Understanding Dying Death And Bereavement 7th Edition By Leming Dickinson -Test Bank

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Understanding Dying Death And Bereavement 7th Edition By Leming Dickinson -Test Bank

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Understanding Dying Death And Bereavement 7th Edition By Leming Dickinson -Test Bank

CHAPTER 2

 

                      THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE OF DEATH

 

                                                 Chapter Outline

 

 

Defining Death

International Definitions

American Definitions

The Meaning of Dying and Death

The Social Meaning

Deriving Meaning from the Audience

Deriving Meaning from the Situation

Death as a Lost Relationship

Creating and Changing Death-Related Meaning

The American Experience of Death

Living Death (1600-1830)

The Dying of Death (1830-1945)

The Resurrection of Death (1945 to the Present)

Contemporary Attitudes Toward Death

Denial or Acceptance of Death?

Fearing Death

Content of Death Fears

Death Fears, Gender, and Age

Relieving Death Anxiety Through Religion

Contemplating Ones Own Death

Conclusion

Summary

Discussion Questions

Glossary

Suggested Readings


 

                                            TrueFalse Questions

 

  1. Eighty percent of current deaths in the United States occur in institutional settingshospitals and nursing homes. True

 

  1. According to the United Nations definition of death, a death cannot occur until a live birth has taken place. True

 

  1. The Harvard definition of death defines death in terms of respiration and heart functioning. False

 

  1. Ultimately, all deaths are brain deaths. True

 

  1. The death of an individual is a personal, not a social, experience. False

 

  1. When a person dies, many person or role occupants die. True

 

  1. Using euphemisms for death suggests that the United States is a death-denying society. True

 

  1. According to Leming and Dickinson, the fear of the unknown and the fate of the body are the two areas of greatest anxiety for most people. False

 

  1. For most people the process of dying causes less concern than the event of death. False

 

  1. In thanatology death fear and death anxiety are used synonymously. True

 

  1. Death anxiety is a multidimensional concept. True

 

  1. It is only in recent years that we have been able to scientifically determine the real meaning of death. False

 

  1. The meaning of death is socially determined by human beings rather than determined biologically. True

 

  1. In all likelihood, the meaning of death may change in the future as it has in the past. True

 

  1. Cryonics suggests a denial of death. True

 

  1. According to RadcliffeBrown, religion provides individuals with a sense of comfort and anxiety relief. False

 

  1. Death is inherently fearfulall people fear death by nature. False

 

  1. Malinowski viewed religion as the great anxiety reliever. True

 

  1. The empirical research by Michael Leming supported Homanss theorizing on the relationship between religion and death anxiety. True

 

  1. People tend to fear the process of dying more than the event of death. True

 

  1. Between 1600 and 1830, death was a living part of the American experience. True

 

  1. Like modern thanatologists, Puritans felt an awareness of death could improve the quality of life. True

 

  1. Puritans encouraged each other to fear death. True

 

  1. At the time of death, the Puritan family usually sent for a medical doctor to care for the corpse. False

 

  1. It was customary for Puritans to embalm the body before burial. False

 

  1. Puritans were more likely to pray for the soul of the deceased than they were for the comfort of the bereaved. False

 

  1. At the beginning of the 20th century, the funeral industry attempted to keep death out of sight and out of mind. True

 

  1. Middle-class Americans in the late 19th century wished to experience death with order. True

 

  1. The ideology of separate spheres in the late 19th century contributed to more open discussion of death in American society. False

 

  1. During the Victorian era in American society, grievers were encouraged to express their emotions in response to the death of a loved one. False

 

31, Scientific naturalism contributed to the hope that physical immortality might be a possibility for future Americans. True

 

  1. The threat of megadeath war inherently calls into question the possibility of all forms of immortality. True

 

  1. Death was resurrected in America after World War I, the first truly global war. False

 

  1. Perhaps the most accurate way to determine death is via brain death using an EEG. True

 

  1. The case of Terri Schiavo in Florida in 2004-2005 illustrates the importance of an advanced directive. True

 

  1. The Living Death period of the history of death was from 1830 to 1945. False

 

  1. Whether or not the United States is a death-denying society is not agreed upon, according to your text. True

 


MultipleChoice Questions

 

  1. The Harvard definition of death refers to

 

  1. no heartbeat.
  2. no longer breathing.

*c. brain stops functioning.

  1. both a and b.
  2. none of the above.

 

  1. The centralist theory of the diagnosis of death

 

  1. was the prominent view in the 14th century.
  2. proposed that the entire body and every organ and cell possessed the life force.

*c. has been resurrected by the modern theory of brain death.

  1. includes both a and b.
  2. includes none of the above.

 

  1. The Presidents Commission for the study of Biomedical and Behavioral Research to study ethical and legal implications regarding death definitions was established by President

 

  1. Carter.
  2. Clinton.
  3. Eisenhower.
  4. Bush.

*e. Reagan.

 

  1. Which is not evidence that the United States is a death-denying society?

 

  1. Euphemisms are used for death.
  2. A taboo on death conversation
  3. Cryonics

*d. Having life insurance

  1. Calling in a professional to handle the body

 

  1. According to Leming and Dickinson, which of the following is true?

 

  1. People who have weak religious commitments are most likely to fear death.
  2. People who have strong religious commitments are most likely to fear death.

*c. People who have moderate religious commitments are most likely to fear death.

  1. None of the above have been demonstrated by empirical research.

 

  1. Which of the following is true?

 

  1. According to RadcliffeBrown, religion provides individuals with a sense of comfort and anxiety relief.
  2. What a person believes about dying has more influence than how deeply he or she believes it.
  3. George Homans disagreed with both Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown, arguing that death anxiety is highest for both the very religious and the nonbeliever.

*d. The empirical research by Michael Leming supported Homanss theorizing on the relationship between religion and death anxiety.

  1. All of the above.

 

  1. The middle class in the late 19th century achieved death with order by

 

  1. making sure the death of loved ones occurred in full view of the family.
  2. preparing funeral arrangements far in advance.

*c. creating separate sphere ideology: mens work away from the home, womens work from mens, specialists (medical, clerical, etc.).

  1. None of the above.

 

  1. Death was resurrected after 1945, why?

 

*a. The atomic age brought about the possible annihilation of the entire human race.

  1. The losses of millions of soldiers in WWII brought death home for the world.
  2. People began to fear death more because of the increase in infant deaths.
  3. Society began to look inward for answers, and death as a topic naturally evolved.

 

  1. The Puritans encouraged each other to _____________ death.

 

  1. look forward to
  2. think about
  3. be anxious toward

*d. fear

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false concerning death-related behavior of the Puritans?

 

  1. Puritans felt that an awareness of death could improve the quality of life.
  2. Puritans encouraged each other to fear death.

*c. It was customary for Puritans to embalm the body before the burial.

  1. The Puritans felt that death was a living part of the American experience.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?

 

  1. In most areas of America, a basically Puritan Way of Death persisted until the 19th century.

*b. The ideology of separate spheres contributed to more open discussion of death in American society.

  1. At the turn of the 20th century, the funeral industry attempted to keep death out of sight and out of mind.
  2. Middle-class Americans wished to experience death with order.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false concerning death-related behavior of Americans during the Victorian period of history?

 

*a. Grievers were encouraged to express their emotions in response to the death of a loved one.

  1. A more elaborate funeral ritual involving therapeutic self- indulgence was encouraged.
  2. Mourning clothes were worn as one method for extending the period of lamentation.
  3. None of the above.

 

  1. During the Dying of Death Period (18301945), which did not occur?

 

  1. Landscaped rural cemeteries
  2. Life insurance

*c. Fall of the middle class

  1. Professional funeral organizations

 

  1. The case in Florida of Terri Schiavo in 2004-2005 illustrates the importance of

 

*a. an advanced directive.

  1. a will.
  2. dying without a will.
  3. stem-cell research.

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Discuss the differences between biological and symbolic death.

 

  1. What arguments can you offer to reject the following premise: In death, biology is primary, meaning is peripheral?

 

  1. Discuss the implications of the following quote: Even though it is but one biological body that dies, many role holes or vacancies are left with the death of that one person.

 

  1. In making decisions about death meaning, how does the treatment of the dying patient affect that patients understanding of death and his or her role in the dying process?

 

  1. What are some of the meanings of Not Dying?

 

  1. Refute or support this statement: The United States is a death-denying society.

 

  1. What factors have contributed to the American avoidance of death and dying?

 

  1. How has the definition of death changed over the years? What complications has this created for the American way of dying?

 

  1. Write a brief essay on putting a price on human life. Include in your discussion why a monetary value seems of importance in todays way of life.

 

  1. What types of death fears are the most salient for Americans? How might you explain why these fears are more intense than other fears?

 

  1. Why is death in the United States viewed as fearful?

 

  1. What effect did dropping the atom bomb during WWII have on American death conceptions?

 

  1. What do you think should have happened in the Terri Schiavo case in Florida in 2005? Should she have been allowed to live, or was the action taken appropriate?

 

  1. What is meant by the medicalization of death? Cite specific examples.

 

CHAPTER 14

 

                    GRIEVING THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE

 

                                                 Chapter Outline

 

Grieving Parents and the Loss of a Child

The Loss of a Fetus or an Infant

Fetal Death

Perinatal Death

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

The Loss of a Child

The Loss of an Adult Child

Grieving Children and Adolescents

Loss of a Parent

Loss of a Sibling

Loss of a Grandparent

Grieving Adults

Loss of a Spouse

Loss of a Parent

Loss of a Pet

Dying, Death, and Bereavement in the 21st Century: A Challenge

Conclusion

Summary

Discussion Questions

Glossary

Suggested Readings

 

 

True-False Questions

 

  1. The death of a spouse is usually regarded as the most difficult of all deaths. False

 

  1. The death of a child symbolically threatens the familys hope for a future. True

 

  1. Spouses often grieve the loss of a child differently. True

 

  1. According to Oliver, fathers often feel a stronger need to talk about the death of a child. False

 

  1. The process of bonding with a child begins at the time of birth. False

 

  1. Neonatal death refers to the death of a child during the period closely surrounding the time of birth. False

 

  1. The incidence of perinatal loss for whites is twice that of African Americans. False

 

  1. The death of a child also has dysfunctional consequences for family systems such as separation and divorce. True

 

  1. Because induced abortions involve intentionality, there is never a need to grieve the loss. False

 

  1. A miscarriage will often involve disenfranchised grief. True

 

  1. Guilt feelings are noticeably absent in parents of SIDS children. False

 

  1. Sharing the autopsy report with bereaved parents of SIDS children has proved to be a valuable part of the counseling process. True

 

  1. SIDS is the most common cause of death of infants in the Western world between the ages of one month and one year. True

 

  1. Studies show that sleep position of the infant appears to be highly correlated with SIDS. True

 

  1. Parents of children who die at birth often have a difficult time realizing their loss. True

 

  1. When a couple loses a neonate, it is helpful if the woman can become pregnant again to help the couple through the grieving period. False

 

  1. The bonding between parents and children begins at the moment of birth. False

 

  1. With regard to perinatal bereavement, parents must say hello before they can say good-bye. True

 

  1. For bereaved parents there is a positive relationship between satisfaction with comfort and support provided by health care professionals and psychological well-being. True

 

  1. A baptism can never be performed if the infant is born dead. False

 

  1. Studies of siblings of dying children found that parents tend to provide the siblings with less attention, thus the siblings often feel lonely and neglected. True

 

  1. The death of a parent of adult children often leads to more problematic relationships between siblings, especially if the relationship between those siblings was not close before the death. True

 

  1. Pet bereavement is often similar to the experience of loss associated with the death of a significant other. True

 

  1. Lawrence discovered that students who lost a father were more likely to report symptoms of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation than students who lost a mother. False

 

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Bonding between parent and child first occurs

 

  1. the first time the baby is held.

*b. during planning of the pregnancy.

  1. after the first fetal movements.
  2. after confirmation of pregnancy.

 

  1. When consoling someone who has just lost a child, one should

 

  1. avoid mentioning the dead childs name.

*b. be available to listen, run errands, and help with the housework.

  1. point out some bright side.
  2. do all of the above.

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding neonatal or perinatal bereavement is true?

 

*a. Parents of children who die at birth often have a difficult time realizing their  loss.

  1. When a couple loses a neonate, it is helpful if the woman can become pregnant again to help the couple through the grieving period.
  2. Mourning the death of a fetus or newborn baby differs from mourning the death of another loved one because parents must suffer detachment without identification.
  3. A baptism can never be performed when the infant is born dead.

 

  1. The sudden unexplained death of an infant where no cause is found through a postmortem examination is called __________.

 

  1. SUDS

*b. SIDS

  1. NDE
  2. NCF
  3. PME

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to sociologist Ronald Knapp, of all the problematic aspects of parenting, the most devastating to the parent is

 

  1. to discover that the child is using drugs.
  2. an unwanted pregnancy.
  3. to learn that the child has committed a felony.

*d. the loss of a child through death.

  1. all of the above.

 

  1. In talking to a parent after the loss of a child, the text advises that

 

  1. you should change the subject when the parent mentions the childs name.
  2. you should try to commiserate by saying that the childs case was bungled by the physicians.
  3. you should avoid the parent because you are uncomfortable.

*d. you should allow the parent to express grief without holding back.

  1. None of the above.

 

  1. When a sibling is dying,

 

  1. the energies of parents seem to be directed toward the dying child.
  2. healthy siblings may be distressed and feel guilty about being healthy.
  3. young healthy siblings may demonstrate increased behavior problems.

*d. all of the above may happen.

  1. both a and b may happen.

 


Essay Questions

 

  1. What are the special problems encountered in the death of a child and in a perinatal death?

 

  1. How does grief involving parental reactions to perinatal deaths differ from reactions to other deaths?

 

  1. Explain how suggestions related to medical procedures involved in perinatal deaths might better help parents cope with the death of their child.

 

  1. What is SIDS? What are the patterns of SIDS deaths? Is SIDS an old or a new phenomenon? Why are deaths from SIDS especially difficult for parents?

 

  1. How does the loss of older children and adolescents differ from other deaths?

 

  1. How do children manifest their feelings in the death of a parent?

 

  1. How can storytelling, music, art, and humor serve as therapy for a grieving individual?

 

  1. What impact does the death of a sibling have on the surviving sibling(s)?

 

  1. What might cause children to react differently to the death of a grandparent?

 

  1. What losses are especially difficult in the death of a spouse?

 

  1. In what ways are deaths of pets and deaths of significant others similar with regard to the bereavement process? Why is grief for the loss of a pet so significant for families? What are some of special problems related to the death of a pet?

 

  1. Create a rationale for your college or university in providing a cemetery or columbarium for a home coming for its alumni.

 

13. How do you think grief in the 21st century might differ from grief in the 20th century?

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