The Practice of Social Research 13th Edition by Earl R. Babbie Test Bank

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The Practice of Social Research 13th Edition by Earl R. Babbie Test Bank

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CHAPTER 1 HUMAN INQUIRY AND SCIENCE

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Methodology could best be described as
a.
the science of knowing
b.
the science of finding out
c.
the discovery of reality through agreement
d.
the discovery of reality through personal experience
e.
the logical aspect of science

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Looking for reality
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

2. Our attempts to learn about the world we live in come from
a.
direct experience
b.
tradition
c.
direct, personal inquiry
d.
authority
e.
All of these choices are true.

ANS: E DIF: Intro REF: Looking for reality
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

3. Pregnant at age 15, Tammy decided to have the baby. Her parents were upset with her decision and threatened to cut her off if she did not complete high school. A difficult pregnancy and embarrassment resulted in her dropping out of school. After the baby was born, her parents said that they would raise the baby but that she would have to leave the house. At age 16, Tammy was on her own and without any money or job market skills. She began to work as a prostitute. This explanation of Tammys prostitution is:
a.
idiographic
b.
nomothetic
c.
probabilistic
d.
quantitative
e.
based on agreements

ANS: A DIF: Adv REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

4. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the use of tradition in inquiry?
a.
It helps avoid the task of starting from scratch in our search for regularities
b.
It demonstrates that knowledge is cumulative
c.
The jumping-off part for the development of knowledge is often the inherited body of information
d.
It enables us to seek a different understanding of what we all know to be true
e.
It does not prevent us from performing future inquiry.

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Tradition OBJ: 6
TOP: Conceptual MSC: Modified

5. Today, social scientific theory addresses
a.
how things should be.
b.
how things are.
c.
why things are as they are.
d.
how things are and why.
e.
how things should be and why.

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Theory, not philosophy or belief
OBJ: 1 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

6. Which of the following would a sociologist be LEAST likely to study?
a.
why crime rates are increasing in rural areas
b.
the incidence of child abuse in middle-income families
c.
why Mr. Smith quit his job
d.
the incidence of employment among white-collar workers
e.
why unemployment rates are higher for black teens than white teens

ANS: C DIF: Adv REF: Aggregates, not individuals
OBJ: 9 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

7. Using data collected between 1957 and 1978, from 15 samples of adults, Professor Rodgers (1982 Social Forces) found that (1) the average level of happiness reported by people under 65 years of age declined from 1957 to 1970. For this same group, the average level of happiness increased slightly from 1970 to 1978. (2) The average level of happiness reported by people age 65 and older increased from 1957 to 1978. A (the) variable(s) in this study is (are)
a.
aged 65 and older
b.
less than age 65
c.
age
d.
age 65
e.
people.

ANS: C DIF: Adv REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Modified

8. Assume that Professor Rodgers from the previous question had studied only three people aged 65 or older. Suppose he concluded that people under 65 years of age also experienced increasing levels of happiness from 1957 to 1970. He would have committed
a.
the error of overgeneralization.
b.
the error of inaccurate observation.
c.
the error of illogical reasoning.
d.
the error of selective observation.
e.
no error.

ANS: A DIF: Adv REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

9. A study reported in American Sociological Review (1994) was entitled Race Differences in Sexual Activity Among Adolescent Women. The independent variable was probably
a.
sexual activity.
b.
adolescence.
c.
There is no independent variable.
d.
women.
e.
race.

ANS: E DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

10. Which of the following does NOT suggest the misuse of authority?
a.
Popular athletes who discuss the nutritional value of cereals on TV commercials.
b.
Movie stars who are paid to evaluate the taste of different coffee brands at supermarket openings.
c.
Social scientists who discuss inequality in their classrooms.
d.
Political figures, without any medical expertise, who argue that marijuana can fry your brain
e.
Celebrities who promote specific vitamin supplements.

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Authority OBJ: 6
TOP: Applied MSC: Modified

11. One of your friends scored in the 90s on her last ten exams. Although she has been studying for this exam and feels prepared, she told you, I know Im going to flunk this exam. Ive been doing too well on exams. Your friend is committing the error of
a.
illogical reasoning.
b.
theory.
c.
inaccurate observation.
d.
selective observation.
e.
overgeneralization.

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

12. After examining divorce court records, Jenny concludes that moms are more likely than dads to obtain custody of their children. This statement is:
a.
nomothetic.
b.
idiographic
c.
probabilistic
d.
nomothetic and probabilistic
e.
idiographic and probabilistic

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

13. Which of the following is NOT an aim of social science?
a.
judging social values
b.
predicting social phenomena
c.
understanding social regularities
d.
explaining social regularities
e.
observing social regularities.

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Modified

14. Sally begins to think about the grades she receives for class participation. Recalling her prior semester she writes down that she received a 10/10 from Ms. Smith and a 9/10 from Ms. Baxter, 4/10 from Mr. Cagney, 3/10 from Mr. Wiley and 10/10 from Ms. Dona. Examining the list she realizes that she spoke a lot in classes with Smith, Baxter and Dona and very little in her other two classes. She also notices that the classes in which she spoke have female instructors and that she rarely spoke in the two classes with male instructors. She then begins to list all her college courses, the gender of the professor and whether or not she spoke in class. She notices that she tends to speak in classes where the instructor is female and rarely speaks when the instructor is male and that her class participation grades are higher when she speaks more. Sally is using
a.
inductive reasoning.
b.
qualitative analysis.
c.
deductive reasoning.
d.
ordinary human inquiry.
e.
nomothetic reasoning.

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Inductive and deductive theory
OBJ: 12 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

15. In comparison to nonscientific inquiry, scientific inquiry
a.
takes special precaution to avoid error.
b.
is a semiconscious activity.
c.
is an activity where we are less concerned about making mistakes.
d.
guards against all errors.
e.
follows popular public trends.

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Knowledge from agreement reality
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

16. An independent variable is a(n)
a.
theoretical concept.
b.
variable influencing other variables.
c.
variable influenced by other variables.
d.
attribute.
e.
outcome variable

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: Modified

17. Which of the following is most clearly a list of variables?
a.
female, Jewish, educational level
b.
plumber, professor, dentist
c.
occupation, political party preference, birthrate
d.
21, violent, social class
e.
dishonest, conservative, farmer

ANS: C DIF: Adv REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

18. Which of the following is TRUE of quantification?
a.
It often makes our observations less explicit.
b.
It can make it harder to aggregate data.
c.
It can make it impossible to summarize data.
d.
It opens up the possibility of statistical analysis.
e.
It allows for narrative explanations of phenomena.

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Modified

19. Nomothetic explanations
a.
enable us to fully understand the causes of a particular instance.
b.
give us an exhaustive understanding of a particular instance.
c.
seek to explain a class or situations or events.
d.
are not useful in everyday life.
e.
Are less useful than probabilistic explanations.

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

20. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a.
The qualitative approach tends to align with idiographic explanations.
b.
The qualitative approach tends to align with nomothetic explanations.
c.
The qualitative approach must align with an idiographic explanation.
d.
The qualitative approach must align with a nomothetic explanation.
e.
There is no relationship between the qualitative approach and the type of explanation.

ANS: A DIF: Adv REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

21. Causal reasoning suggests that
a.
we use a premodern view.
b.
present circumstances cause future circumstances.
c.
future circumstances cause present circumstances.
d.
probabilistic reasoning is not involved.
e.
general reasoning is involved

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Looking for reality
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

22. Samantha has concluded that living in a coed residence hall makes residents more androgynous. As she continues her research, she tends to focus on events and situations that fit this pattern. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
a.
inaccurate observation
b.
illogical reasoning
c.
overgeneralization
d.
selective observation
e.
immature observation

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

23. Georgette observed a few preschool children at play and saw what she thought was a pattern in all preschool childrens play behavior. She committed which error?
a.
inaccurate observation
b.
overgeneralization
c.
selective observation
d.
illogical reasoning
e.
immature observation

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

24. Van wants to use social science to help him decide if Protestantism is a better religion than Catholicism. As a methodologist, your best response would be:
a.
depends on what you mean by Protestantism
b.
sorry, science cannot settle debates about values
c.
depends on what you mean by better
d.
the best thing to do would be to interview a Protestant and a Catholic
e.
complete a survey

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 4 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

25. Van says that his 48-year-old Catholic uncle will marry his 23-year-old atheist girlfriend next year in order to prove that the social regularity that people tend to marry people like themselves is not accurate. What is your best response as a methodologist?
a.
The objection that social regularities could be upset through the conscious will of the actors is not a serious challenge to social science
b.
Vans uncle is simply an exception to the rule
c.
This regularity is too trivial to be meaningful
d.
We need to develop a measure for marry people like themselves
e.
Its a mistake that Vans uncle may regret in the future

ANS: A DIF: Adv REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 3 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

26. Vanesha wishes to use church attendance as a factor in her study, with the categories none, some, and a lot. Church attendance and the categories are known, respectively, as:
a.
a variable and attributes
b.
attributes and a variable
c.
theory and method
d.
method and theory
e.
variables

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

27. Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
a.
She needs to study more people.
b.
She can go ahead and do her study relating the two variables.
c.
She really has only one concept.
d.
One of her variables isnt really a variable because it has only one attribute.
e.
It is not a major.

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

28. Joe wished to explain every possible reason why his sister chose to attend State University, including personal, family, school, peer, and other types of influences. What Joe is doing is called
a.
pure research.
b.
applied research.
c.
an idiographic explanation.
d.
a nomothetic explanation.
e.
evaluation research

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

29. The distinction between quantitative and qualitative data in social research is essentially the distinction between
a.
philosophy and religion.
b.
good data and less good data.
c.
useful data and less useful data.
d.
numerical and nonnumerical data.
e.
philosophy and numbers

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

30. Nora observed people in her Sunday School for several months and then determined if there was a pattern in the different responses of men and women. Which one of the following approaches is reflected?
a.
deductive
b.
transductive
c.
applied
d.
inductive
e.
reductive

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Inductive and deductive theory
OBJ: 12 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

31. Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
a.
deductive
b.
transductive
c.
applied
d.
inductive
e.
reductive

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Inductive and deductive theory
OBJ: 12 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

32. The attributes of the variable college class level include:
a.
young, middle age, old
b.
study hard and not study hard
c.
first-year, sophomore, junior, senior
d.
the minimum hours requirement for each class level
e.
first, second, third, fourth, fifth

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

33. Which one of the following represents an aggregate of people?
a.
a few people in each of a few churches
b.
individual students
c.
one church,
d.
a collection of 18-year-old students asked about their voting patterns
e.
a kindergartener

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Aggregates, not individuals
OBJ: 9 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

34. Igor studied students at his community college and noticed that a slim majority carried no books to class. Then he saw a new set of people in the distance and concluded before seeing them that they would definitely be carrying books to class because someone should do that, especially since he had just seen students without books. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
a.
illogical reasoning
b.
overgeneralization
c.
selective observation
d.
inaccurate observation
e.
immature observation

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

35. If you notice two freshmen women in your dorm dressing up excessively to go to class, and assume that ALL freshmen women dress up excessively, you have engaged in
a.
overgeneralization.
b.
undergeneralization.
c.
abstract reasoning.
d.
ego involvement.
e.
selective observation.

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

36. When you notice two freshmen women in your form dressing up excessively to attend classes, and assume that ALL freshmen women dress up excessively, AND you therefore choose only to observe those freshmen women who dress up, and disregard those who do not dress up, you have committed the error known as
a.
overgeneralization.
b.
undergeneralization.
c.
abstract reasoning.
d.
ego involvement.
e.
selective observation.

ANS: E DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

37. The study of social science is interested in ______ patterns, and not ______ ones.
a.
individual; social
b.
social; individual
c.
aggregate: social
d.
social: aggregate
e.
individual; aggregate

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Aggregates, not individuals
OBJ: 9 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

38. Ralph conducts an experiment in which he measures aggression in school children at different levels of temperature during recess. The independent and dependent variables are ________________.
a.
the experiment; the levels of temperature
b.
the school children; the levels of temperature
c.
the levels of temperature; the level of aggression
d.
the level of aggression; the time of recess.
e.
the time of recess; the level of aggression

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Applied MSC: Pickup

39. In any given study, gender is a(n) ________, whereas being male or female is a(n) ________.
a.
attribute; variable
b.
definition; choice
c.
choice; definition
d.
variable; attribute
e.
variable; choice

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

40. Scientific ________ deals with the logical aspect of science, whereas _________ deals with the observational aspect.
a.
data collection; theory
b.
research; intuition
c.
theory; intuition
d.
theory; practicality
e.
theory; data collection

ANS: E DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

41. When individuals rely on their own experiences as a basis for knowledge about the world, they are using
a.
knowledge from authorities.
b.
a scientific approach.
c.
personal inquiry.
d.
traditional information.
e.
none of the above.

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Knowledge from agreement reality
OBJ: 1 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

42. Jason reads in his local newspaper that the juvenile delinquency rates in his county have skyrocketed in the past year. He is fascinated by those statistics and decides to research the causes of juvenile delinquency. If Jason chooses to conduct a research study that includes as many delinquent participants as possible, he is searching for the _________ explanation for delinquency.
a.
exploratory
b.
nomothetic
c.
idiographic
d.
main
e.
accurate

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

43. If Jason chooses instead to extensively interview his cousin, Bob, who is a juvenile delinquent about why he chose to commit delinquent acts, Jason is searching for the ________ explanation for delinquency.
a.
exploratory
b.
nomothetic
c.
idiographic
d.
main
e.
accurate

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

44. A __________ approach seems more aligned with idiographic explanations, while nomothetic explanations are more easily achieved through a _________ approach.
a.
qualitative; quantitative
b.
quantitative; qualitative
c.
simple; complicated
d.
complicated; simple
e.
qualitative; complicated

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

45. A researcher who is interviewing teachers in order to gain a greater understanding of their day to day work is conducting what kind of research?
a.
nomothetic
b.
idiographic
c.
aggregate
d.
deceptive
e.
longitudinal

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Applied MSC: New

46. Interviewing an exceptionally talented and noteworthy athlete about his physical training regimen is what kind of research?
a.
aggregate
b.
deceptive
c.
nomothetic
d.
idiographic
e.
longitudinal

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Applied MSC: New

47. In social science, rather than focusing upon an individual, we often look at whole groups known as:
a.
gangs
b.
aggregates
c.
populations
d.
gaggles
e.
tribes

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Aggregates, not individuals
OBJ: 9 TOP: Factual MSC: New

48. Which of the following is NOT a reason we conduct social science research?
a.
moral judgment
b.
exploration
c.
description
d.
explanation
e.
understanding

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: New

49. Which of the following is NOT a component of the traditional research proposal?
a.
review of the literature
b.
introduction
c.
data analysis
d.
researchers opinion
e.
bibliography

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: The research proposal
OBJ: 14 TOP: Factual MSC: New

50. Data that consists of numbers and numeric scores that can be analyzed and interpreted using statistical methods are:
a.
qualitative data
b.
quantitative data
c.
qualified data
d.
textual data
e.
inconsistent data

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: New

51. Beginning with a specific set of observations and using them to create a theory to explain what was observed is:
a.
inductive theory
b.
deductive theory
c.
deterministic theory
d.
string theory
e.
quantitative theory

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 12 TOP: Factual MSC: New

52. If a researcher has a theory and wants to prove that it is true by going out and making observations, they are using:
a.
deterministic theory
b.
natural theory
c.
deductive theory
d.
string theory
e.
mathematical theory

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Inductive and deductive theory
OBJ: 12 TOP: Factual MSC: New

53. The perspective that all things in life are the result of destiny and that people are unable to change the way things are is known as
a.
nomothetic thinking
b.
idiographic thinking
c.
free will
d.
determinism
e.
authority

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Determinism versus agency
OBJ: 12 TOP: Factual MSC: New

54. ____________ are the individual items that define a(n)__________________
a.
qualitative, quantitative
b.
attributes, variable
c.
variable, attributes
d.
attributes, aggregate
e.
aggregates, attributes

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: New

55. Michael observes that on Wednesday afternoons, a noticeably large number of students wear t-shirts promoting the schools marching band. He then assumes that perhaps that is the day the band has practice. Michael used:
a.
quantitative thinking
b.
inductive theory
c.
qualitative thinking
d.
deductive theory
e.
selective observation

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Inductive and deductive theory
OBJ: 12 TOP: Conceptual MSC: New

56. Research data that consists of interview transcripts and narrative texts is an example of:
a.
qualitative data
b.
quantitative data
c.
longitudinal data
d.
forensic data
e.
illogical data

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Qualitative and quantitative data
OBJ: 13 TOP: Conceptual MSC: New

57. After observing three individuals driving over 80 miles an hour on the highway, Sylvia makes the assumption that the speed limit is 80 and speeds up. She has committed what kind of error?
a.
inaccurate observation
b.
illogical reasoning
c.
overgeneralization
d.
selective observation
e.
misuse of authority

ANS: C DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: New

58. The need to develop a tolerance for ambiguity helps resolve the conflict between what two concepts?
a.
Determinism and agency
b.
Nomothetic and idiographic
c.
Qualitative and quantitative
d.
inductive and deductive
e.
cross-sectional and longitudinal

ANS: A DIF: Intro REF: Determinism versus agency
OBJ: 12 TOP: Factual MSC: New

59. Epistemology can be defined as:
a.
the science of finding out
b.
the science of knowing
c.
the discovery of reality through agreement
d.
the discovery of reality through experimentation
e.
the logical aspect of science

ANS: B DIF: Intro REF: Looking for reality
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: New

60. Racial and prejudicial perspectives that are based upon examples an individual sees, while ignoring those contradictory to their belief is a form of:
a.
misuse of authority
b.
overgeneralization
c.
illogical reasoning
d.
selective observation
e.
inaccurate observation

ANS: D DIF: Intro REF: Errors in inquiry, and some solutions
OBJ: 7 TOP: Applied MSC: New

TRUE/FALSE

1. If an exception is found to a social pattern, the pattern is invalid.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 6 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

2. Theory that is logically inconsistent is acceptable as long as it is empirically accurate.

ANS: F DIF: Adv REF: Theory, not philosophy or belief
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

3. Agreement reality hinders our attempts to find out for ourselves.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Knowledge from agreement reality
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

4. Data collection deals with the logical aspect of science.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

5. We study how variables are related to one another in order to know more about the people possessing those variables.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

6. The variable plumber has the attribute of occupation.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

7. The misuse of authority refers to experts who discuss their area of expertise in public.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Knowledge from agreement reality
OBJ: 6 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

8. Social scientific theory aims at the determination of logical and persistent patterns of regularities in social life.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Determinism versus agency
OBJ: 8 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

9. We can predict without understanding.

ANS: T DIF: Adv REF: Looking for reality
OBJ: 5 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

10. Every observation is quantitative at the outset.

ANS: F DIF: Adv REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

11. Theories describe the relationship we might logically expect between variables.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

12. Idiographic explanations provide partial explanations of a particular instance.

ANS: F DIF: Adv REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 11 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

13. Deductive reasoning refers to movement from a set of specific observations to the discovery of a pattern.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 12 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

14. Nomothetic explanations are more easily achieved through quantification.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 11 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

15. Nomothetic explanations are more useful than idiographic reasoning.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 11 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

16. Qualitative data tends to be richer in meaning than quantified data.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Some dialectics of social research
OBJ: 13 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

17. There is only one correct way to do social research.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The research proposal
OBJ: 14 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

18. Social regularities are probabilistic patterns.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

19. Social theory focuses on how things should be.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

20. The variable occupation has the attribute of plumber.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Conceptual MSC: Pickup

21. Because we have individual perspectives about the world, it is impossible to ever arrive at scientific statements about reality.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

22. Exceptions to social regularities should be disregarded.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Social regularities
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

23. An independent variable precedes (comes before) the dependent variable.

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: Pickup

24. Epistemology is the science of finding out.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: Knowledge from agreement reality
OBJ: 2 TOP: Factual MSC: New

25. A review of the literature is not a part of a research proposal

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The research proposal
OBJ: 14 TOP: Factual MSC: New

26. A variable is made up of a selection of related attributes

ANS: T DIF: Intro REF: Concepts and variables
OBJ: 10 TOP: Factual MSC: New

27. A purpose for social science research is to make moral decisions about phenomena.

ANS: F DIF: Intro REF: The foundations of social science
OBJ: 4 TOP: Factual MSC: New

28. Idiographic explanations are used to explain the case or individual that stands out as different from others

ANS: T DIF: Adv REF: Idiographic and nomothetic explanation
OBJ: 11 TOP: Factual MSC: New

ESSAY

1. Describe how scientific inquiry differs from nonscientific inquiry.

ANS:
Not Given

2. Discuss how scientific inquiry tries to avoid the common pitfalls that produce error in nonscientific inquiry.

ANS:
Not Given

3. Name five sociological variables and their attributes.

ANS:
Not Given

4. Explain what is meant by the statement Tradition and authority are the two-edged swords in the search for knowledge about the world.

ANS:
Not Given

5. Describe the differences between inductive and deductive research, and give an example of each.

ANS:
Not Given

6. Aside from the potential dangers of tradition and authority, what are four other common errors we, as researchers, tend to make when searching for causal answers? How does science guard against these errors?

ANS:
Not Given

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