The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Robert E. Ricklefs Test bank

<< Advanced Accounting 12th Edition Beams Test Bank advance accounting 12th edition joe hoyle Test bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Robert E. Ricklefs Test bank

Description

Name Test Bank Chapter 05
Description
Instructions A very wealthy friend of yours has decided to construct a massive indoor biome garden, containing representative ecosystems from many parts of the world. Your friend is in the early planning stages of this venture and has hired you as an ecological consultant. Your task is to help solve the many problems associated with designing several independent greenhouse-style modules with appropriate environmental conditions for each of the biomes. The biome garden is to be developed in Asheville, North Carolina, where warm summers alternate with mild winters to create conditions naturally suitable for the Temperate seasonal forest biome. The site chosen for development of the biome garden is a pine plantation that was established approximately 70 years ago. The soils are clayey, acidic, relatively infertile, and have low organic matter content. You are free to make any recommendations for environmental conditions in the greenhouse modules, regardless of the expense associated with implementing them. Also, you do not need to worry about how to implement these conditions; your friends engineering team will address such details. Now, put your knowledge of biomes to work and answer the following short answer/essay questions.
Question 1 Essay
Question Your friend wants to develop a greenhouse module representing the Temperate seasonal forest biome. Discuss some of the important considerations involved in developing a greenhouse replicating the conditions found immediately outside the greenhouse.
Answer The soil of this site would probably need little attention, aside from addition of lime (calcium carbonate) to counteract the acidification caused by decades of pine cultivation on the site. Because the vegetation planned for this greenhouse would be essentially the same as that found under natural conditions immediately outside the greenhouse, the main concern would be to avoid overheating of the system caused by the greenhouse enclosure itself. Excellent year- round ventilation of the greenhouse would be necessary, with a possible assist from an auxiliary air-cooling system during the summer months. The greenhouse would have to be sufficiently tall to accommodate the tree species characteristic of this biome. Control of day length would not be an issue, and plant materials could be obtained locally.
Question 2 Essay
Question Another temperate biome planned for the biome garden is the Temperate grassland/desert biome. Your friend is particularly interested in developing a temperate grassland. Discuss some of the considerations involved in establishing such a grassland under greenhouse conditions.
Answer Perhaps the greatest challenge in establishing a grassland would be developing the proper soil environment. Grassland soils tend to be non-acidic and rich in organic matter and nutrients. Amendment of the existing soil with lime (to raise the pH), organic matter, and appropriate fertilizers would probably suffice. Climate control would

include hot summer temperatures (again avoiding excessive heating) with plenty of rainfall, alternating with cold winter temperatures. It would be interesting to discuss with the greenhouse engineers the possibility of burning the grassland occasionally! Control of day length would not be an issue, but most plants would have to be imported from native grassland sites.
Question How would you establish a greenhouse supporting a Subtropical desert biome?
Answer Soil conditions would again require considerable attention. The aridisols of subtropical deserts are shallow, have little organic matter, are neutral in pH, and often have lime hardpans at shallow depth. A synthetic soil mix might be necessary, and a concrete subsoil (with adequate drainage) could contain the soil. The greenhouse would be sufficiently hot during the summer, but supplemental heating in winter would be necessary to avoid freezing. Moderate rainfall could be supplied in summer as needed. Day length would probably not require extensive manipulation, but supplemental lighting in winter might be considered. All plants would need to be imported.
Question Your friend is quite interested in establishing a Tropical rain forest greenhouse. What would be your recommendations?
Answer It might be possible to utilize the existing soil of the site with little amendment. However, a preliminary study would be necessary to determine if the higher clay content of the temperate soil would create problems for rain forest plants used to growing on soils with lower clay content and higher content of iron and aluminum oxides. The greenhouse would have to be massive, of course, to accommodate the large trees that dominate tropical rain forests. Tight climate control would also be essential, with air-conditioning (in summer), heating (in winter), and humidity (year-round) regulation important. The goal would be to establish continually warm and moist conditions, with some seasonality of precipitation. Day length would probably not require extensive manipulation, but supplemental lighting in winter might be considered. All plants would need to be imported.
Question How would you establish a greenhouse supporting a Tundra biome?
Answer This would probably be the most challenging of the tasks considered thus far. Organic soils that are permanently frozen except during a brief growing season (permafrost) would be difficult to duplicate in a greenhouse setting. But such conditions could be created in a giant walk-in chiller. The chiller would need to be well insulated and completely enclosed. It might be possible to transport large blocks of frozen tundra soil, complete with plants, from the arctic to Asheville during the winter months. Artificial lighting would be necessary to re- create long, dark winters alternating with 24-hour summer days.
Question 3
Essay
Question 4
Essay
Question 5
Essay

Question 6
Essay
Question Would you attempt to incorporate animals into the greenhouse biomes? Explain your answer.
Answer Whereas the biome concept focuses primarily on plants and vegetation, animals are important parts of all ecosystems and should be incorporated as feasible. Soil fauna (small arthropods, worms, and the like) could be introduced with appropriate soil inocula. Larger vertebrates might be problematic because of their requirements for large home ranges, territories, and abundant food. But smaller vertebrates (reptiles, herbivorous birds, small mammals) might adapt well to the greenhouse setting and could also be included.
Question The biome concept emphasizes the relationships among various growth-forms of plants and their physical environments. However, two other important factors influence the distributions of species. What are these? Provide a brief example of why each of these additional factors must be taken into account.
Answer Although factors of the physical environment play essential roles in facilitating and limiting the distributions of species, the physical environment alone does not provide a sufficient explanation for their distributions. First, species interact with other species in a variety of ways. Most grasses grow poorly in the shade cast by forest trees, but can grow well in disturbed areas within otherwise forested ecosystems. Thus grasses are limited by competition in forested ecosystems, not by some inherent inability to tolerate the physical conditions of the environment. Second, chance and history play important roles in determining what grows where. Consider the many common (even invasive) exotic plants (Japanese honeysuckle comes to mind) that would be absent from the North American landscape if humans had not transported them there.
Question
Question 7
Essay
Question 8
Essay

In Whittakers diagram relating distribution of the worlds biomes to climate (Figure above), most locations fall within a triangular area. Lacking are many places that experience cold temperature combined with high precipitation. Why?
Answer Only a few localities in high mountains fall outside of the triangular area delineated in this figure. The combination of cold temperature and high precipitation is globally rare because little energy is available to evaporate moisture from the earths surface, a necessary precursor to precipitation. Cold air also has little capacity to hold moisture and thus yields relatively little precipitation.
Question It may be said that biomes occupying the extremes of the precipitation spectrum (very moist or very dry) burn infrequently, but that those
Question 9
Essay

with moderate precipitation and seasonal drought burn readily and regularly. Please explain this phenomenon.
Answer Fire is uncommon in very moist forests because fuels are rarely dry enough to carry fire. Deserts rarely accumulate sufficient fuel to burn, regardless of conditions. Seasonally dry, but still productive, grasslands and shrublands have both abundant fuels and the appropriate conditions for fire.
Question It is interesting to note that the biome concept focuses almost exclusively on the varied forms of terrestrial plants, not animals. One reason for this focus is that plants are the most conspicuous and readily enumerated components of terrestrial systems. Another reason, however, is that animals are generally less variable in their forms than plants, as climate changes from place to place. Animals are thus less well suited as the means to designate and recognize biomes. This observation begs the following question: Why are the forms of plants more responsive to variations in climate than the forms of animals?
Answer Several possible observations relevant to this question are presented in Chapter 5. First, animals are mobile and can seek shelter or specific microclimates in ways that plants cannot. Second, as we learned in Chapter 1, plants must maintain large absorptive surfaces (for light capture above ground, and for nutrient and water capture below ground), thus exposing themselves more fully to the rigors of their environment. Third, animals have specialized organs (such as the kidneys, for example) that support biological functioning throughout the individual. Fourth, plants have a relatively fixed role in ecosystems; their activities are much less varied than those of animals. All of these observations lead us to the conclusion that plants must sit there and take it when it comes to environmental stresses. Because these stresses vary widely from one ecosystem to another, it stands to reason that plants would have developed myriad adaptive forms. It is this variety of form that makes plants so useful in defining environments. Animals, in contrast, appear to vary more within biomes (as a function of varied ecological roles) than they do between biomes.
Question Compare and contrast arctic and alpine tundra.
Answer Arctic and alpine tundra are superficially similar in their vegetation and even species composition, characterized by low-growing plants adapted to harsh conditions, including extreme winter weather. However, alpine tundra is characterized by warmer and longer growing seasons, less severe winters, greater productivity, better- drained soils, and higher species diversity.
Question What is the single most important determinant of plant distribution?
Question 10
Essay
Question 11
Essay
Question 12
Multiple Choice
Answer
climate soil pH

fire frequency activity of pollinators disease
Question The differences between vegetation of different biomes extend to spacing of plants. In which of the following biomes would you expect to find widely spaced trees and shrubs with grasses growing in the gaps between the trees?
Question 13
Multiple Choice
Answer
Temperate seasonal forest Woodland/shrubland Subtropical desert
all of the above
Question 14
Multiple Choice
Question Attempts to grow sugar maple (Acer saccharum) outside of its normal range typically fail. For example, the western limit of sugar maple in North America is determined by:
Answer
cold winter temperatures. hot summers.
dryness.
all of the above
Question 15
Multiple Choice
Question As illustrated in Figure 5.4, the German ecologist Heinrich Walter developed a climate zone system that features conditions of moisture and cold stress that are important determinants of plant form. Which of the following climatic features are incorporated into this system?
Answer
temperature
seasonal variation in temperature precipitation
seasonal variation in precipitation all of the above
Question 16
Multiple Choice
Question In Whittakers diagram relating the distributions of major biomes to precipitation and temperature, where on the average temperature (horizontal) axis do we see the greatest variation in precipitation?
Answer
warm temperatures (approximately 20 to 30C) moderate temperatures (approximately 5 to 20C) cold temperatures (approximately -5 to 5C)
very cold temperatures (less than -5C)

Question 17
Multiple Choice
Question In Whittakers diagram relating the distributions of major biomes to precipitation and temperature, where on the average temperature (horizontal) axis do we see so little variation in precipitation from one locality to another that vegetation types are poorly differentiated by climate and can be lumped into a single type?
Answer
Multiple Choice
warm temperatures (approximately 20 to 30C) moderate temperatures (approximately 5 to 20C) cold temperatures (approximately -5 to 5C)
very cold temperatures (less than -5C)
Question 18
Question The diversity of biomes is least when average temperatures are less than approximately -5C. Indeed, there is only one principal biome found under such circumstances. Which is it?
Answer
Multiple Choice
Tropical rain forest
Tropical seasonal forest/savanna Woodland/shrubland
Boreal forest
Tundra
Question 19
Question 20
Question Which of the following statements is true?
Answer
Regular burning favors perennial grasses and forbs because they have extensive root systems and meristems that can survive underground.
Regular burning favors trees because tree seedlings have an advantage in regularlyburned habitats.
Multiple Choice
Question In addition to temperature, rainfall, and their seasonality, which of the following is also important in shaping plant communities?
Answer
Multiple Choice
topography soils
fire
herbivory
all of the above
Question 21
Question In Walters climate diagrams, each 10oC increase in temperature
requires a minimum increase of 20 mm of monthly precipitation for there to be sufficient moisture for plant growth. If the monthly temperature is 10oC, 20 mm of precipitation are required. How much precipitation is required if the monthly temperature is 50oC?
Answer
40 mm 60 mm 80 mm 100 mm 120 mm
Question 22
Multiple Choice
Question Which of Walters climate zones is always moist and lacking temperature variation?
Answer
Equatorial Tropical Subtropical Mediterranean Warm temperate
Question 23
Multiple Choice
Question What kind of biome is found in the climate zone referred to in the previous question?
Answer
Temperate rain forest Woodland/shrubland
Subtropical desert
Tropical seasonal forest/savanna Tropical rain forest
Question 24
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following biomes, which is included in the World Wildlife Funds classification but is noticeably absent from the Walter classification?
Answer
Tropical rain forest
Tropical seasonal forest/savanna Mangrove wetlands
Subtropical desert
all of the above
Question 25
Multiple Choice
Question Temperate climates occur in North America at latitudes between 30 and 45N, but at latitudes between 40 and 60N in Europe. Why?
Answer
Arctic oceanic currents keep Europe warmer.
Question 26
The Gulf Stream and westerly winds keep Europe warmer.
The Alps and Pyrenees trap warm air moving north from the Mediterranean.
Europe is warmed by the 15-20 tilt of the earths axis relative to the earths path around the sun.
Multiple Choice
Question Where would you not go to see well-developed examples of the Temperate seasonal forest biome?
Answer
Multiple Choice
United States and southeastern Canada Europe
Southern Hemisphere
Eastern Asia
Question 27
Question Warmer and drier parts of the Temperate seasonal forest biome are dominated by __________.
Answer
Multiple Choice
rain forests deciduous forests needle-leaved forests grasslands woodlands
Question 28
Question Which of the following is not true of the Temperate rain forest biome?
Answer
It is dominated by needle-leaved trees.
It was vastly more extensive during the Mesozoic era. It supports exceptional high biological diversity.
It is characterized by exceptionally tall trees.
Question 29
Multiple Choice
Question Temperate grasslands in North America are called prairies, but __________ in central Asia.
Answer
Multiple Choice
deserts steppes taigas savannas
Question 30

Question Where in North America would you go to see a temperate desert?
Answer
Baja California
Alaskan Panhandle
Great Basin
Big Bend of the Rio Grande
Question 31
Multiple Choice
Question The Mediterranean woodland/shrubland biome is characterized by thick, evergreen, shrubby vegetation. The plants often have drought-resistant foliage. The small, durable leaves of these plants are referred to as __________.
Answer
sclerophyllous epiphytic limnetic emergent recalcitrant
Question 32
Multiple Choice
Question Subtropical deserts are found at latitudes of __________ north and south of the equator, in areas experiencing high atmospheric pressure associated with the descending air of the Hadley Cells.
Answer
10o-20o 20o-30o 30o-40o 40o-50o
Question 33
Multiple Choice
Question Although precipitation is sparse in Boreal and polar climate zones, soils are often saturated because of __________.
Answer
ground water recharge frequent flooding
prevalence of succulent plants reduced evaporation of water
Question 34
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is true of the Boreal forest biome?
Answer
Trees are exceptionally tall.
Species diversity is high.
Temperatures may reach -60oC during the winter. Soils are circumneutral to alkaline.

Question 35
Multiple Choice
Question Choose from among the following a word/phrase that is inconsistent with the Tundra biome.
Answer
Multiple Choice
forested
high latitude
24-hour-long summer days permafrost
low precipitation
Question 36
Question 37
Question Which of the following is the most important climatic distinction between the Tropical rain forest and Tropical seasonal forest/savanna biomes?
Answer
Multiple Choice
seasonality of temperature seasonality of precipitation
Question Tropical rain forests are the most species-rich ecological systems on earth. They are especially rich in woody vines, called lianas, and __________ plants that grow on the branches of other plants and are not rooted in soil.
Answer
Multiple Choice
sclerophyllous epiphytic limnetic emergent
Question 38
Question Large areas of the tropics are too dry to support tropical rain forests. Listed below are several kinds of vegetation that exist under drier environments. In which of these would you expect to find a grassland with scattered trees?
Answer
Multiple Choice
seasonal forest thorn forest savanna
true desert
Question 39
Question The biome concept emphasizes differences in plant form related to variation in environment. Why has this concept been difficult to apply to freshwater aquatic systems?
Answer
Aquatic systems lack plants altogether.
The environments of aquatic systems vary little from one place to
Question 40
another.
Aquatic ecologists have been uninterested in plants.
The producers of many aquatic systems are single-celled algae, with little characteristic large-scale structure.
Multiple Choice
Question The distinction between riffles and pools is most appropriate in which of the following aquatic systems?
Answer
Multiple Choice
streams rivers lakes estuaries oceans
Question 41
Question What is the central idea of the river continuum concept?
Answer
Rivers are connected at their headwaters. Rivers are connected at their mouths.
Rivers exhibit continuous change in environments and ecosystems from their headwaters to their mouths.
Rivers exhibit constant environments and ecosystems from their headwaters to their mouths.
Question 42
Question 43
Multiple Choice
Question The food webs of headwater ecosystems are dominated by __________ production.
Answer
Multiple Choice
autochthonous allochthonous
Question Lakes are generally divided into zones, each of which has unique physical and biological attributes. In which of the following zones would you expect to find rooted vegetation?
Answer
Multiple Choice
littoral
limnetic pelagic
benthic
all of the above
Question 44

Question Which of the following is a characteristic of a typical estuary?
Answer
Multiple Choice
It is located at the mouth of a river. It has a mix of fresh and salt water. It is edged by tidal marshes.
It is highly productive.
All of the above are true.
Question 45
Question Which of the following oceanic zones extends to the edge of the continental shelf?
Answer
Multiple Choice
littoral neritic oceanic aphotic benthic
Question 46
Question In oceans, the biological productivity within the photic portion of the neritic zone is usually far greater than that within the photic portion of the oceanic zone. What factor most limits productivity in the oceanic zone?
Answer
Multiple Choice
toxic substances introduced by human activities low temperatures
low nutrient levels
low oxygen
Question 47
Question 48
Question 49
Question Coral reefs are to open oceans as __________.
Answer
tropical rain forests are to deserts deserts are to tropical rain forests
Multiple Choice
Question Coral reefs often surround __________.
Answer
Fill in the Blank
sunken ships deep-sea vents rift valleys volcanic islands
Question The ________ concept is a system of classifying biological
communities based on similarities in their climates and dominant plant forms.
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
biome
The biome concept is a system of classifying biological communities based on similarities in their climates and dominant plant forms.
Question 50
Fill in the Blank
Question Unrelated organisms often resemble one another when they have evolved in response to similar environmental conditions. This phenomenon, called ________, accounts for the cactus look-alikes found in the spurge family Euphorbiaceae.
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
convergence
Unrelated organisms often resemble one another when they have evolved in response to similar environmental conditions. This phenomenon, called convergence, accounts for the cactus look- alikes found in the spurge family Euphorbiaceae.
Question 51
Question 52
Question 53
Question 54
Fill in the Blank
Question When we wish to characterize the physical structure of a particular type of plant, we areconsidering its ________.
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
growth form
When we wish to characterize the physical structure of a particular type of plant, we areconsidering its growth form.
Fill in the Blank
Question Seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation can be presented simultaneously in a ________.
Answer climate diagram
Incorrect Seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation can be
Feedback presented simultaneously in a climate diagram.
Fill in the Blank
Question Most grassland species have fire-resistant underground stems, or ________, from which roots resprout.
Answer rhizomes
Incorrect Most grassland species have fire-resistant underground
Feedback stems, or rhizomes, from which roots resprout.
Fill in the Blank

Question Stream is to lake as lentic is to ________. Answer lotic
Incorrect Feedback Stream is to lake as lentic is to lotic.
Question Rivers are sometimes called ________ systems. Answer fluvial
Incorrect Feedback Rivers are sometimes called fluvial systems.
Question Aquatic and terrestrial communities often come together in ________, areas of land with saturated soils supporting vegetation specifically adapted to such conditions.
Question 55
Fill in the Blank
Question 56
Fill in the Blank
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
wetlands
Aquatic and terrestrial communities often come together in wetlands, areas of land with saturated soils supporting vegetation specifically adapted to such conditions.
Question 57
Fill in the Blank
Question Beyond the neritic zone in oceans, the seafloor drops rapidly to the great depths of the ________ zone.
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
oceanic
Beyond the neritic zone in oceans, the seafloor drops rapidly to the great depths of the oceanic zone.
Question 58
Fill in the Blank
Question In the oceans, both the neritic and oceanic zones can be subdivided vertically into a superficial photic zone, where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis, and an ________ zone without light.
Answer
Incorrect Feedback
aphotic
In the oceans, both the neritic and oceanic zones can be subdivided vertically into a superficial photic zone, where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis, and an aphotic zone without light.

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here