Understanding Anatomy And Physiology A Visual Auditory Interactive Approach 2nd Edition Thompson Test Bank

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Understanding Anatomy And Physiology A Visual Auditory Interactive Approach 2nd Edition Thompson Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Understanding Anatomy And Physiology A Visual Auditory Interactive Approach 2nd Edition Thompson Test Bank

Chapter 5: Integumentary System

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the statement listed below.

a. epidermis f. stratum corneum
b. cutaneous membrane g. melanin
c. dermis h. papillae
d. stratum basale i. ceruminous gland
e. keratin j. eccrine gland

 

 

  1. Outer layer of epidermis

 

  1. Inner layer of the skin

 

  1. Protects nucleus from sun damage

 

  1. Secretes sweat

 

  1. Outermost layer of the skin

 

  1. Inner layer of epidermis

 

  1. A fibrous protein

 

  1. Helps bind layers of skin together

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   72

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   77

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   72

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   72

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

Match each item to its definition below.

a. cyanosis e. erythema
b. jaundice f. pallor
c. bronzing g. hematoma
d. albinism  

 

 

  1. Yellow discoloration of skin

 

  1. Pale skin

 

  1. Bluish, black, or yellowish mark on the skin

 

  1. Blue tint to the skin

 

  1. Abnormal redness of the skin

 

  1. Extremely pale skin, white hair, and pink eyes

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   73

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

Match each item to the statement or sentence listed below. Items may be used more than once.

a. basal cell
b. squamous cell
c. melanoma

 

 

  1. Cancer arising from epithelial cells

 

  1. Cancer with highest risk for death

 

  1. Cancer that rarely spreads

 

  1. Cancer with a pearly-looking outer ring

 

  1. Cancer that can start out as a mole

 

  1. Cancer that looks red and scaly

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   79

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. New skin cells are produced in the
a. stratum basale.
b. cutaneous membrane.
c. stratum corneum.
d. dermis.

 

 

ANS:  A

New skin cells are produced in the stratum basale, which is the innermost layer of the epidermis. The cutaneous membrane is another name for skin, which would include all layers. The stratum corneum is the outer layer of the epidermis and is composed of dead cells. The dermis lies underneath the epidermis.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   72                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. Which skin layer contains nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands?
a. Dermis
b. Epidermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Endodermis

 

 

ANS:  A

The dermis, or inner layer, contains blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. The epidermis does not contain these structures. The hypodermis contains adipose and connective tissue. The endodermis is a structure found in plants.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. Which skin layer receives oxygen and nutrients by diffusion from the skin layer beneath it?
a. Dermis
b. Epidermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Cutaneous membrane

 

 

ANS:  B

The epidermisthe skins outermost layerreceives oxygen and nutrients from the dermis, the skin layer directly beneath. The hypodermis exists beneath the dermis. The cutaneous membrane is the skin itself, which consists of both the epidermis and the dermis. It has an abundant blood supply in the dermal layer.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. The hypodermis is
a. connective tissue that binds skin to underlying tissue.
b. epithelial tissue that protects the dermis from abrasion.
c. muscle tissue that supports the dermis.
d. nervous tissue that senses pain, temperature, and other sensations.

 

 

ANS:  A

The hypodermis consists of areolar and adipose tissue, making it a connective tissue. It binds skin to underlying tissue. It is not epithelial, muscle, or nervous tissue, and it does not protect or support the dermis or sense pain, temperature, and other sensations.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   71                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. What are the primary components of the dermis?
a. Collagen along with reticular and elastic fibers
b. Dermal and epidermal cells
c. Stem cells, melanocytes, hair follicles, and papillae
d. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, hair follicles, and papillae

 

 

ANS:  A

The dermis is composed primarily of collagen as well as reticular and elastic fibers. Although the dermis also contains the other cells and structures listed, it is made up of primarily of these fibers.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   71                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. The dermis contains which of the following structures?
a. Exocrine glands
b. Hair follicles
c. Stratum corneum
d. Blood vessels
e. All of the above
f. B and D
g. A, B, and D
h. A, B, and C

 

 

ANS:  G

The dermis contains exocrine glands (sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine glands), hair follicles, and blood vessels. The stratum corneum is a layer of the epidermis.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   71                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. Which statement best describes the life cycle of an epidermal cell?
a. New epithelial cells in both the stratum basale and stratum corneum push older cells up to the outer surface where they die and slough off.
b. New epithelial cells in the stratum basale keratinize and slough off.
c. New epithelial cells in the stratum corneum undergo mitosis approximately every 2 weeks to replace dead cells.
d. New epithelial cells in the stratum basale push older cells upward; as the cells move up layer by layer, they toughen and die.

 

 

ANS:  D

Epithelial cells in the stratum basale (the deepest layer of the epidermis) continually divide to form new cells. The new cells are pushed toward the outer surface as new cells form below. They pass through several layers, during which time their cytoplasm and nuclei are replaced with keratin. The cells are dead by the time they reach the stratum corneum and are eventually sloughed off through daily wear and tear. Other answers misidentify the correct layer of epidermis or do not provide sufficient information.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   72                  KEY:  ANALYZING

 

  1. Which statement best explains why the stratum corneum resists abrasions?
a. The cells are dead.
b. It consists of multiple layers.
c. It does not have a blood supply.
d. It contains melanin.

 

 

ANS:  B

The stratum corneum consists of up to 30 layers of toughened, dead cells, which makes it abrasion resistant. The fact that the cells are dead is only part of the reason the stratum corneum resists abrasions. Melanin does not protect against abrasion. The absence of a blood supply does not make the stratum corneum resistant to abrasion.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   72                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. What is the purpose of melanin?
a. To protect underlying tissues from sun exposure
b. To protect the DNA in skin cells from sun exposure
c. To toughen skin cells after sun exposure
d. To provide nutrients to skin cells dried out from sun exposure

 

 

ANS:  B

Melanin protects the DNA contained in the nucleus of skin cells from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, not other underlying structures. Sun exposure does cause skin to toughen over time, but this is not because of melanin. Melanin does not provide nutrients to cells.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   73                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Which statement about melanin is accurate?
a. Melanin darkens in response to sun exposure to shade skin cells.
b. Melanocytes surround skin cells and increase in number as exposure to the sun increases.
c. Melanin replaces the cytoplasm as skin cells die.
d. Melanin forms a cap over the nucleus.

 

 

ANS:  D

Melanin, which is released by melanocytes in response to sun exposure, is carried into the cell by keratinocytes where it forms a protective cap over the cells nucleus. Melanin does not darken in response to sun exposure; skin darkens because of an increased production of melanin. Melanocytes have projections that reach between cells, but they do not surround cells. Keratin, not melanin, replaces a cells cytoplasm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    D                   REF:   73                  KEY:  ANALYZING

 

  1. What causes albinism?
a. Impaired liver function
b. Lack of oxygen
c. Hormone deficiency
d. A genetic lack of melanin

 

 

ANS:  D

Albinism results from a genetic lack of melanin. The other answers cause changes in skin color but are not responsible for albinism.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   73                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. How does the skin help regulate body temperature?
a. Nerves in the dermis cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict to regulate heat loss.
b. Epidermal tissue prevents excess loss or absorption of water, which helps keep body temperature stable.
c. The dermis expands or contracts to conserve or expel heat.
d. Epidermal blood vessels sense the skin temperature and constrict to conserve heat.

 

 

ANS:  A

Nerves in the dermis prompt blood vessels to dilate or constrict, which helps regulate heat loss. The epidermis prevents water absorption but is not a barrier to water loss from sweat. The dermis does not expand or contract to conserve or expel heat. The epidermis does not contain blood vessels.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   74                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Which function of the skin keeps bacteria from entering the body?
a. Sensory perception
b. Barrier
c. Protection
d. Filtration

 

 

ANS:  C

Skin protects the body by blocking microorganisms and many harmful chemicals. It also secretes a surface film that blocks toxins and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The skin functions as a barrier by blocking ultraviolet radiation, preventing dehydration by regulating fluid loss and preventing the body from absorbing too much water. Sensory perception does not play a role in preventing microorganisms from entering the body. The outer layer of skin does not filter microorganisms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   74                  KEY:  ANALYZING

 

  1. Which structure nourishes each hair?
a. Root
b. Follicle
c. Papilla
d. Arrector pili

 

 

ANS:  C

The papilla is a structure with blood vessels located at the base of each hair that nourishes it. The root, follicle, or arrector pili do not provide nourishment.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   75                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Which structure causes the hair to stand on end?
a. Arrector pili
b. Root
c. Follicle
d. Shaft

 

 

ANS:  A

The arrector pili is a bundle of smooth muscle that contracts in response to stimuli such as cold air or extreme emotion; when it does, it pushes the hair into a more upright position. Neither the root, follicle, nor shaft cause this reaction.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   75                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. What tough, fibrous protein is found in dead cells of the hair, nails, and outer layer of skin?
a. Pheomelanin
b. Fibrin
c. Collagen
d. Keratin

 

 

ANS:  D

Keratin is the tough protein that replaces the cytoplasm and nucleus of hair, nail, and skin cells before they die. Pheomelanin is red-colored melanin, which is a pigment. Fibrin is a blood protein involved in clotting. Collagen is a protein found in connective tissue.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   75-76             KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Clubbing of the nails is a sign of (a)
a. digestive disorder.
b. anemia.
c. lung disease.
d. melanoma.

 

 

ANS:  C

Clubbing of the nails is a sign of lung disease. Digestive disorders may cause changes in nail appearance but do not cause clubbing. Anemia may cause very pale nail beds. Melanoma may cause dark lines under the nails of people with light-colored skin.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   74                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. What skin change associated with aging affects the maintenance of body temperature during hot weather?
a. Slowed skin cell production
b. Decline in number and output of sweat glands
c. Localized proliferation of melanocytes
d. Decreased amount of collagen and elastin

 

 

ANS:  B

Decline in number and output of sweat glands can seriously interfere with an older persons ability to cool down. This is why many older individuals are prone to developing heatstroke in the summer. Slowed skin cell production results in slower healing times, which could increase the risk for infection; however, this is an indirect, secondary risk. Localized proliferation of melanocytes causes brown spots on the skin, which are harmless. Decreased collagen and elastin causes wrinkles.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   76                  KEY:  ANALYZING

 

  1. Eccrine glands
a. are located primarily on the face and head.
b. produce sweat.
c. lubricate the skin with sebum.
d. are located mainly in the groin and armpit.

 

 

ANS:  B

Eccrine glands produce sweat and are located throughout the body. Although these glands can be found on the face and head, that is not their primary location. Eccrine glands do not secrete sebum.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   77                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Which statement about body odor is accurate?
a. Body odor is the natural smell of sweat from the apocrine glands.
b. Body odor results from the breakdown of foods in the body.
c. Sebum secreted by sebaceous glands contains chemicals that cause body odor.
d. Body odor results from bacteria acting on substances in sweat.

 

 

ANS:  D

Body odor is the result of the breakdown of substances in sweat by bacteria. It is not a natural occurrence, nor does it result from foods or sebum.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   77                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Approximately how much fluid does the body lose per day in insensible perspiration?
a. 250 mL
b. 500 mL
c. 650 mL
d. 750 mL

 

 

ANS:  B

The average amount of fluid loss from insensible perspiration is 500 mL. Heat, exercise, fever, and other conditions can dramatically increase that amount.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   77                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. Which glands have the most important role in maintaining constant core temperature?
a. Apocrine glands
b. Ceruminous glands
c. Eccrine glands
d. Sebaceous glands

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   77

KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. A burn that involves only the epidermis is classified as
a. first degree.
b. second degree.
c. third degree.
d. fourth degree.

 

 

ANS:  A

A burn involving only the epidermis is called a first-degree burn.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   78                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Why are some full-thickness burns not painful initially?
a. Full-thickness burns involve the entire epidermal layer, where there are no nerve endings.
b. Full-thickness burns usually occur slowly; therefore, the person generally does not experience pain until after the injury is complete.
c. Full-thickness burns extend through the muscle to the bone, where there are no nerve endings; pain occurs only as the burn starts to heal.
d. Full-thickness burns destroy nerve endings in the dermis, which prevents sensory input from reaching the brain.

 

 

ANS:  D

Full-thickness burns may destroy nerve endings in the dermis, which prevents sensory input from reaching the brain. Full-thickness burns involve much more than just the epidermis, which does contain nerve endings. People experience considerable pain as the burn injury occurs. Bone does contain nerve endings.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   78                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. A young woman sustains second- and third-degree burns on the front of both legs from the thigh to the ankle and second-degree burns on her right arm. Using the Rule of Nines, what percentage of her body has been burned?
a. 18 percent
b. 22.5 percent
c. 27 percent
d. 33 percent

 

 

ANS:  B

The front of each leg is considered 9 percent and the front of each arm is 4.5 percent; therefore, burns over both legs and one arm totals 22.5 percent of her body.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   78                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The stratum basale produces new skin cells that migrate to the stratum corneum to replace skin cells that have sloughed off.

 

ANS:  F

New skin cells are produced in the stratum basale, but they push older cells up. As they get pushed up, they undergo changes and become the stratum corneum.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   72                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. All skin cells in the epidermis are dead.

 

ANS:  F

The skin cells in the outer layer of the epidermis are dead, but the cells in the lowest level, the stratum basale, are living.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   72                  KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Because the skin acts as a barrier, medications are not readily absorbed.

 

ANS:  F

Although the skin acts as a barrier, it can also absorb many chemicals. This makes skin a possible route for medication administration in the form of lotions, gels, or adhesive patches.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   74                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. Apocrine glands contain a duct that leads to a hair follicle.

 

ANS:  T

Apocrine glands are sweat glands found in the armpit and groin, and do contain a duct that leads to a hair follicle.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   77                  KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

Chapter 15: Vascular System

 

MATCHING

 

Match each vascular structure to its function or characteristic. Terms may apply to more than one question. Some terms may not be used.

a. arteries i. sinusoids
b. tunica externa j. tunica media
c. capillaries k. capacitance vessels
d. tunica intima l. distributing arteries
e. lumen m. conducting arteries
f. resistance vessels n. metarterioles
g. medium-sized veins o. large veins
h. venules p. arterioles

 

 

  1. Lines all blood vessels

 

  1. Site for exchange of nutrients and oxygen

 

  1. Layer of a blood vessel wall made of strong fibrous connective tissue

 

  1. Blood vessel containing one-way valves

 

  1. Produces chemicals that cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict

 

  1. Larger protein molecules can pass through these vessels

 

  1. Another name for veins based on their ability to carry varying amounts of blood

 

  1. Blood vessels with the thickest walls

 

  1. Another name for arterioles based on their ability to affect blood pressure

 

  1. Layer of a blood vessel wall containing muscle and elastic tissue that allows a vessel to change diameter

 

  1. Arteries closest to the heart

 

  1. Also called muscular vessels

 

  1. Collect blood from capillaries

 

  1. Vessels that connect to capillaries on the arteriole side

 

  1. Also referred to as elastic vessels

 

  1. Venules converge to form these

 

  1. Veins closest to the heart

 

  1. Deliver blood to specific organs

 

  1. Layer of blood vessel wall that provides support and protection

 

  1. Center space of a blood vessel

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   294

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   297

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   294

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   294

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   298

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  K                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296-297

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   294

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  M                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   295

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  L                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   295

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  N                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   295

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  M                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   295

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  O                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  L                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   295

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   294

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   296

KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which blood vessels connect the two sides of the vascular system?
a. Arteries
b. Veins
c. Capillaries
d. Venules

 

 

ANS:  C

Capillaries have an arterial end and a venous end and connect the two sides of the vascular system. Arteries are large vessels distant from the connection between the two sides. Venules, not veins, are connected to the capillary bed.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    E                    REF:   293                KEY:  REMEMBERING

 

  1. How are capillaries organized?
a. Each arteriole narrows until it becomes a capillary, after which it increases in diameter to become a venule.
b. Capillaries are organized according to the needs of the tissue; some tissues have large capillary networks because they require rapid exchange of nutrients, chemicals, or gases, whereas other areas have no capillaries because arterioles supply sufficient amounts of blood.
c. Capillaries branch off of arterioles to form a bed, or network, of many capillaries.
d. Capillaries branch into sinusoids where the exchange of nutrients and gases takes place.

 

 

ANS:  C

The functional unit or organization of capillaries is the bedan extensive branching of microscopic vessels off the arterioles. The capillary bed greatly increases the cross-sectional area for the efficient exchange of gases and nutrients.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                   REF:   297                KEY:  UNDERSTANDING

 

  1. Which blood vessels have the greatest ability to expand and recoil, and why is this important?
a. Medium-sized veins, because it helps them carry varying amounts of blood
b. Conducting arteries, so they can manage the surge of blood with systole and help propel blood during diastole
c. Arterioles, because they must constrict or dilate to control blood pressure
d. Capillaries, because they must supply more blood during stress or exercise

 

 

ANS:  B

Conducting arteries must handle surges of blood under high pressure (during systole) followed by a rapid drop-off of pressure (during diastole). They manage these dynamics through expansion and recoil. Recoil, when the artery springs back to its original diameter, is forceful enough to keep blood moving forward during cardiac relaxation. Veins have the capacity to stretch, but they do not recoil like conducting arteries. By the time blood reaches the arterioles or the capillaries, various forces have converged to greatly reduce blood pressure; they do not need to expand.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    M                  

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