Understanding Dying, Death, And Bereavement 7th Edition By Michael R. Leming -Test Bank

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Understanding Dying, Death, And Bereavement 7th Edition By Michael R. Leming -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Understanding Dying, Death, And Bereavement 7th Edition By Michael R. Leming -Test Bank

CHAPTER 3

 

                                    GROWING UP WITH DEATH

 

                                                 Chapter Outline

 

Childhood

How Do Children Learn About Death?

Personal Experiences

Mass Media

Religion

Childrens Understanding of Death

Birth to Age Three

Ages Three Through Five

Ages Six to Twelve

Explaining Death and Dying to Children

Be Open and Honest

Avoid Euphemisms

Show Emotion

Adolescence

Identity Crisis and Death Anxiety

The Experience of Death in Violent Neighborhoods

Media Influences

Learning Adult Rituals

Communicating About Death

Adulthood

Young Adulthood

Middle-Aged Adulthood

Panic and Denial

Reflection and Acceptance

Personal Growth

Older Adulthood

Achieving Integrity

Diminishing Death Fears

Choosing a Place to Die

Conclusion

Summary

Discussion Questions

Glossary

Suggested Readings

 

 

True-False Questions

 

  1. Death on television is often viewed as reversible. True

 

  1. By 6 months of age most infants can conceptualize death. False

 

  1. According to some psycholoigsts, childrens capacity to grieve is related to their level of cognitive development. True

 

  1. The permanency of death is usually clear to a 3-year-old child. False

 

  1. Media deaths allow children to learn about the true consequences of someone dying and to learn that death is a part of the real world. False

 

  1. Between the ages of 6 and 12, the evolution of the concept of death as a permanent cessation of life begins. True

 

  1. Psychologist Robert Kavanaugh refers to children as little people or compact cars, as contrasted with Cadillacs (big people), and notes that they should be able to handle any situation adults can handle comfortably. True

 

  1. An adult should not be honest with children when talking about dying and death. False

 

  1. Direct answers to childrens questions about dying and death only confuse them, thus one should be indirect with responses. False

 

  1. If possible, euphemisms should be avoided when talking to children about death. True

 

  1. Anthropologist Colin Turnbull describes death as being like it was before birtha state of nothingness. True

 

  1. Children should be discouraged from crying when someone dies because crying reveals weakness and immaturity. False

 

  1. Mother Goose nursery rhymes are uniformly ideal stories to help a child go to sleep at night. False

 

  1. Ernest Becker in The Denial of Death argues that fear and denial of death are basic dynamics for everyone. True

 

  1. Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget argued that it is not until the late teen years and early 20s that one is capable of genuinely abstract thought processes. False

 

  1. The two periods of adolescence are 12 to 15 and 16 to 19. True

 

  1. There seems to be a fascination with death during the adolescent years as witnessed by films and music produced for adolescents. True

 

  1. Society is held together by rituals. True

 

  1. The middle-age years have been labeled the novice phase of the developmental cycle. False

 

  1. Though the elderly tend to think of death more often than younger adults, they appear to have less fear concerning death. True

 

  1. Research findings suggest that differences in death anxiety appear to be more a function of religiosity than age. True

 

  1. Gerontology is the study of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. True

 

  1. Emily Dickinson wrote extensively about death and dying. True

 

  1. According to the Census Bureau, middle age is between 30 and 45. False.

 

  1. Baby Boomers are individuals born between 1946 and 1964. True

 

  1. The sandwich generation refers to middle-aged individuals who must take care of young adult children and elderly parents at the same time. True

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. The use of a word or phrase that is less expressive or direct but considered less distasteful or less offensive than another word or phrase is called a(n)

 

*a. euphemism.

  1. etiology.
  2. cryonic.
  3. cultigen.
  4. apnea.

 

  1. Jean Piagets third cognitive stage of development is called
  2. sensorimotor.

*b. concrete operational.

  1. preoperational stage.
  2. formal operations.

 

  1. In explaining death to children one should

 

*a. avoid euphemisms.

  1. use only euphemisms.
  2. be dishonest.
  3. not answer the childs questions.
  4. do both c and d.

 

  1. Regarding children and death, the text advises that

 

  1. if a child cries, he or she should be spanked.
  2. the child should be warned that crying reveals weakness and immaturity and that only a sissy cries.

*c. the child should be told that it is okay to cry and that crying is a normal behavior.

  1. both a and b are correct.
  2. none of the above is correct.

 

  1. Erik Erikson organized life into eight developmental stages. Joan Erikson later added a ninth stage, which she called

*a. old older adults.

  1. ancient people.
  2. really old folks.
  3. elderly individuals.
  4. over the hill folks.

 

  1. The first childhood death experience occurs around the average age of ________ years.

 

  1. 3
  2. 6

*c. 8

  1. 11
  2. None of the above.

 

  1. Young adults reject death because

 

  1. they probably have not faced the death of a significant other.
  2. they do not yet accept the inevitability of death.

*c. they are just preparing for the hopes, challenges, and success of life.

  1. of all of the above.
  2. of both a and b above.

 

  1. Sigmund Freud traced conceptions of death to

 

  1. our need to strive and overcome our early sensitivity to death.

*b. our earliest feelings concerning sexuality and fears of being punished for them.

  1. our socialization during adolescence.
  2. our elementary school days when first leaving the security of the home and entering a new and different world of peers.
  3. both a and c above.

 

  1. The social scientist who argued that fear and denial of death are basic dynamics for everyone was

 

  1. Sigmund Freud.
  2. Alfred Adler.

*c. Ernest Becker.

  1. Jean Piaget.
  2. Erik Erikson.

 

  1. A school of psychology that moved away from Freud toward more emphasis in therapy on coping strategies and strengths of the person rather than on the unconscious is called _____ psychology.

 

*a. ego

  1. developmental
  2. clinical
  3. life cycle
  4. behaviorist

 

  1. The individual who encouraged psychologists to employ better methods of research in the developmental approach to understanding concepts of death was

 

  1. Sigmund Freud.
  2. Ernest Becker.
  3. Herman Feifel.

*d. Jean Piaget.

  1. Erik Erikson.

 

  1. Erik Eriksons last stage of the life cycle is called

 

  1. adulthood.
  2. young adulthood.
  3. play age.
  4. adolescence.

* e. none of the above.

 

  1. Adolescence includes the ages

 

  1. 1215.

*b. 1219.

  1. 1519.
  2. 1317.
  3. None of the above.

 

  1. Middle-age is between _____ and _____ years.

 

  1. 30, 60

*b. 45, 65

  1. 35, 55
  2. 40, 50
  3. 30, 40

 

  1. The panic begins for many middle-aged Americans regarding the thought of death. Which is the correct reason for this?

 

  1. Realization that the remaining years of life are fewer than those already lived
  2. Realization that after ones parents are dead, the buffer zone is gone
  3. If ones job depends on physical vigor, the realization that physical strength is beginning to wane

*d. All of the above

  1. Only a and b

 

  1. Which is true regarding the elderly in the United States?

 

  1. The elderly do not seem reluctant to talk about dying and death, but others are reluctant to talk to them about dying and death.
  2. Research suggests that older adults think of death more often than younger adults but appear to have less fear concerning death.
  3. Older adults tend to see their lives as having few prospects for the future and less value.
  4. Research suggests that the widowed tend to be more fearful of death than the elderly married or remarried.

*e. all of the above.

 

  1. The idea of a life review was that of gerontologist

 

*a. Robert Butler.

  1. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross.
  2. Howad Becker.
  3. Emile Durkheim.

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Discuss the various perceptions of death as one goes from birth to age 12.

 

  1. What are some of the death themes in the Mother Goose stories cited in the text?

 

  1. Why are euphemisms used to identify dying and death?

 

  1. Write a brief essay explaining why adults tend to avoid talking about death with children?

 

  1. Explain why open communication is important in relating to children about the concepts of dying and death.

 

  1. Why would young adults appear to reject the admonition to remember death?

 

  1. What are some of the limitations of the developmental approach to understanding death conceptualizations?

 

  1. How do you explain the popularity for adolescents of movies depicting brutal death scenes?

 

  1. What are some of the factors, other than age, that influence death conceptualizations? Why are these factors important in understanding the ways people conceptualize death?

 

  1. What are some death themes in contemporary adolescent music? How do you explain death themes in music?

 

  1. Why does the death taboo exist with respect to the elderly in the United States?

 

  1. Why do high school and college-aged students have a higher level of death anxiety than junior high school students?

CHAPTER 13

 

                                            COPING WITH LOSS

 

Chapter Outline

 

The Bereavement Role

Rights and Privileges

Responsibilities

The Grieving Process

Normal and Abnormal Grief

Stages of Grief

Shock and Denial

Disorganization

Volatile Reactions

Guilt

Loss and Loneliness

Relief

Reestablishment

Disenfranchised Grief

Relationship Is Not Recognized

Loss Is Not Recognized

Griever Is Not Recognized

Death Is Not Socially Sanctioned

Four Tasks of Mourning

Accepting the Reality of the Loss

Experience the Pain of Grief

Assume New Social Roles

Reinvest in New Relationships

Assisting the Bereaved

Coping with Violent Death

Accidents

Disasters

Murder

War

Conclusion

Summary

Discussion Questions

Glossary

Suggested Readings

 

 

True-False Questions

 

  1. There are many parallels between Talcott Parsonss sick role and what J. D. Robson describes as the bereavement role. True

 

  1. People in bereavement are expected to become dependent on others and seek competent professional assistance. True

 

  1. Part of the bereavement role is the expectation that the bereaved will return to normal social responsibilities as soon as possible. True

 

  1. Bereaved persons are sanctioned by others when they do not conform to the bereavement role as prescribed by American cultural expectations. True

 

  1. Emotionally, the grieving process is similar to the dying process. True

 

  1. Denial is usually a dysfunctional behavior for those in the bereavement process. False

 

  1. Denial provides the bereaved with a temporary safe place from the realities of everyday life. True

 

  1. For the bereaved, the meaning of loss tends to diminish with time. False

 

  1. Feelings of anger and rage are signs of abnormal coping for bereaved persons. False

 

  1. Guilt is anger and resentment turned in on oneself. True

 

  1. Feelings of loss and loneliness are the other side of the denial experienced in the bereavement process. True

 

  1. Feelings of relief often add to the feelings of guilt experienced by grievers. True

 

  1. Grieving is completed when one finishes the four tasks of bereavement. True

 

  1. The realization that no one can take Grandmas place will facilitate the process of bereavement. False

 

  1. It is best not to mention the name of the deceased when interacting with the recently bereaved. False

 

  1. Disenfranchised grief is that type of grieving promoted by memorial societies or groups advocating simple low-cost funeral arrangements. False
  2. Disenfranchised grief tends to intensify the experience of loss while the griever lacks normal social support. True

 

  1. Inherently the grieving process is passive because grievers are confronted by few if any choices in their social situation. False

 

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following are rights accorded to those in the bereavement role?

 

  1. Dependency status
  2. Temporary status
  3. Professional assistance
  4. Social disengagement

*e. Both a and d.

 

  1. Which of the following are obligations expected of those in the bereavement role?

 

  1. Dependency status
  2. Temporary status
  3. Professional assistance
  4. Social disengagement

*e. Both b and c.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding bereavement?

 

  1. Time heals.
  2. The grieving process takes one year or less.
  3. The bereavement process consists of seven universal, mutually exclusive, and linear stages.

*d. None of the above.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false regarding bereavement?

 

  1. Bereaved persons are sanctioned by others when they do not conform to the bereavement role as prescribed by American cultural expectations.
  2. People in bereavement are expected to become dependent on others and seek competent professional assistance.
  3. Part of the bereavement role is the expectation that the bereaved will return to normal social responsibilities as soon as possible.

*d. The time intervals between the intense experiences of grief remain constant with the passing of time.

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding bereavement?

 

  1. Denial is usually a dysfunctional behavior for those in the bereavement process.

*b. Denial provides the bereaved with a temporary safe place from the realities of everyday life.

  1. For the bereaved, the meaning of loss tends to diminish with time.
  2. Feelings of anger and rage are signs of abnormal coping for bereaved persons.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false regarding the four tasks of bereavement?

 

  1. Grieving is completed when one finishes the four tasks of bereavement.

*b. The realization that no one can take Grandmas place will facilitate the process of bereavement.

  1. One must withdraw emotional capital from the relationship with the deceased in the process of recovery.
  2. One should mention the name of the deceased when consoling the recently bereaved.

 

  1. Which of the following would not be classified as disenfranchised grief?

 

  1. Death of ex-spouse
  2. Death of a pet

*c. Death of an infant

  1. Death of a person with whom one was having an adulterous affair
  2. Miscarriage in the third month of pregnancy

 

  1. Which of the following could be considered disenfranchised grief?

 

  1. Death of a child
  2. Death of a spouse
  3. Death of a sibling

*d. Death of a pet

  1. Death of a parent

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. How can one avoid deviant or abnormal behavior regarding the bereavement role? What are some functions of defining bereavement roles as deviant or abnormal?

 

  1. What is the relationship between time and the feelings of grief experienced within the bereavement process?

 

  1. Distinguish between normal and abnormal grief. What could you do to assist people experiencing abnormal grief symptoms?

 

  1. Discuss how the seven stages of grieving can be applied to losses through divorce, moving from one place to another, or the amputation of a limb (arm or leg).

 

  1. Describe the four necessary tasks of mourning. What are some of the practical steps one can take in accomplishing each of these tasks?

 

  1. If grief is a feeling that is imposed on the individual through loss, how can grieving be conceived of as being an active process?

 

  1. What does Parkes mean by The funeral often precedes the peak of the pangs? How can one assist friends in bereavement?

 

  1. What are some of the signs of aberrant bereavement? What could you do to assist people experiencing abnormal grief symptoms?

 

  1. What are the unique problems faced by those whose grief is disenfranchised? What are the different types of disenfranchised grief?

 

  1. How does grief from violent death differ from that for other deaths?

 

 

QUESTIONS FOR GRIEF COUNSELORS

 

  1. How did you happen to become involved in grief counseling?

 

  1. What are the laws regarding the delivery of grief therapy services? Are you licensed by the state?

 

  1. What sanctions are there for grief therapists who do not conform to the professional standards of persons delivering these services?

 

  1. Describe your academic and practical preparation for becoming a grief counselor.

 

  1. How do you view the grieving process? What is the purpose of grief therapy from your perspective?

 

  1. Describe your role in the processes of grief therapy. How long should one reasonably expect to be involved in grief therapy?

 

  1. How helpful are self-help groups in the grieving process? When is professional help necessary in the grieving process?

 

  1. What do you like best and least about your work in grief counseling?

 

  1. What is the most difficult part of your work? What factors make a particular death difficult from your point of view?

 

  1. From your experience, how important do you feel it is for families and bereaved persons to view the dead body?

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