the leaves through __________.
Answer
stomates
xylem elements
guard cells
surface hairs
Question 34
Multiple Choice
Question Mangroves grow on salt-laden coastal mudflats that are inundated
daily by high tides. How do these plants address problems of water acquisition
and elimination of excess salts?
Answer by maintaining high concentrations of organic solutes in
their roots
by excluding salts from their roots by active transport
by actively excreting salt from glands located on the
surfaces of their leaves
all of the above
Question 35
Multiple Choice
Question Certain marine birds and reptiles have evolved specialized organs to
assist in the elimination of excess salts. What are these organs?
Answer enlarged kidneys
modified tear glands
specialized cells in the stomach lining
specialized scales on their legs
Question 36
Multiple Choice
Question Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic, living in a medium that has lower
salt concentration than their bodies. As a consequence, these animals have to
contend with which of the following?
Answer replacing water lost to the surrounding medium while
eliminating excess salts
retaining salts while eliminating excess water absorbed from
the surrounding medium
Question 37
Multiple Choice
Question Marine fish (excluding certain sharks and rays) are hypo-osmotic,
living in a medium with a higher salt concentration than their bodies. As a
consequence, these animals have to contend with which of the following?
Answer
replacing water lost to the surrounding medium while
eliminating excess salts
retaining salts while eliminating excess water absorbed from
the surrounding medium
Question 38
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following kinds of fish would you expect to drink water?
Answer freshwater fish
marine fish
Question 39
Multiple Choice
Question Marine species of sharks and rays have a unique way of raising the
osmotic potential of their blood to that of the surrounding seawater. What is this
mechanism?
Answer
retention of urea in the bloodstream
retention of sodium chloride in the bloodstream
retention of small carbohydrate molecules in their
bloodstream
all of the above
Question 40
Multiple Choice
Question What challenge do carnivorous terrestrial animals face with regard to
their nitrogen economy?
Answer
They consume nitrogen (in the form of proteins and nucleic
acids) in excess of their needs, but cannot afford the large
amount of water required to eliminate this nitrogen as
ammonium ions.
Because their diets are deficient in nitrogen, they must exert
strict control over loss of ammonium ions along with other
waste products.
Question 41
Fill in the Blank
Question As water cools, its density increases until it reaches a temperature of
________C, at which point it becomes less dense upon further cooling.
Answer 4
Incorrect
Feedback
As water cools, its density increases until it reaches a
temperature of 4C, at which point it becomes less dense upon
further cooling.
Question 42
Fill in the Blank
Question The ________ of water resists the movement of a body through it
but also slows the rate of sinking.
Answer viscosity
Incorrect
Feedback
The viscosity of water resists the movement of a body through
it but also slows the rate of sinking.
Question 43
Fill in the Blank
Question The element ________ is a structural component of nucleic acids,
phospholipids, and bone.
Answer phosphorus
Incorrect
Feedback
The element phosphorus is a structural component of nucleic
acids, phospholipids, and bone.
Question 44
Fill in the Blank
Question The element ________ is a structural component of plant cell walls.
Answer calcium
Incorrect
Feedback
The element calcium is a structural component of plant cell
walls.
Question 45
Fill in the Blank
Question Some solid compounds consist of electrically charged atoms or
groups of atoms called ________.
Answer ions
Incorrect
Feedback
Some solid compounds consist of electrically charged atoms
or groups of atoms called ions.
Question 46
Fill in the Blank
Question Acidity is commonly expressed as ________, which is the negative
of the common logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration, measured in moles
per liter.
Answer pH
Incorrect
Feedback
Acidity is commonly expressed as pH, which is the negative of
the common logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration, measured
in moles per liter.
Question 47
Fill in the Blank
Question The amount of water that is held in a soil against the force of gravity
by a matric potential of less than -0.01 MPa is called the________.
Answer field capacity
Incorrect
Feedback
The amount of water that is held in a soil against the force of
gravity by a matric potential of less than -0.01 MPa is called the
field capacity.
Question 48
Fill in the Blank
Question The force with which an aqueous solution attracts water by osmosis
is known as its ________ potential.
Answer osmotic
Incorrect
Feedback
The force with which an aqueous solution attracts water by
osmosis is known as its osmotic potential.
Question 49
Question Most aquatic animals produce a simple metabolic by-product of
nitrogen metabolism called ________.
Answer ammonia
Incorrect
Feedback
Most aquatic animals produce a simple metabolic by-product
of nitrogen metabolism called ammonia.
Question 50
Question Terrestrial animals face the dual challenges of excreting nitrogen
while conserving water. Birds and reptiles face these challenges by excreting
excess nitrogen in the form of ________, which can be passed as a highly
concentrated paste.
Answer uric acid
Incorrect
Feedback
Terrestrial animals face the dual challenges of excreting nitrogen
while conserving water. Birds and reptiles face these challenges
by excreting excess nitrogen in the form of uric acid, which can be passed as a highly concentrated paste.

 

Name Test Bank Chapter 14
Description
Instructions Youve been putting in long days recently at the Centers for Disease Control in
Atlanta, Georgia. As a member of a team assigned the task of developing
effective measures against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), you are trying
to learn as much as possible about parasite-host systems. Youve been
reviewing the literature on the subject. This literature is vast, covering a
bewildering variety of parasitic organisms and the host organisms they infect. As
you learn more about these fascinating systems, you find yourself better
equipped to tackle work on HIV. The following questions highlight some of the
things youve learned. Please summarize your findings with short answers or
concise essays.
Question 1
Essay
Question What are the fundamentals of the vertebrate immune response?
Answer Many parasites, such as bacteria and protozoans, have surface
proteins (antigens) that differ from the normal proteins of the
vertebrate host. The vertebrate immune system can recognize such
foreign proteins and manufacture antibodies that bind to them. The
antibodies bind to the parasites surfaces, targeting them for attack by
macrophage cells, which disable the parasites. Once disabled, the
parasites are transported to the spleen for elimination.
Question 2
Essay
Question Describe two ways in which parasites have evolved to escape the
vertebrate immune system.
Answer Some parasites produce surface proteins that mimic those of the
vertebrate host, thus eluding detection by the immune system. It takes
time to mobilize antibodies against an invading parasite. Some
parasites take advantage of this time lag by continually altering their
surface proteins, thus staying one step ahead of the vertebrate hosts
immune system.
Question 3
Essay
Question What is cross-resistance in the vertebrate immune system? Provide
an example of its action.
Answer Once antibodies are produced by the vertebrate host against a
particular parasite, these antibodies may also effectively bind to
surface proteins of closely related parasites. A good example of this
may be found in the species of Schistosoma, which infect humans in
tropical regions. Prior infection of a human by a schistosome organism
associated with wild or domestic animals provides some protection
against more virulent forms that infect only humans.
Question 4
Essay
Question What makes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particularly
troublesome?
Answer This virus attacks and suppresses the immune system itself, making
the host less able to defeat HIV, but also rendering the host
susceptible to a wide variety of other parasites.
Question 5
Essay
Question How can the development of immunity affect the dynamics of a
parasite-host system?
Answer Because antibodies persist long after a particular infection has been
controlled, previously infected individuals acquire immunity to
subsequent infections by the same parasite. Following a large-scale
outbreak of a particular parasite in a vertebrate population, most
individuals in the population will have acquired immunity to that
parasite. The parasite may be unable to spread again through the
same population until the acquired immunity is lost or until susceptible
individuals are recruited (through births or immigration) into the
population.
Question 6
Essay
Question The spread of parasitic diseases has been described by
mathematical models. In summary, a disease will spread most rapidly when (1)
the density of susceptible organisms in the population is high, (2) there is a
high rate of transmission of the disease from host to host, and (3) hosts remain
infectious for an extended period. Keeping in mind the positive dependence of
disease spread on these three factors, outline briefly the various avenues you
might pursue to reduce the spread of HIV in human populations.
Answer A three-pronged approach is clearly desirable. Reducing the density of
susceptible individuals in the population requires some means of
rendering individuals immune or resistant to the disease. Clearly,
efforts directed toward development of an anti-HIV vaccine will pay
large dividends if successful. Public health education could go a long
way toward reducing the rate of transmission from host to host.
Research has shown in the case of HIV that abstinence from sex, use
of condoms, maintenance of an HIV-free blood supply for transfusions,
and elimination of needle-sharing among drug addicts can drastically
reduce the transmission rate of this disease. Finally, finding a way to
eliminate HIV from infected hosts would be highly desirable; at
present, infected hosts remain capable of transmitting HIV to other
hosts throughout their lives.
Question 7
Essay
Question When the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) was introduced into
Australia as a biological control agent for prickly pear cacti, populations of the
prickly pear were much reduced, but not eradicated. Today, both the prickly
pear and the cactus moth can be found at low levels in Australia. What does
this interesting observation suggest about populations of prickly pear and
cactus moth in South America, where both are native? What might happen if
the cactus moth were inadvertently eliminated from South America?
Answer What we view as normal levels of these two organisms in their native
country may in fact represent a relatively balanced predator-prey
system in which the prickly pear is maintained at a low level by its
predator, and the predator is maintained at a low level by scarcity of its
host. Elimination of the cactus moth might result in dramatic expansion
of the prickly pear in South America. Without their natural predator,
prickly pear cacti might increase to the high levels seen upon their
introduction to Australia.
Question 8
Essay
Question Whenever humans manipulate ecosystems to create desirable
outcomes, they also risk creating unintended and undesirable outcomes. Using
the case of the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) as a biological control
agent, illustrate the preceding statement.
Answer The cactus moth has proven to be a useful biological control agent,
greatly reducing the abundance of invasive Opuntia cacti in Australia.
However, its introduction into the West Indies for control purposes has
facilitated its spread into Mexico and Florida, where it threatens native
species of Opuntia cacti.
Question 9
Essay
Question Although the term herbivore is useful in that it defines an organism
that consumes plants, this term is also confusing because it overlaps with two
other terms defining consumer-resource relationships: predator and parasite.
Show that you understand the relationships among these three terms. Suggest
alternatives to the term herbivore that more precisely define relationships
between animals and the plants they eat.
Answer Predators catch other individuals and consume them, killing them in
the process. Some herbivores act as predators because they kill
plants in the process of consuming them. Any animal that consumes
entire plants (including plant embryos contained in seeds) is thus a
predator. Other herbivores are parasitic in that they graze or browse
on plants, consuming them in part but not killing them. Perhaps we
should substitute the more precise terms, plant predator and plant
parasite, for the more generic term, herbivore.
Question 10
Essay
Question Internal parasites (such as tapeworms) would seem to have an easy
life, protected within the stable conditions of the hosts interior and bathed in a
continual supply of nutrients. What are some of the challenges of such a
parasitic lifestyle?
Answer The fundamental challenge experienced by the parasite is day-to-day
survival in the face of the hosts mechanisms aimed at recognizing
and destroying invaders. Parasites possess various mechanisms
aimed at defeating or evading the hosts immune system. Beyond
survival is the challenge of dispersal. Most parasites have little or no
motility and cannot survive outside the hosts body. Getting from one
host to another requires moving through the hostile external
environment. Parasites move from host to host in various ways,
sometimes utilizing resistant resting stages, such as eggs, that are
dispersed throughout the environment and may be picked up by other
suitable hosts. Many parasites also utilize other organisms as vectors
or alternative hosts in rather complex life cycles.
Question 11
Essay
Question Some plant chemical defenses are inducible; the plant increases its
production of toxic or unpalatable substances after being damaged by an
herbivore. How does an inducible defense benefit the plant, compared to a
constitutive defense that is present at all times?
Answer An inducible defense is stimulated by an initial bout of herbivory; a
plant with an inducible defense is thus vulnerable to initial attacks.
While this may seem to be a disadvantage, the inducible defense may
ultimately benefit the plant from the perspective of resource
management. Some chemical defenses may be costly to maintain at
high levels, requiring large amounts of energy or scarce nutrients in
their manufacture. By minimizing production of expensive defensive
compounds in the absence of herbivory, the plant can allocate scarce
resources to other functions, such as growth and reproduction.
Inducible defensive compounds are only produced in quantity when
needed, and one might hypothesize that such a strategy works best
when the frequency of herbivory is low.
Question 12
Multiple Choice
Question Among the possible interactions between species, commensalism
and amensalism are not often considered in experimental and theoretical
studies. Why?
Answer Such interactions are uncommon.
Such interactions are unimportant.
Such interactions lack a mutual dynamic between the two
participants.
All of the above are true.
Question 13
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following statements about parasites is incorrect?
Answer A parasite may kill its host.
A parasite may increase the likelihood of its hosts dying from other
causes.
A parasite may reduce the fecundity of its host.
A parasite may be specific to a single host species.
Question 14
Multiple Choice
Question Parasitoids resemble:
Answer parasites, in that they reside within and eat the tissues of a living
host.
predators, in that they inevitably kill their hosts.
both A) and B).
neither A) nor B).
Question 15
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following does not directly affect the abundance of its
food supply?
Answer predator
parasite
parasitoid
herbivore
detritivore
Question 16
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following feeds on living woody vegetation?
Answer grazer
browser
Question 17
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following kinds of consumers, which is involved in a close
association with its resource and is highly likely to cause its death?
Answer grazers and browsers
parasites and many arthropod herbivores
predators
parasitoids
Question 18
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following kinds of consumers, which is involved in a casual
association with its resource and is unlikely to cause its death?
Answer grazers and browsers
parasites and many arthropod herbivores
predators
parasitoids
Question 19
Multiple Choice
Question In experiments with bullfrog tadpoles, Relyea and Werner showed
that, in comparison to predator-free controls, tadpoles exposed to caged
predators:
Answer were more active and grew faster.
were more active but grew more slowly.
were less active but grew faster.
were less active and grew more slowly.
Question 20
Multiple Choice
Question The symbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, infects a variety of different
insect hosts. Which of the following is true of Wolbachia?
Answer It does not reduce host fitness.
It targets a single cell type in all host species.
Its most significant effects result from modification of sexual
function.
It requires an alternate host to complete its life cycle.
Question 21
Multiple Choice
Question The malarial parasite, Plasmodium, undergoes a complex life cycle
in which asexual reproduction occurs in ___________ and dispersal and
sexual reproduction occur in __________.
Answer a vertebrate host; a mosquito
a mosquito; a vertebrate host
Question 22
Multiple Choice
Question A vertebrate host infected with the malarial parasite, Plasmodium,
typically reacts with an inflammation (high fever) when:
Answer sperm are released into the bloodstream.
fertilization of eggs occurs in the bloodstream.
sporozoites invade the salivary gland.
merozoites are released into the bloodstream.
the individual is bitten by a mosquito also carrying Plasmodium.
Question 23
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is utilized by parasites to circumvent the hosts
immune system?
Answer production of chemical factors that suppress the immune system
production of surface proteins that mimic the hosts own proteins
continuous production of novel surface proteins
coating themselves with the hosts proteins
all of the above
Question 24
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is utilized by schistosome species to
circumvent the hosts immune system?
Answer production of chemical factors that suppress the immune system
production of surface proteins that mimic the hosts own proteins
continuous production of novel surface proteins
coating themselves with the hosts proteins
all of the above
Question 25
Multiple Choice
Question When a vertebrate host mounts an immune response to a parasite
closely related to another parasite that previously infected the same host, we
refer to this phenomenon as __________.
Answer virulence
cross-resistance
symbiosis
complex life cycle
inflammation
Question 26
Multiple Choice
Question Compounds produced by plants for purposes other than metabolism,
chiefly defense, are referred to as __________ compounds.
Answer primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
Question 27
Multiple Choice
Question Plants produce tannins as defensive compounds that deter
herbivory. Tannins reduce the digestibility of plant material in a:
Answer reaction binding carbohydrates of all types.
reaction binding proteins of all types.
reaction binding fats of all types.
reaction binding terpenoids of all types.
reaction binding phenolics of all types.
Question 28
Multiple Choice
Question Tannins (previous question) are produced at relatively high levels in
leaves of oaks and other plants, whether or not the plants have been browsed
by herbivores. This is an example of a(n) __________ defense.
Answer constitutive
induced
Question 29
Multiple Choice
Question Essential oils, latex, and resins fall into the broad group of plant
antiherbivore defenses known as:
Answer nitrogen compounds
terpenoids
phenolics
none of the above
Question 30
Multiple Choice
Question Alkaloids, which include morphine, atropine, and nicotine, are plant
antiherbivore defenses having well-known effects on the central nervous
system of vertebrates, including humans. To which of the three broad groups of
plant antiherbivore defenses do alkaloids belong?
Answer nitrogen compounds
terpenoids
phenolics
none of the above
Question 31
Multiple Choice
Question For which of the types of consumer listed below would we be least
likely to refer to its food source as a host?
Answer predator
parasite
parasitoid
herbivore
detritivore
Question 32
Multiple Choice
Question When shoots of aspen, poplar, birch, and alder are heavily browsed
by snowshoe hares, shoots produced during the following growing season
have exceptionally high concentrations of terpenes and phenolic resins, which
are extremely unpalatable to hares. This is an example of a(n) __________
defense.
Answer constitutive
induced
Question 33
Multiple Choice
Question Two predators consume the same prey species. Because each
predator reduces the availability of this prey organism for the other, we can
refer to the interaction between the two predators as one involving
__________.
Answer competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
commensalism
Question 34
Multiple Choice
Question A seedling of a saguaro cactus benefits from shade against the sun
and protection from herbivores afforded by small trees (such as ironwood and
palo verde) that serve as nurse plants. When the saguaro is small the
relationship between the saguaro and its nurse plants is an example of
__________.
Answer competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
commensalism
Question 35
Multiple Choice
Question A seedling of a saguaro cactus benefits from shade against the sun
and protection from herbivores afforded by small trees (such as ironwood and
palo verde) that serve as nurse plants. When the saguaro grows to maturity the
relationship between the saguaro and its nurse plants is an example of
__________.
Answer competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
Question 36
Multiple Choice
Question The early relationship between pioneer plants and the later
successional plants that replace them is often an example of facilitation.
However, once the later successional plants become well established, the
relationship between pioneers and these later successional species is an
example of __________.
Answer competition
predation
parasitism
mutualism
commensalism
Question 37
Multiple Choice
Question Rhizobium bacteria and roots of legumes form mutualistic
partnerships that would be classified as __________.
Answer trophic
defensive
dispersive
Question 38
Multiple Choice
Question The kind of mutualism studied by Daniel Janzen between Acacia
plants and Pseudomyrmex ants would be classified as __________.
Answer trophic
defensive
dispersive
Question 39
Multiple Choice
Question Based on your knowledge of the three general categories of
mutualism, choose from the following list the order that ranks these from less
restrictive to more restrictive. (Hint: By restrictive, we mean a relationship that
involves specialization on the parts of the participants.)
Answer trophic, dispersive, defensive
dispersive, trophic, defensive
dispersive, defensive, trophic
Question 40
Multiple Choice
Question Among dispersive mutualisms, which of the following tends to be
more restrictive?
Answer seed dispersal mutualisms
plant-pollinator mutualisms
They are equally restrictive.
Question 41
Fill in the Blank
Question Although they differ in their mode of action on resource populations,
predators, herbivores, and parasites are alike in that they are considered
________.
Answer consumers
Incorrect
Feedback
Although they differ in their mode of action on resource
populations, predators, herbivores, and parasites are alike in
that they are considered consumers.
Question 42
Fill in the Blank
Question Consumer-resource interactions organize biological communities
into ________.
Answer food chains
Incorrect
Feedback
Consumer-resource interactions organize biological
communities into food chains.
Question 43
Fill in the Blank
Question consume dead organic material.
Answer Detritivores
Incorrect Feedback Detritivores consume dead organic material.
Question 44
Fill in the Blank
Question When two species live in close association (example: algae and
fungi constituting lichens), we refer to this relationship as a ________.
Answer symbiosis
Incorrect
Feedback
When two species live in close association (example: algae and
fungi constituting lichens), we refer to this relationship as a
symbiosis.
Question 45
Fill in the Blank
Question The immune systems of vertebrates can produce ________ that
recognize and bind to foreign proteins, such as those on the surfaces of
parasites.
Answer antibodies
Incorrect
Feedback
The immune systems of vertebrates can produce antibodies that
recognize and bind to foreign proteins, such as those on the
surfaces of parasites.
Question 46
Fill in the Blank
Question Plant compounds that are used primarily for defensive purposes
instead of metabolism are referred to as ________.
Answer secondary compounds
Incorrect
Feedback
Plant compounds that are used primarily for defensive
purposes instead of metabolism are referred to as secondary
compounds.
Question 47
Fill in the Blank
Question Spines, hairs, tough seed coats, and sticky gums and resins are all
examples of plant defenses against ________.
Answer herbivory
Incorrect
Feedback
Spines, hairs, tough seed coats, and sticky gums and resins
are all examples of plant defenses against herbivory.
Question 48
Fill in the Blank
Question Essential oils, latex, and resins are all included in a broad class of
secondary plant compounds called ________.
Answer terpenoids
Incorrect
Feedback
Essential oils, latex, and resins are all included in a broad
class of secondary plant compounds called terpenoids.
Question 49
Fill in the Blank
Question When heavily browsed by snowshoe hares, shoots of aspen, poplar,
birch, and alder produced in the following year have high concentrations of
unpalatable terpenes and phenolic resins. This is an example of an ________
plant antiherbivore defense.
Answer inducible
Incorrect
Feedback
When heavily browsed by snowshoe hares, shoots of aspen,
poplar, birch, and alder produced in the following year have high
concentrations of unpalatable terpenes and phenolic resins. This
is an example of an inducible plant antiherbivore defense.
Question 50
Fill in the Blank
Question Specialized fishes and shrimp remove parasites from various fish
species in a ________ mutualism.
Answer defensive
Incorrect
Feedback
Specialized fishes and shrimp remove parasites from various
fish species in a defensive mutualism.

 

Name Test Bank Chapter 26
Description
Instructions As the Chief Consulting Engineer of Reserve Design Associates (RDA), youve
had the opportunity to participate in the design of numerous parks and reserves
worldwide. RDA has just been awarded a contract for reserve design by the
president of a large tropical country that has a rich natural heritage. The
president of this country (who has requested that we not reference her country
by name) is genuinely concerned about preserving biological diversity. She also
understands that parks and reserves can bring ecotourism to her country,
providing a much needed infusion of hard currency. Last month, she invited
representatives of RDA to tour her country and then meet with staff of her
Ministry of the Interior for preliminary consultations. Youve just completed a
whirlwind tour of the country, which presents a mix of challenges and
opportunities for RDA. The country has a phenomenal diversity of species and
natural ecosystems, but these natural treasures are rapidly disappearing under
the dual pressures of population growth and economic development. The country
is not wealthy and lacks the resources to maintain a network of parks and
reserves without some outside assistance from the international community. You
have now returned to the capital city and are preparing for several days of
consultative meetings. Youve prepared long and hard for these meetings, which
you hope will be productive for all involved. Please provide the best possible
responses to the many questions youll be asked.
Question 29
Essay
Question Before the focus of the meetings shifts to details, several members
of the Ministry of the Interior want your advice on issues surrounding
ecotourism. They would like to know the extent to which ecotourism can
assist efforts at conservation. What is your response?
Answer Ecotourism brings foreign currency into countries and has been a
driving force in the development of parks and reserves worldwide. It
seems likely that the positive impact of ecotourism will continue to
expand as affluent people become more aware of its value in their
lives. However, ecotourism also has limitations to its role in
conservation for several reasons. First, people have limited income
to direct toward ecotourism. Such economic limits may become even
more apparent as more destinations begin competing for
ecotourists. In addition, many biologically significant destinations are
too inhospitable or inaccessible to attract many ecotourists. Similar
constraints exist with respect to the majority of species, which have
little intrinsic interest to the ecotouring public. Such areas and
species can only benefit indirectly from ecotourism focused on
attractive destinations and charismatic flora and fauna.
Question 30
Essay
Question One of the top questions for all involved in these meetings revolves
around the location of parks and reserves. You are asked if some
groundwork has already been done that might help in identification of
potential sites. What is your response?
Answer You discuss the work done by Norman Myers and colleagues. Myers
has identified biodiversity hotspots in all major biogeographic
regions. These hotspots are areas of high endemism where a large
proportion of the species are threatened with extinction. The
hotspots include islands and the edges of important biomes within
the major continents. It would be helpful to see whether any of these
hotspots are included within the countrys borders. If so, these would
be obvious candidates for immediate development of parks and
reserves.
Question 31
Essay
Question You are asked if there are any specific attributes of parks and
reserves that should be considered in their development, once general
locations have been determined. What is your response?
Answer You reply that certain principles have been developed that apply to
the design of new parks and reserves, particularly when there is
some latitude to make such choices. You note (1) that a larger
reserve is better than a smaller one, (2) that a single large reserve is
preferable to several smaller reserves of the same total area, (3) that
corridors connecting isolated reserves are desirable, and (4) that
compact reserve shapes (like circles) can minimize undesirable
edge effects.
Question 32
Essay
Question You are also asked if there are specific attributes of reserves that
should be taken into account if there is an interest in accommodating the
needs of specific flora or fauna. What is your response?
Answer You reply that the specific habitat requirements of key species must
be known and accommodated. For example, migratory species must
be provided with safe migration routes as well as areas incorporating
all of their habitat requirements. Special requirements (foods,
nesting sites, availability of water) must also be met.
Question 33
Essay
Question One goal of the design of parks and reserves is to ensure the longterm
survival of species. With this in mind, your hosts wish to know whether
there are general criteria related to reserve size, once species habitat
requirements have been met. What is your response?
Answer For any reserve to protect a given species successfully, it must be
sufficiently large and provide sufficient resources to support a
minimum viable population of the species. In other words, the
reserve must sustain a population of sufficient size that it is unlikely
to experience stochastic extinction or any of the other problems
affecting small populations (inbreeding, genetic drift, etc.). Other
considerations include wide distribution of the species and some
degree of population subdivision. These would provide insurance
against extinction should one portion of a species population
experience a catastrophic decline.
Question 34
Essay
Question Your hosts are quite concerned about the long-term viability of
their reserves, once established. What sage advice do you have for them on
this important topic?
Answer Long-term viability will depend on sufficient resources for
stewardship and protection. Thus, you recommend that the
president and members of the Ministry of the Interior work with other
countries and international conservation organizations to ensure that
sufficient resources can be made available to ensure the integrity of
parks and reserves. Another important consideration is involvement
of local people in the design and management of parks and
reserves. If local people perceive that these entities will benefit them
directly, they will be more supportive and protective.
Question 35
Essay
Question Discuss at least two guidelines for humans to consider if they wish
to live in harmony with the natural world.
Answer First, there can be no solution to environmental problems while the
human population continues to increase. Even our present-day
population cannot be maintained sustainably; any further increase
will only exacerbate environmental problems. Second, the per capita
consumption of resources, including energy, resources, and food,
must be reduced. More efficient use of resources will pay dividends
in sustainability and quality of human life. Finally, we should make
an effort to maintain ecosystems as close to their natural state as
possible. This effort should apply both to natural areas and to
systems managed by humans for resource extraction. Together,
these guidelines, if followed, can lead to harmonious coexistence of
humans with and in the natural world.
Question 36
Essay
Question What is biodiversity? Please explain.
Answer Biodiversity refers to the variety of living things. Determining the
biodiversity of a particular area begins with making a list of all
species occurring there. However, the concept of biodiversity goes
far beyond such a list, to include the many unique attributes of the
species present. These attributes can be tabulated under at least
four categories. Ecological diversity incorporates the many
adaptations that define niche and habitat relationships of species.
Genetic diversity reflects the variety of genotypes present within
populations of species. Phylogenetic diversity takes into account the
degree of relationship among species-communities consisting of
more distantly related species are considered more diverse than
communities consisting of close relatives. Geographic diversity
considers the distributions of species and includes information on
geographic extent, with special recognition for endemic species.
Question 37
Essay
Question Accelerated loss of biological diversity caused by human activities
is of great concern. What are some specific reasons why we all should care
about the extinction of species?
Answer For many people, the economic benefits derived from living things
are sufficient reasons for concern about extinctions of species.
Plants, animals, and microorganisms are important economic
resources, providing humankind with food, fiber, and other natural
products, including drugs and organic chemicals. A related value of
biodiversity is its role in maintaining ecosystem function. All species
participate in important ecological services, such as processes that
provide us with clean air and water. People also value biological
diversity both for its beauty and as the subject of scientific inquiry.
Thus substantial economic resources are directed toward both
research and ecotourism, activities that bring people into close
contact with natural systems. Diverse systems may be more resilient
to disturbances, maintaining high productivity in the face of
environmental variation. Biological diversity also benefits us as an
indicator of environmental quality. A system that maintains its full
complement of species and other components of biological diversity
is also a healthful place for humans to live. Erosion of biological
diversity, as resulted from the widespread application of DDT,
serves as a warning that conditions are deteriorating for all species,
including humans. Finally, many people believe that there is a moral
imperative for protecting biological diversity. As humans become
better able to alter natural systems, they also take on additional
responsibilities as stewards of these systems. Many also believe
that the rights of nonhuman individuals and species are as legitimate
as those of individuals within human society.
Question 38
Essay
Question What are the principal kinds of extinction? Cite at least one cause
of each.
Answer All species eventually go extinct, and the gradual loss of species (at
a rate of perhaps one species per year) is a natural process called
background extinction. The causes of background extinction are
numerous and hard to know, but stochastic extinction of a species
with small population size is one example. Natural catastrophes can
lead to mass extinctions, the sudden loss of many species. Such
extinctions can be regional, caused, for example, by a severe
hurricane. Mass extinctions can also be global in scope, as
exemplified by the bolide impact that led to mass extinction at the
end of the Cretaceous period. Finally, humans can accelerate the
loss of species through their activities, in a process known as
anthropogenic extinction. Such extinctions can have many causes,
with human destruction of natural habitats one of the most
significant.
Question 39
Essay
Question What are some of the deleterious effects of small population size?
Answer Small populations are subject to an increased risk of stochastic
extinction. Reduced genetic variation (loss of heterozygosity),
caused by inbreeding and genetic drift, may leave small populations
with insufficient genetic diversity to respond to changing
environments. Finally, inbreeding may expose deleterious recessive
alleles, resulting in production of genotypes with reduced fitness.
Question 40
Essay
Question Provide two examples that illustrate the consequences of
overexploitation by humans on the structure of natural ecosystems.
Answer Evidence from archaeological sites in the Mediterranean region
show that early human populations consumed large quantities of
easily captured tortoises and shellfish. As populations of these
species were decimated, humans switched to a diet of small birds
and mammals. In more recent times, the composition of the marine
community on Georges Bank has been drastically altered by
overfishing.
Question 41
Essay
Question Cite an example illustrating ecosystem-level effects of an emerging
disease.
Answer A viral disease called rinderpest was introduced into African wildlife
populations by cattle from Europe and Asia. This disease decimated
populations of wildebeest. Uncontrolled by such grazers, grasses
proliferated, fueling fires that killed scattered trees and greatly
altered the structure and function of savanna ecosystems. Some
semblance of balance was restored when the rinderpest disease
was controlled by vaccines in the 1960s.
Question 42
Essay
Question What conservation lessons can we learn from the management of
the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem?
Answer One of the most important lessons is that large, contiguous areas of
suitable habitat are necessary for preservation of ecosystem
function. The establishment of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
made it possible to maintain populations of large carnivores in
Yellowstone National Park and vicinity. Reintroduction of wolves to
the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in 1995 had far-reaching effects
on ecosystem structure and function. Elk populations, controlled by
top predators (both wolves and grizzly bears), declined and altered
their feeding habits, moving away from river courses. Aspen and
cottonwood trees became more common along rivers, and beaver
returned to these areas. The carcasses of elk and other prey of large
carnivores provided food for scavengers, such as golden eagles,
which are now common. Restoration of ecosystem function to this
extent would not have been possible without the establishment of a
huge, near-natural conservation area.
Question 43
Multiple Choice
Question What was the approximate size of the human population in the
year 2008?
Answer 1.6 billion
2.6 billion
3.6 billion
6.6 billion
E) 10 billion
Question 44
Multiple Choice
Question What percentage of the earths land area is currently used for
crops or permanent pastures?
Answer 1%
2%
5%
10%
35%
Question 45
Multiple Choice
Question Maintaining individual quality of life at a high level will require,
above all, that humans exhibit a reproductive restraint that defies the entire
history of evolution, during which fitness has been measured in terms of
reproductive success rather than quality of life.
Answer True
False
Question 46
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following have led to a reduction in birth rates and
population growth in most regions of the world?
Answer increased education (especially for women)
economic opportunity
urbanization
all of the above
Question 47
Multiple Choice
Question About how many species of plants and animals worldwide have
been described and given Latin names?
Answer 150,000
1.5 million
10 million
100 million
Question 48
Multiple Choice
Question About how many species of plants and animals exist on the
planet?
Answer over 150,000
over 1.5 million
over 10 million
over 100 million
Question 49
Multiple Choice
Question Conservation of global biodiversity is best served by directing
efforts toward areas of:
Answer high diversity.
high endemism.
both A and B.
Question 50
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following attributes are included in the definition of
biodiversity hotspots, as recognized by Norman Myers of Oxford University?
Answer high endemism
high diversity
rapid habitat destruction
A and B
A, B, and C
Question 51
Multiple Choice
Question Biodiversity hotspots, not surprisingly, tend to have
above-average densities of human populations combined with high
human population growth rates.
Answer True
False
Question 52
Multiple Choice
Question Regions of high species diversity always support the highest
numbers of endemic and threatened species.
Answer True
False
Question 53
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is a reason we should care about the
extinction of species and work to conserve biological diversity?
Answer moral responsibility
economic benefits
value of species as indicators of environmental quality
value of species in maintaining ecosystem function
all of the above
Question 54
Multiple Choice
Question What fraction of medical prescriptions filled in the United States
are drugs extracted directly from flowering plants?
Answer none
one-tenth
one-quarter
one-half
all
Question 55
Multiple Choice
Question Assigning economic value to individual species raises awareness
of the need to conserve biodiversity. Often, however, the assignment of
economic value fails to address the issue of conserving biodiversity in a
general sense. Why?
Answer Assigning economic values to species is difficult in general.
We know nothing of the economic value of many potentially

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