Understanding Nursing Research Building an Evidence Based Practice 6th Edition, Susan Test Bank

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Understanding Nursing Research Building an Evidence Based Practice 6th Edition, Susan Test Bank


Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research Building Evidence Based Practice 6th Edition, Susan

Chapter 01: Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice
1. Which best describes evidence-based-practice (EBP)?
a. A combination of best research evidence, clinical expertise, and the needs and values of patients.
b. A determination of the factors necessary to control patient responses to care.
c. The development of population care guidelines applicable to all patients.
d. The utilization of quantitative and qualitative studies to enhance patient outcomes.
2. The nurse is collecting data about the sleep patterns of breastfed babies as part of a larger research study. Which research method will the nurse use when collecting data for this study?
a. Control
b. Description
c. Explanation
d. Prediction
3. The nurse is participating in a study and is collecting data identifying the number of obese adults whose parents were also obese or overweight. Which research method is being used in this study?
a. Control
b. Description
c. Explanation
d. Prediction
4. The nurse reviews a study in which adherence to an asthma action plan is compared among groups of adolescents who received different asthma education. Which research method does this represent?
a. Control
b. Description
c. Explanation
d. Prediction
5. A nurse manager is interested in learning which attitudes among staff nurses may indicate relative risk of needle-stick injuries. To study this, the nurse manager will employ which method of study?
a. Control
b. Description
c. Explanation
d. Prediction
6. Which is the most important result of Florence Nightingales data collection and statistical analysis during the Crimean War?
a. Bringing awareness of the rigors of war to the general public.
b. Developing a process for statistical analysis and nursing documentation.
c. Identifying and defining the role of nurses in modern health care.
d. Using clinical research to evaluate the importance of sanitation, clean drinking water, and adequate nutrition.
7. The nurse participates in data collection in a study in which two different pain management protocols are used with randomly assigned patients to measure differences in postoperative recovery time. Which method of study is this?
a. Control
b. Correlation
c. Description
d. Explanation
8. The development of nursing theories and conceptual models in the late 1960s and 1970s served to:
a. determine the effectiveness of nursing interventions.
b. establish the concept of evidence-based practice.
c. provide funding for nursing research.
d. provide direction for nursing research.
9. Under Ada Sue Hinshaw, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) began to change its focus to:
a. funding nursing rather than medical research.
b. evaluating outcomes rather than process studies.
c. increasing the status and funding for nursing research.
d. supporting the dissemination of nursing research.
10. An emphasis of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) Magnet Hospital Designation Program for Excellence in Nursing is:
a. research and development of clinical practice guidelines.
b. putting qualitative research into practice in clinical settings.
c. using standard nursing care plans based on outcomes research.
d. utilizing evidence-based practice in nursing.
Chapter 02: Introduction to the Quantitative Research
1. A researcher conducts a study which outlines the daily habits of women who are overweight. This study represents what type of research?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Experimental
d. Quasi-experimental
2. The researcher wants to learn whether there is a relationship between parental education and emergency room use among children who have asthma. Which type of research study will this researcher use?
a. Basic
b. Correlational
c. Historical
d. Phenomenological
3. The nurse evaluates a research study that examines the relationship between computer and television screen time and obesity. A correlational analysis reveals a correlation of +0.95. What can the nurse conclude about the relationship between these two variables?
a. An increase in screen time causes obesity.
b. An increase in obesity leads to increased screen time.
c. Screen time and obesity vary in opposite directions.
d. Screen time and obesity vary together.
4. In which type of research does the researcher seek to examine causal relationships among variables without being able to manipulate the variables?
a. Descriptive
b. Correlational
c. Experimental
d. Quasi-experimental
5. The nurse participates in data collection for a clinical drug trial in which subjects are randomly assigned to either a treatment or a placebo group to measure the effects of the drug on a specific outcome. This is which type of study?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Experimental
d. Quasi-experimental
6. A researcher studies the effect of asthma action plans on frequency of emergency department visits for asthma-related symptoms. The study would be described as:
a. applied research.
b. basic research.
c. descriptive research.
d. phenomenological research.
7. Basic research seeks to:
a. directly influence clinical practice.
b. generate knowledge for knowledges sake.
c. predict or control outcomes of variables.
d. validate or test theoretical frameworks.
8. When developing a study, a researcher establishes rules for measurement of independent and dependent variables in order to minimize the possibility of error. This is an example of:
a. control.
b. manipulation.
c. precision.
d. rigor.
9. In which type of research study does the researcher have the most control?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Experimental
d. Quasi-experimental
10. A researcher designs a study to evaluate stress and anxiety associated with breastfeeding in which data collection takes place in the homes of mothers with premature newborns after discharge home from the NIC. This would be an example of which type of research setting?
a. Highly controlled, field
b. Highly controlled, laboratory
c. Natural, field
d. Partially controlled, laboratory
Chapter 03: Introduction to the Qualitative Research
1. What role does qualitative research play in evidence-based practice (EBP)?
a. Because it does not involve random-controlled trials (RCTs), it does not contribute directly to EBP.
b. It offers a systematic approach for yielding insights into human experience and behavior.
c. It provides a way to measure and evaluate quality outcomes that affect patient care.
d. It provides the basis for most EBP guidelines and patient care protocols.
2. A researcher identifies a socioeconomic group of people to study. After developing a rapport with key members of the group, getting information about group members from the key members, and spending time working among group members, the researcher develops theories about the group based on this experience. Which type of qualitative research does this represent?
a. Ethnographic
b. Grounded theory
c. Historical
d. Phenomenological
3. What is true about phenomena in qualitative research?
a. Human behavior is generally the result of the direct influence of independent variables.
b. Knowledge gained by qualitative research is concrete and derived from statistical data.
c. Multiple realities are possible based on meanings created by individuals and groups.
d. Time and context have very little influence on individual or group perspectives.
4. A researcher conducts a qualitative study and learns that individuals have a variety of reactions to an event. What can the researcher conclude from this finding?
a. The findings are interesting, but are not useful for theory development.
b. The reactions described in this study may be generalized to a larger population.
c. The study has little significance since there is no well-defined single outcome.
d. The variety of reactions is expected since perception varies with individuals.
5. A researcher develops a study to examine various phenomena that contribute to theory development. This is an example of which type of research?
a. Ethnographic research
b. Grounded theory research
c. Historical research
d. Phenomenological research
6. A researcher conducts a study to examine the feelings of cancer patients at various points during their disease, including at diagnosis, when beginning chemotherapy, and during remission. Which type of study will the researcher use for this study?
a. Ethnographic
b. Grounded Theory
c. Historical
d. Phenomenological
7. What is true about scientific rigor in qualitative nursing research?
a. Studies are rigorous only when results are quantifiable.
b. Study findings are considered trustworthy when rigor is applied.
c. Scientific rigor is not applicable with qualitative studies.
d. Scientific rigor is only used with random-controlled trials.
8. When designing a study, which has the greatest influence as a researcher decides which type of qualitative study design to use?
a. Funding and resources
b. Literature review
c. Population
d. Research question
9. A researcher wishes to learn about the experiences that women have when breastfeeding their infants in the workplace. Which type of study design will the researcher employ?
a. Ethnographic
b. Exploratory-descriptive
c. Grounded theory
d. Historical
10. A researcher who bases phenomenological research on Husserls philosophy will:
a. incorporate personal biases into conclusions and discussion of the research.
b. interpret subjects experiences according to the researchers own biases.
c. place personal biases aside when considering and reporting research findings.
d. use personal biases to look for hidden meanings in research data.
Chapter 04: Examining Ethics in Nursing Research
1. The purpose of an institutional review board (IRB) in a university or clinical agency is to:
a. approve funding for studies based on ethical standards.
b. critically appraise ethical aspects of published studies.
c. define ethical standards for the institution.
d. protect the human rights of subjects in proposed studies.
2. An important initial focus of the Declaration of Helsinki, developed in 1964, was to:
a. differentiate therapeutic from nontherapeutic research.
b. define the concept of informed consent of research subjects.
c. prevent the use of placebos during clinical drug trials.
d. prohibit nontherapeutic research to protect subjects from harm.
3. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study violated several ethical principles in which way?
a. Coercion of subjects to participate in the study in exchange for treatment
b. Failing to inform subjects about the purpose and procedures in the study
c. Failing to inform in the Centers for Disease Control about the results of the study
d. Not informing the subjects physicians that they were in the study
4. After the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) regulations were published in 1973, all research using human subjects was required to:
a. avoid using subjects who were ill, mentally impaired, or dying.
b. obtain informed consent from all subjects prior to enrollment in a study.
c. review only studies in which risk of harm to subjects is especially high.
d. undergo full institutional review to examine risks and benefits to subjects.
5. The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice are considered essential elements in research involving human subjects. In which document are these principles identified?
a. Declaration of Helsinki
b. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare regulations
c. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Belmont Report
d. Nuremberg Code
6. Which ethical principle protects human subjects from harm?
a. Beneficence
b. Ethics
c. Justice
d. Respect for persons
7. When conducting research to study medical devices for human use, the nurse researcher must comply with the Department of Health and Human Services human subjects regulations as well as regulations put forth by the:
a. American Nurses Association
b. Code of Federal Regulations
c. Food and Drug Administration
d. Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethics
8. To safeguard the right to self-determination among research subjects, the researcher will ensure that subjects:
a. are afforded anonymity to the researcher and the reader.
b. are allowed to choose whether to be in a control or a study group.
c. may choose whether or not to participate in a study.
d. receive a large monetary reward for participating in the study.
9. The greatest risk to a person confined to an institution who is a research subject is:
a. diminished autonomy.
b. discomfort.
c. lack of information.
d. lack of privacy.
10. A researcher will have greater success gaining approval for a research study involving pregnant women if which provision is put into place?
a. Care is taken to maintain strict confidentiality of subjects.
b. Consent is given by the pregnant womens significant others.
c. Subjects may experience therapeutic effects from the intervention.
d. Subjects receive financial rewards for participation in the study.
Chapter 05: Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses
1. The most important initial step when developing a research study is to:
a. develop the problem statement.
b. explore the background for the research problem.
c. identify the research problem.
d. state the research purpose.
2. A nursing researcher determines that there is little information about the use of complementary practices in treating obesity. This represents the research:
a. design.
b. problem.
c. purpose.
d. significance.
3. When writing a proposal for a research study, the researcher includes a problem statement that serves to:
a. define the specific focus of a study.
b. describe what is known about the research problem.
c. identify a gap in knowledge needed for practice.
d. indicate the importance of the problem to nursing.
4. In a research proposal, the researcher states that the proposed study will explore childrens feelings about chemotherapy side effects. This statement describes the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. research problem.
d. research purpose.
5. Which is included in a statement of a research study purpose?
a. A description of gaps in knowledge about the research problem.
b. A discussion of the significance of the research problem.
c. A review of what is known about the research problem.
d. A statement about how the research problem will be studied.
6. The statement in the introduction of a research study reportwhile children who have higher asthma control scores tend to have fewer emergency department visits for asthma exacerbations, it is unclear how nursing interventions can impact these scoresrepresents the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. research problem.
d. research purpose.
7. The statements in the introductory paragraphs of a research report that cite results of previous studies about a research problem represent the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. problem statement.
d. research purpose.
8. Which statement is a research purpose for a correlational study?
a. This study will compare the effects of an oral antidiabetic medication to effects of a placebo on glucose control in groups of randomly assigned subjects.
b. This study will examine whether pre-appointment telephone reminders increase show rate among patients in an ambulatory well-patient clinic.
c. This study will use direct observation to identify methods parents use to discipline children in public places.
d. This study will use questionnaires and school transcripts to examine the relationship of dietary habits to grades among school-age children.
9. The nurse researcher states that a research purpose is to measure the effects of bar code medication administration on medication errors. This is a study purpose for which type of research?
a. Correlational
b. Grounded theory
c. Outcomes
d. Quasi-experimental
10. Which statement in a study about preoperative education and postoperative recovery times represents a research question?
a. What are the types of preoperative education materials that may be used?
b. What are the constructs that facilitate adult learning among patients?
c. What preoperative teaching will shorten postoperative recovery time?
d. What is already known about preoperative teaching and postoperative recovery?
Chapter 06: Understanding and Critically Appraising the Literature Review
1. One reason for conducting a review of the literature other than for purposes of developing a research study is to:
a. determine the expertise of researchers in the field of study.
b. identify current theoretical frameworks.
c. implement evidence-based practice guidelines.
d. work in a Magnet-certified hospital setting.
2. What is the purpose of a limited research review?
a. To allow the reader to become familiar with the research problem
b. To develop an initial pilot study prior to a more in-depth study
c. To direct the planning and execution of a study
d. To identify studies published after a study is performed
3. A reviewer reading a proposal for a qualitative research study notes that the author has not included a literature review. The reviewer understands that a literature review may have been omitted in this case because:
a. it is not necessary to conduct a literature review for qualitative research.
b. qualitative research is conducted to study areas where there is no previous knowledge.
c. some researchers feel that previous studies may bias data collection in qualitative studies.
d. the researcher was not adequately prepared to conduct this research study.
4. Which type of study is least likely to include a review of the literature prior to initiating the study?
a. Grounded theory
b. Phenomenological
c. Qualitative
d. Quantitative
5. What is the main purpose of a literature review in grounded theory research?
a. To explain, extend, and support the framework used for the study
b. To identify gaps in current knowledge about the research topic
c. To place research findings in context of what is already known.
d. To support the need to study the selected research topic
6. Why might Wikipedia be a questionable reference for a study citation?
a. It does not contain factual information.
b. It does not provide ideas for other resources.
c. It is an online resource..
d. It is an open, editable format.
7. Which source of information is rarely cited in academic publications?
a. Conference proceedings
b. Dissertation or thesis
c. Encyclopedia
d. Textbooks
8. When determining the reliability of a website resource in a literature review, it is important to determine:
a. accessibility of the website information.
b. costs of retrieving website information.
c. sponsorship of website information.
d. whether website information is also published conventionally.
9. A review of empirical literature will yield information obtained from:
a. concept analyses.
b. descriptions of models and frameworks.
c. research studies.
d. theories.
10. What is an important limitation of secondary sources in literature reviews?
a. The authors do not have high levels of expertise.
b. They are usually not peer-reviewed sources.
c. They do not contain unique or original information.
d. They may contain misinterpreted information.
Chapter 07: Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks
1. Which is true about a study framework?
a. It guides nurses in clinical practice.
b. It explains a portion of a theory.
c. It is one of the major ideas of a theory.
d. It is the underlying methodology used in research.
2. Which statement is true about theory and qualitative studies?
a. Qualitative studies rely on conceptual frameworks and not on theory.
b. Qualitative studies are not based on theory.
c. Qualitative studies may be used to create theory.
d. Qualitative studies use theory in the same way as quantitative studies.
3. A researcher is studying how anxiety affects coping with chronic disease and theorizes that measures to reduce anxiety will improve subjects ability to cope with day-to-day demands of self-care. In this example, anxiety and coping are:
a. assumptions.
b. concepts.
c. philosophies.
d. theories.
4. When reviewing various theoretical frameworks, the nurse researcher identifies several viewpoints about how nurses should engage with terminally ill patients. These viewpoints represent:
a. abstract ideas.
b. assumptions.
c. concrete ideas.
d. philosophies.
5. A nurse researcher develops a study to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to lose weight by altering eating patterns. The researcher states, Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus desire to control weight to gain better glycemic control. This statement is a(n):
a. assumption.
b. concept.
c. philosophy.
d. theory.
6. A nurse researcher will measure the effects of infant and parent bonding on infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life. The nurse will evaluate the number of times each day that the parent holds the infant. This measure is an example of a(n):
a. abstract idea.
b. concept.
c. concrete idea.
d. phenomenon.
7. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, self-care is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.
8. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, health promotion is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.
9. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, hours of sleep is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.
10. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, effects of self-care on disease prevention is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.
Chapter 08: Clarifying Quantitative Research Designs
1. Which type of research design focuses on implementation of a treatment by the researcher?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Experimental
d. Longitudinal
2. A researcher administers a written test to evaluate knowledge of insulin administration and glucose monitoring to a group of subjects at annual intervals over the next decade. This is an example of which type of study design?
a. Correlational
b. Cross-sectional
c. Descriptive
d. Longitudinal
3. A nurse researcher wishes to identify rates of pertussis infection in children less than one year of age and then again at 6 years of age to examine the relationship of immunization status on infection rates in this population. This is an example of which type of study design?
a. Correlational, longitudinal
b. Correlational, cross-sectional
c. Descriptive, longitudinal
d. Descriptive, cross-sectional
4. Which statement is true about a descriptive study design?
a. It is not possible to operationally define variables in this type of study.
b. Sample selection and size cannot be controlled in descriptive studies.
c. This type of design is used to identify problems occurring in practice.
d. Variables may be manipulated to avoid bias in this type of study.
5. A nurse conducts a study to see whether there are differences in the number of books Latino parents and the number of books African-American parents read to their toddlers each week. Which type of study will this researcher utilize?
a. Comparative descriptive
b. Correlational
c. Cross-sectional
d. Longitudinal
6. A researcher wishes to conduct a correlational study to determine whether there is a relationship between stress levels and relapse rates among patients who have chronic conditions. In order to determine the existence of a relationship between these two variables, the researcher will attempt to:
a. manipulate the level of stress in study subjects.
b. obtain a large range of possible scores.
c. provide lengthy descriptions of subjects behaviors.
d. randomly assign subjects to study groups.
7. If a researcher wishes to describe variables and to examine many relationships in a study, which type of study design will the researcher employ?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Descriptive correlational
d. Descriptive cross-sectional
8. A nurse researcher conducts a study to determine whether women who breastfeed their infants experience better sleep in the first two postpartum months. This study will employ which type of research design?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Descriptive correlational
d. Predictive correlational
9. A researcher theorizes a set of relationships among concepts used to describe why patients with chronic illness are often depressed. To test the accuracy of these hypothesized relationships, which type of study will be used?
a. Descriptive correlational
b. Grounded theory
c. Model testing
d. Predictive correlational
10. A researcher conducts a study to examine possible contributors to glycemic control in a group of subjects who have type 2 diabetes mellitus in a local community. A convenience sample of patients includes patients from 28 to 65 years old who range in weight from normal to obese, with time since diagnosis ranging from several months to several years. To determine causality in this study, the researcher will:
a. discuss outcomes in terms of the probability that education will improve glycemic control.
b. increase the manipulation of the independent variable to allow greater control by the researcher.
c. identify multicausal variables that may influence the outcome of glycemic control measures.
d. limit the study to younger persons only to minimize the effects of extraneous variables.
Chapter 09: Examining Populations and Samples in Research
1. The goal of appropriate sampling in research is to:
a. accurately reflect the characteristics of the target population.
b. completely define the traits of the accessible population.
c. identify all attributes of the sample population.
d. study an entire population.
2. A researcher wishes to evaluate the management of chemotherapy side effects in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Children with ALL are an example of which of the following?
a. Accessible population
b. Element of the population
c. Sample population
d. Target population
3. A researcher wishes to conduct a survey of attitudes about illness among young adults with cystic fibrosis. The researcher contacts a nearby regional medical cystic fibrosis clinic, where 250 young adults who have cystic fibrosis are seen. A group of 50 young adults are selected to complete the survey. These 50 people are the:
a. accessible population.
b. elements of the population.
c. sample population.
d. target population.
4. A researcher wishes to conduct a study to determine the effects of an intervention on high school students. In this study, high school students represent the:
a. accessible population.
b. elements of the population
c. sample population
d. target population.
5. A researcher wishes to study the effects of a nursing intervention on children with cancer and obtains a sample of school-age children hospitalized for cancer treatment in a local hospital. This sample represents the:
a. accessible population.
b. general population
c. target population.
d. theoretical population.
6. In a study of patients who have dementia, a researcher wishes to examine the effects of moderate exercise on patients abilities to perform self-care. The researcher decides to use subjects between 70 and 80 years of age who have been diagnosed with dementia for less than 1 year. A patient who is 65 years old meets:
a. eligibility criteria.
b. exclusion criteria.
c. inclusion criteria.
d. sampling criteria.
7. The benefit to using a sample that utilizesnarrow sampling criteria is that there is increased:
a. control of extraneous variables.
b. generalizability.
c. heterogenicity.
d. range of values and scores.
8. A researcher uses a sample whose members have characteristics similar to those of the population from which it is drawn. This is an example of a:
a. cluster sample.
b. purposive sample.
c. random sample.
d. representative sample.
9. A researcher begins a study with 250 subjects, and 50 subjects drop out before the study is concluded. The researcher will declare 20% as the sample:
a. acceptance rate.
b. attrition rate.
c. refusal rate.
d. retention rate.
10. A pilot study reveals a wide variation in measurement values among subjects with an overall mean value that is higher than among the general population. By increasing the sample size in a subsequent study, the researcher expects to:
a. decrease the variation of scores among subjects.
b. increase the variation of scores among subjects.
c. decrease the mean value of scores among subjects.
d. increase the mean value of scores among subjects.
Chapter 10: Clarifying Measurement and Data Collection in Quantitative Research
1. A researcher conducts a study to examine the effects of breastfeeding on infant weight at age 6 months. Which type of measurement is used to measure the infants weight?
a. Direct
b. Indirect
c. Nominal
d. Ordinal
2. Which can be measured using direct measurement?
a. Anxiety level
b. Blood pressure
c. Diagnosis
d. Feelings
3. A researcher conducts a study to identify the relationship of lifestyle choices to the development of chronic diseases. The researcher surveys subjects and identifies diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and renal disease in study subjects. These measures represent which level of measurement?
a. Interval
b. Nominal
c. Ordinal
d. Ratio
4. Among subjects with coronary artery disease, a researcher identifies three levels of symptoms which can be categorized by severity. This represents which level of measurement?
a. Interval
b. Nominal
c. Ordinal
d. Ratio
5. A researcher studying the effects of an intervention on symptoms measures the time from intervention to absence of symptoms and reports this in the number of days. This measure represents which level of measurement?
a. Interval
b. Nominal
c. Ordinal
d. Ratio
6. A study measuring the effects of a new diuretic medication records hourly urine output of subjects. This measure represents which level of measurement?
a. Interval
b. Nominal
c. Ordinal
d. Ratio
7. A researcher may use which strategy to reduce the potential for measurement error when evaluating obesity in study subjects?
a. Measure weight, abdominal girth, and BMI on all subjects
b. Train multiple data collectors to take measurements
c. Use scales in several different clinical settings to obtain data
d. Utilize a single measure, such as BMI, applied to all subjects
8. A researcher reviews study data about head circumference in newborns and notes that study personnel are measuring from the end of the measuring tape and not from the zero point, which is 1 cm from the end. This is an example of which type of measurement error?
a. Indirect
b. Random
c. Reliability
d. Systematic
9. A researcher wishes to study the effects of preoperative teaching on anxiety levels among toddlers and preschoolers undergoing surgery. To reduce the potential for measurement error, the researcher will:
a. ask study subjects to describe feelings of anxiety.
b. develop a new tool to measure anxiety levels in children.
c. rely on multiple observers to collect data for this study.
d. use a standardized checklist of anxiety behaviors.
10. A researcher performs a series of pilot studies to evaluate whether a measurement tool produces consistent results. This is an evaluation of:
a. accuracy.
b. precision.
c. reliability.
d. validity.
Chapter 11: Understanding Statistics in Research
1. Which situation will involve the use of inferential statistics?
a. A comparison of independent variables in a quasi-experimental study
b. A discussion about demographic data
c. An analysis of demographic variables of the target population
d. An examination of the differences between control and experimental group scores
2. A reviewer reads a research report and notes that the number of subjects in the original sample is larger than the number in the final analysis. Besides attrition of subjects, this discrepancy is likely because:
a. data from the control group are not included in the analysis.
b. essential data is missing from subjects no longer included.
c. subjects producing outlying data have been excluded from the results.
d. the final analysis usually discusses data from the experimental group only.
3. A researcher notes that 2 subjects in an experimental group had scores similar to those in the control group, while the other 20 experimental group subjects had scores far different from those in the control group. The researcher would consider the scores for the two subjects as:
a. control group findings.
b. outlier scores.
c. unexpected findings.
d. ungrouped participants.
4. It is important to know the demographic variables among study subjects in order to:
a. calculate central tendency and standard deviation of study scores.
b. ensure that control and experimental subjects are different.
c. ensure that outcomes are not caused by independent variables.
d. understand how well the sample represents the target population.
5. A researcher evaluates the internal consistency (reliability) a newly developed scale used in a pilot study and notes a Cronbach alpha coefficient of space 0.72. The researcher will:
a. compare the measure with scores from another group of subjects.
b. test the scale for validity prior to using it in another study.
c. try another measure with better reliability in another pilot study.
d. use the scale in the larger study and continue to monitor coefficient results.
6. An appropriate level of significance for nursing research is either:
a. 0.5 or 0.1.
b. 0.03 or 0.003.
c. 0.05 or 0.01.
d. 0.005 or 0.001.
7. To measure test-retest reliability of an instrument, a researcher may use the:
a. Cronbach alpha coefficient.
b. Fischers exact test.
c. Kuder-Richardson score.
d. Pearsons correlation statistic.
8. Which describes an outlier?
a. A data point with a value outside what is predicted by other data points
b. Any data point far from the median point, but still within 2 standard deviations from the mean.
c. A study result that is directly attributable to randomness.
d. A study score from a subject lost to attrition after the study begins.
9. What is the purpose of using exploratory analysis in a research report?
a. To compare control and experimental groups
b. To develop testable hypotheses
c. To examine and describe data
d. To identify theoretical constructs
10. An important goal of inferential statistical analysis is to:
a. analyze and describe data collected during a study.
b. determine whether theoretical constructs are valid.
c. generalize results from the study to the target population.
d. measure the reliability and validity of measurement tools.
Chapter 12: Critical Appraisal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research for Nursing Practice
1. The goal of a critical appraisal should be to:
a. determine where faults exist in the study design.
b. evaluate whether a proposed study is feasible.
c. identify the meaning and credibility of the study.
d. review the credentials and expertise of the researcher.
2. When critically appraising a research study, the reviewer will expect to find:
a. identification of new research problems.
b. implementation of a perfect research design.
c. precise understanding of the real world.
d. tools to control outcomes in nursing practice.
3. How do practicing nurses participate in critical appraisal of research?
a. By adhering to evidence-based practice guidelines and best practices
b. By presenting findings from their own outcomes research
c. By questioning the quality, credibility, and meaning of studies
d. By reading research journals to keep current in knowledge and practice
4. What will the reviewer do during the evaluation portion of a critical appraisal of a research study?
a. Assess whether the measurement tools are consistent with the phenomena of interest
b. Determine whether the study findings are meaningful and should be implemented in practice
c. Discuss the statistical analysis of the studys findings including demographic and experimental data
d. Review the components of the study to gain an overall understanding of the study report
5. When reading a research article in a refereed journal, the nurse researcher is assured that the article:
a. describes a study undergoing review.
b. has been previously published.
c. is printed in abstract form only.
d. is of high quality and standards.
6. A reviewer is asked to critically appraise a report to help determine whether funding will be allocated for a research study. This reviewer will be appraising a research:
a. abstract.
b. article.
c. literature review.
d. proposal.
7. What is the goal of an intellectual critical appraisal of a research study?
a. To determine whether a study should be replicated
b. To identify strengths and weaknesses in a study
c. To determine whether a study should be implemented into practice
d. To weed out and discard studies that are flawed
8. How are study results utilized to develop evidence for practice?
a. Only evidence and data from strong studies are used.
b. Only quantitative studies are used to build evidence
c. Strong points from multiple studies are used to build evidence.
d. Studies must be replicated successfully to be used for evidence.
9. What are the steps used to evaluate quantitative research studies?
a. Assess the study design, evaluate the sampling methods, and review the study conclusions.
b. Determine the study purpose, review the study data, and evaluate the implications for further research.
c. Evaluate the study methods, validate the measurement tools, and determine the quality of results.
d. Identify the steps in the research process, determine the strengths and weaknesses, and evaluate the credibility and meaning of the findings.
10. When appraising the introduction section of a research study, what will the reviewer look for?
a. Completeness and quality of the study abstract
b. Evaluation of a comprehensive review of the literature
c. Significance of the research problem to practice
d. Study purpose and design
Chapter 13: Building an Evidence-Based Nursing Practice
1. Which is true about evidence-based practice?
a. Evidence-based guidelines are unrelated to accreditation regulations.
b. Evidence-based practice is determined only through experimental studies.
c. Most nursing interventions are based on evidence-based principles.
d. The use of evidence-based practice results in improved patient outcomes.
2. Which standards were developed to help nursing students develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to continuously improve quality and safety?
a. EBP
b. IRB
d. Magnet
3. When addressing a health care question to determine best practice, the nurse identifies and appraises quality research using a structured, comprehensive synthesis of the research literature to determine the best research evidence available. This is an example of a:
a. literature review
b. meta-analysis.
c. meta-synthesis.
d. systematic review.
4. What is the purpose of the PRISMA statement?
a. To help researchers develop a clinical question before a review
b. To help determine whether studies reviewed should be replicated
c. To improve reporting of meta-analyses and systematic reviews
d. To outline the abstract when reporting on meta-analyses and other reviews
5. To develop a clinical question when reviewing the effectiveness of nursing interventions, the nurse will use which format?
c. Study design
d. Systematic review
6. A nurse studies the effects of teaching the MyPlate.gov materials to preschoolers by providing this education to preschoolers in a single day care center and then following their BMI scores over a 5-year period and comparing their scores to those of children from another day care center. In this study, which element is represented by the O in the PICOS acronym?
a. BMI scores
b. Five-year follow-up
c. MyPlate.gov materials
d. Preschoolers
7. Which type of research literature would be included in grey literature sources?
a. Book chapters
b. Dissertations
c. Journal articles
d. Textbooks
8. What must a researcher describe to identify that a comprehensive, systematic literature search was conducted?
a. All key search terms and databases used in the search
b. A list of grey literature sources used in the review
c. The date restrictions applied to the literature search
d. The use of literature only from prestigious journals
9. What is true about a meta-analysis?
a. It helps to determine whether studies should be replicated.
b. It identifies and appraises previous research.
c. It pools results from previous studies into a single quantitative analysis.
d. It replicates previous studies to confirm statistical results.
10. Which is true about the literature search criteria for a meta-analysis?
a. They include only published works from refereed journals.
b. They include the full range of related sources based on the topic.
c. They usually are narrowly focused around the research question.
d. They use works from a single database in order to remain consistent.
Chapter 14: Outcomes Research
1. The goal of outcomes research is to:
a. determine the most cost-effective nursing interventions in patient care.
b. examine the end results of patient care from various health interventions.
c. help providers make end-of-life decisions about patient care.
d. improve patient satisfaction with nursing care.
2. What is the key construct in Donabedians theory of outcomes research?
a. Efficiency of health care delivery
b. Healthy outcomes
c. Professional accountability
d. Quality of care
3. Which is an example of a type of nursing service that might be evaluated in outcomes research?
a. Application of wound care products
b. Clinical care protocol implementation
c. Glucose monitoring for newly diagnosed diabetics
d. Using a Braden Scale for skin assessment
4. Which would be an example of an interdependent role for nurses in the Nursing Role and Effectiveness Model?
a. Administering a medication to a patient
b. Arranging for home health care services
c. Initiating a fall risk protocol
d. Performing an admission assessment
5. In an outcome study, a researcher demonstrates a link between the number of mothers who successfully breastfeed their infants and the number of maternal-child nurses who are baccalaureate prepared. This illustrates:
a. interdependent nursing role functions.
b. nursing-sensitive patient outcomes.
c. patient-sensitive outcomes.
d. the Nursing Role Effectiveness Model.
6. The development of the Uniform Hospital Discharge Data Set and the Universal Minimum Health Data Set was helped by:
a. establishing guidelines for outcomes research.
b. identifying the contribution of nursing care to patient outcomes.
c. prescribing data elements to be monitored in outcomes research.
d. reporting financial and statistical data from hospitals.
7. Which government agency supports research to improve the outcomes and quality of health care?
d. FDA
8. Which organization includes nursing-sensitive outcomes measures in its performance measurement portfolio?
a. Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality
b. Department of Health and Human Services
c. National Guideline Clearinghouse
d. National Quality Forum
9. The National Quality Forum was established in 1999 for which purpose?
a. To identify and develop nursing-sensitive quality measures
b. To support state and health system efforts to implement and evaluate medical liability reform models
c. To allow the AHRQ to expand its work supporting comparative effectiveness research
d. To set standards for health care performance measures
10. To help meet the requirements for Magnet recognition, which organization will a hospital participate in?
a. The American Nurses Association (ANA)
b. The Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
c. The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI)
d. The National Quality Forum (NQF)


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