Understanding Nutrition 12th Edition By Whitney -Test Bank

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Understanding Nutrition 12th Edition By Whitney -Test Bank


Understanding Nutrition 12th Edition By Whitney -Test Bank

Chapter 5 The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols


An.  Page(s)/difficulty                                                                                              K = knowledge-level, A = application level


Multiple Choice


Questions for Section 5.0 Introduction


c      133(K)                   01.  Approximately what percentage of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?

  1. 5
  2. 30
  3. 95
  4. 100


c      133(K)                   02.  In which form are most dietary lipids found?

  1. Sterols
  2. Glycerols
  3. Triglycerides
  4. Monoglycerides


d      133(K)                   03.  What percentage of stored body fat is in the form of triglycerides?

  1. 2
  2. 50
  3. 78
  4. 99


b      133(K)                   04.  Lipids that are solid at room temperature are known as

  1. oils.
  2. fats.
  3. omegas.
  4. glycerols.


a      133(K)                   05.  Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as

  1. oils.
  2.              fats.
  3. omegas.
  4. glycerols.


Questions for Section 5.1 The Chemists View of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides


c      133(K)                   06.  What is the chemical composition of fats?

  1. Hexose polymers
  2. Glycogen granules
  3. Fatty acids and glycerol
  4. Combinations of long chain fatty acids


b      133(K)                   07.  A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a

  1. diglyceride.
  2. triglyceride.
  3. phospholipid.
  4. monoglyceride.


c      133(K)                   08.  What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol?

  1. Steroid
  2. Lecithin
  3. Triglyceride
  4. Monoglyceride


a      134(K)                   09.  How many double bonds are present in stearic acid?

  1. 0
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3


a      134(K)                   10.  Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids are always unsaturated
  2. Lipids that are solid at room temperature are classified as oils
  3. The fatty acids in triglycerides may be of chain length 2 to 25 carbons
  4.              The most common fatty acid chain length in triglycerides is 10 carbons


a      134(K)                   11.  What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?

  1. Stearic acid
  2. Linoleic acid
  3. Palmitic acid
  4. Linolenic acid


c      134(K)                   12.  Which of the following represents a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?

  1. Fish
  2. Eggs
  3. Dairy
  4. Soybeans


a      134(K)                   13.  How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 4
  4. 6


b      134(K)                   14.  What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?

  1. Oleic acid
  2. Acetic acid
  3. Linoleic acid
  4. Palmitic acid


b      134(K)                   15.  Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

  1. amino acids.
  2. double bonds.
  3. saccharide units.
  4. peptide linkages.


b      134(K)                   16.  Which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?

  1. Oleic acid
  2. Stearic acid
  3. Linolenic acid
  4. Arachidonic acid


b      134(K)                   17.  Approximately how many carbons are contained in a medium-chain fatty acid?

  1. 2-4
  2. 6-10
  3. 12-22
  4. 24-26


d      134(A)                   18.  Which of the following is a common source of medium-chain fatty acids?

  1. Fish oils
  2. Beef products
  3. Vegetable oils
  4. Dairy products


c      135(K)                   19.  Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

  1. Saturated
  2. Hydrogenated
  3. Monounsaturated
  4. Polyunsaturated


b      135(K)                   20.  What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?

  1. Saturated
  2. Monounsaturated
  3. Polyunsaturated
  4. Partially hydrogenated


b      135(A)                   21.  Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?

  1. Monounsaturated fatty acid
  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
  3. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
  4. Short-chain saturated fatty acid


d      135(K)                   22.  Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?

  1. Oleic acid
  2. Acetic acid
  3. Stearic acid
  4. Linoleic acid


c      135(A)                   23.  A person wishing to increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats should choose

  1. coconut oil.
  2. beef products.
  3. vegetable oils.
  4. dairy products.


c      136(K)                   24.  An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the

  1. third carbon from the acid end.
  2. first 3 carbons from the acid end.
  3. third carbon from the methyl end.
  4. first 3 carbons from the methyl end.


a      136(K)                   25.  What is a triacylglyceride?

  1. A triglyceride
  2. A phospholipid
  3. A partially hydrolyzed lipid
  4. A lipid found only in cold-water fish


c      136(A)                   26.  The easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more

  1. lard oil.
  2. corn oil.
  3. olive oil.
  4. safflower oil.


c      136(A)                   27.  A triglyceride always contains 3

  1. carbons.
  2. glycerols.
  3. fatty acids.
  4. double bonds.


a      136-137(A)           28.  Which of the following is a feature of polyunsaturated fats?

  1. Low melting point
  2. High melting point
  3. Solid at room temperature
  4. Solid at refrigerator temperature


c      137(K)                   29.  Which of the following is known as a tropical oil?

  1. Flaxseed oil
  2. Safflower oil
  3. Cocoa butter
  4. Conjugated linoleic acid


b      137(A)                   30.  Which of the following is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?

  1. Origin of the fat
  2. Degree of saturation
  3. Number of acid groups
  4. Number of oxygen atoms


d      137(A)                   31.  Which of the following sources would yield the softest lipids at room temperature?

  1. Lard
  2. Beef
  3. Pork
  4. Safflower


a      137(A)                   32.  A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to

  1. heat and oxygen.
  2. fluorescent lighting.
  3. freezer temperatures.
  4. enrichment additives.


b      137(A)                   33.  Which of the following structural features of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?

  1. Chain length
  2. Number of double bonds
  3. Position of first saturated bond
  4. Size of adjacent fatty acids on the triglyceride molecule


c      137(K)                   34.  Which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?

  1. A quick way to spoil fats is by exposure to carbon dioxide
  2. Typically, the shorter the carbon chain, the firmer the fat at 75
  3. Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
  4. Palm oil and coconut oil are very liquid due to their longer carbon chains


c      137-138(A)           35.  When stored at room temperature in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?

  1. Lard
  2. Peanut oil
  3. Soybean oil
  4. Coconut oil


d      137-138(A)           36.  Which of the following would be least effective at preventing oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in processed foods?

  1. Refrigeration
  2. Addition of BHT
  3. Partial hydrogenation
  4. Addition of phosphorus


d      137-138(A)           37.  All of the following are methods used by food processors to stabilize the lipids in food products except

  1. refrigeration.
  2. hydrogenation.
  3. tightly sealed packaging.
  4. addition of oxidizing chemicals.


d      138(A)                   38.  Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following except

  1. they are stored in adipose tissue.
  2. they lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol in the body.
  3. some of their fatty acids change shape from cis to trans.
  4. products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.


d      138(K)                   39.  Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?

  1. Butter
  2. Walnut oil
  3. Beef tallow
  4. Coconut oil


b      138(A)                   40.  Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?

  1. Butter
  2. Corn oil
  3. Beef tallow
  4. Coconut oil


d      138(A)                   41.  Which of the following characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?

  1. Neither is liquid at room temperature
  2. Neither contains saturated fatty acids
  3. Both contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids
  4. Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids


d      138(A)                   42.  Which of the following provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?

  1. Palm oil
  2. Walnut oil
  3. Soybean oil
  4. Flaxseed oil


a      138(A)                   43.  The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?

  1. Corn oil
  2. Olive oil
  3. Beef tallow
  4. Coconut oil


a      138(K)                   44.  Which of the following is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?

  1. Corn oil
  2. Palm oil
  3. Peanut oil
  4. Chicken fat


d      138(A)                   45.  Which of the following lipids contain(s) saturated fat?

  1. Butter only
  2. Soybean oil only
  3. Cottonseed oil only
  4. Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil


a      138(A)                   46.  All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except

  1. palm oil.
  2. fish oils.
  3. soybean oil.
  4. safflower oil.


b      138-139(A)           47.  In the process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule?

  1. Oxygen
  2. Carbon
  3. Glycerol
  4. Other hydrogens


c      139(A)                   48.  What is a conjugated linoleic acid?

  1. A type of cis-fatty acid
  2. A partially hydrogenated omega-6 lipid
  3. A fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration
  4. A fatty acid resulting from the partial hydrolysis of dietary phospholipids in the intestinal tract


a      139(A)                   49.  Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from

  1. cis to trans.
  2. solid to liquid.
  3. covalent to ionic.
  4. saturated to unsaturated.


d      139(K)                   50.  Which of the following is descriptive of fatty acid configuration?

  1. A cis-fatty acid has an extended, linear formation
  2. A trans-fatty acid has a folded, U-shape formation
  3. Trans-fatty acids are made only from polyunsaturated fats
  4. Naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are found in dairy products


d      139(K)                   51.  Which of the following describes a feature of cis-fatty acids and trans-fatty acids?

  1. In nature, most double bonds are trans
  2. Hydrogenation converts trans-fatty acids to cis-fatty acids
  3. The conversion of cis-fatty acids to trans-fatty acids is inhibited by the presence of antioxidants
  4. In the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats


Questions for Section 5.2 The Chemists View of Phospholipids and Sterols


b      140(K)                   52.  Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?

  1. Resistant to digestion
  2. Soluble in both water and fat
  3. Highly susceptible to oxidation
  4. Found naturally only in animal foods


d      140(K)                   53.  The composition of lecithin could include all of the following except

  1. choline.
  2. phosphate.
  3. fatty acids.

d              magnesium.


d      140(K)                   54.  What type of compound is lecithin?

  1. Bile salt
  2. Glycolipid
  3. Lipoprotein
  4. Phospholipid


d      140(A)                   55.  What is the usual fate of dietary lecithin?

  1. Unabsorbed and passes out in the feces
  2. Absorbed intact and incorporated into tissues
  3. Absorbed intact and broken down by the liver
  4. Hydrolyzed by the intestinal enzyme lecithinase


a      140(K)                   56.  Which of the following is a feature of choline?

  1. It is a part of lecithin
  2. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
  3. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
  4. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids


a      140(K)                   57.  A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they

  1. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
  2. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
  3. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
  4. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.


d      140(K)                   58.  Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?

  1. Widespread in foods
  2. Found in cell membranes
  3. Manufactured by the body
  4. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption


d      140(A)                   59.  How much energy is contributed by one gram of lecithin in a dietary supplement?

  1. 0 kcal
  2. 4 kcal
  3. 7 kcal
  4. 9 kcal


c      140(A)                   60.  What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?

  1. 0 kcal
  2. 2 kcal
  3. 45 kcal
  4. 200 kcal


d      140-141(A)           61.  Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?

  1. Both are sterols
  2. Both are phospholipids
  3. Both are essential nutrients
  4. Both are synthesized in the body


c      140;143(A)           62.  Each of the following may act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract except

  1. lecithin.
  2.              bile acids.
  3. pancreatic lipase.
  4. bile phospholipids.


c      141(K)                   63.  What is the major sterol in the diet?

  1. Palm oil
  2. Lecithin
  3. Cholesterol
  4. Arachidonic acid


c      141(K)                   64.   About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?

  1. None
  2. A few mg
  3. Less than 300 mg
  4. At least 800 mg


c      141(A)                   65.  Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?

  1. Corn
  2. Olives
  3. Roasted turkey
  4. Roasted peanuts


c      141(A)                   66.  What is the major source of good cholesterol?

  1. Fatty fish
  2. Fatty meat
  3. Endogenous synthesis
  4. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids


b      141(K)                   67.  A common feature of the plant sterols is they

  1. raise LDL and lower HDL.
  2. inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.
  3. inhibit absorption of bad cholesterol.
  4. enhance absorption of omega-3 fatty acids.


a      141(A)                   68.  Which of the following cannot be found in plants?

  1. Cholesterol
  2. Triglycerides
  3. Essential fatty acids
  4. Nonessential fatty acids


a      141(K)                   69.  Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?

  1. Synthesized by the body
  2. No relation to heart disease
  3. Recommended intake is zero
  4. No function in the human body


a      141(K)                   70.  Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?

  1. Only about 10% of the bodys total cholesterol is extracellular
  2. Bad cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
  3. Good cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
  4. Exogenous cholesterol absorption is reduced by lecithin supplements


b      141(K)                   71.  Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?

  1. It is absorbed directly into the blood
  2. It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
  3. It is not formed in the body when provided by the diet
  4. It is found in abundance in tropical fats such as palm oil


a      141(K)                   72.  Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?

  1. Its Daily Value is 300 mg
  2. Its structure is similar to that of lecithin
  3. Most of the bodys cholesterol is found circulating in the bloodstream
  4. The amount consumed in the diet usually exceeds the amount synthesized in the body


b      141(K)                   73.  All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except

  1.              bile.
  2. glucose.
  3. vitamin D.
  4. sex hormones.


c      141-142(A)           74.  Which of the following is not a destination for cholesterol?

  1. Synthesized into bile
  2. Excreted in the feces
  3. Accumulates on walls of veins
  4. Accumulates on walls of arteries


Questions for Section 5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids


a      142(K)                   75.  What term may be used to describe a substance that is hydrophobic?

  1. Lipophilic
  2. Lipophobic
  3. Glycerophilic
  4. Glycerophobic


c      143(K)                   76.  Which of the following is characteristic of the lipase enzymes?

  1. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
  2. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
  3. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
  4. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids


c      143(K)                   77.  Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?

  1. Stored in the gallbladder
  2. Synthesized from cholesterol
  3. Manufactured by the gallbladder
  4. Released into the small intestine whenever fat is present


c      143(K)                   78.  In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as

  1. enzymes.
  2. hormones.
  3. detergents.
  4. chylomicrons.


c      143-144(K)           79.  What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

  1. Mouth
  2. Stomach
  3. Small intestine
  4. Large intestine


b      144(K)                   80.  Chylomicrons are synthesized within the

  1. liver.
  2. intestinal cells.
  3. lymphatic system.
  4. storage compartment of plant seeds.


d      144(A)                   81.  How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?

  1. It denatures cholesterol in the stomach
  2. It hydrolyzes cholesterol in the intestinal tract
  3. It traps cholesterol in the intestinal tract and thus inhibits its absorption
  4. It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover


a      144(K)                   82.  Bile is known to assist in the absorption of

  1. fat only.
  2. all nutrients.
  3. carbohydrate and fat only.
  4. carbohydrate, fat, and protein only.


c      144(K)                   83.  What is the storage site of bile?

  1. Liver
  2. Pancreas
  3. Gallbladder
  4. Intestinal epithelial cells


a      144(K)                   84.  Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as

  1. micelles.
  2. chylomicrons.
  3. monolipomicrons.
  4. endogenous bilayer aggregates.


b      144(A)                   85.  Which of the following substances cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?

  1. Glycerol
  2. Long-chain fatty acids
  3. Short-chain fatty acids
  4. Medium-chain fatty acids


b      144(K)                   86.  After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

  1. micelles.
  2. chylomicrons.
  3.              low-density lipoproteins.
  4. very-low-density lipoproteins.


d      144(A)                   87.  Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?

  1. Oatmeal is a low-fat food and inhibits the bodys synthesis of cholesterol
  2. Oatmeal is high in complex fibers that inhibit cholesterol-synthesizing enzymes
  3. Oatmeal consumed on a regular basis suppresses the craving for high-cholesterol foods
  4. Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement


b      144(K)                   88.  Which of the following is an example of enterohepatic circulation?

  1. Chylomicron conversion to LDLs and HDLs
  2. Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
  3. Hormonal control of pancreatic digestive secretions
  4. Liver secretion of eicosanoids that promote absorption of eicosanoid precursors


a      145-146(K)           89.  What lipoprotein is largest in size?

  1. Chylomicron
  2. High-density lipoprotein
  3. Low-density lipoprotein
  4. Very-low-density lipoprotein


a      146(A)                   90.  In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains

  1. less lipid.
  2. less protein.
  3. more cholesterol.
  4. more carbohydrate.


b      146(K)                   91.  Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?

  1. Chylomicron
  2. Low-density lipoprotein
  3. High-density lipoprotein
  4. Very-low-density lipoprotein


b      147(A)                   92.  Among the following, which would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?

  1. Control body weight
  2. Eat more insoluble fiber
  3. Consume less saturated fat
  4. Exercise intensely and frequently


a      147(K)                   93.  What tissue contains special receptors for removing low-density lipoproteins from the circulation?

  1. Liver
  2. Adipose
  3. Arterial walls
  4. Skeletal muscle


c      147(K)                   94.  A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of

  1. free fatty acids.
  2. high-density lipoproteins.
  3. low-density lipoproteins.
  4. very low-density lipoproteins.


c      147(K)                   95.  What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?

  1. Chylomicron
  2. Low-density lipoprotein
  3. High-density lipoprotein
  4. Very-low density lipoprotein


c      147(K)                   96.  A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of

  1. triglycerides.
  2. free fatty acids.
  3. high-density lipoproteins.
  4. very-low-density lipoproteins.


Questions for Section 5.4 Lipids in the Body


c      148(K)                   97.  An important function of fat in the body is to

  1. build muscle tissue.
  2. regulate blood glucose levels.
  3. protect vital organs against shock.
  4. provide precursors for glucose synthesis.


d      148-149(K)           98.  Which of the following lipids is an essential nutrient?

  1. Lecithin
  2.              Cholesterol
  3. Stearic acid
  4. Linoleic acid


b      149(K)                   99.  Which of the following is used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid?

  1. Oleic acid
  2. Linoleic acid
  3. Palmitic acid
  4. Linolenic acid


d      149(K)                 100.  Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?

  1. Acetic acid
  2. Palmitic acid
  3. Linoleic acid
  4. Docosahexaenoic acid


b      149(K)                 101.  What are the building blocks in the bodys synthesis and elongation of fatty acids?

  1. 1-carbon fragments
  2. 2-carbon fragments
  3. 4-carbon fragments
  4. 7-carbon fragments


c      149(K)                 102.  What is the immediate precursor for the eicosanoids?

  1. Glucose
  2. Hormones
  3. Fatty acids
  4. Cholesterol


b      149(A)                 103   Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of

  1. arachidonic acid.
  2. certain eicosanoids.
  3. certain saturated fatty acids.
  4. certain unsaturated fatty acids.


d      149(A)                 104.  Which of the following foods provide(s) essential fatty acids?

  1. Fish only
  2. Beef only
  3. Plants only
  4. Fish, beef, and plants


d      149(K)                 105.  What are the precursors for synthesis of the eicosanoids?

  1. Steroids
  2. Short-chain fatty acids
  3. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids
  4. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids


c      150(K)                 106.  Which of the following is a feature of adipose cell lipoprotein lipase?

  1. The enzymes activity is reduced by high-fat diets
  2. The enzymes activity is increased by signals from epinephrine and glucagon
  3. The enzyme works to promote uptake of circulating triglycerides into storage triglycerides
  4. The enzyme is involved in release of free fatty acids from stored triglyceride into the bloodstream


d      150(K)                 107.  What is the function of lipoprotein lipase?

  1. Synthesizes lipoproteins in liver cells
  2. Synthesizes triglycerides in adipose cells
  3. Assembles lipid particles into chylomicrons
  4. Hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells


d      150(K)                 108.  Which of the following is a feature of fat metabolism?

  1. Cholesterol is stored primarily on the surface of veins
  2. High-density lipoproteins represent the major transport vehicle for delivering fat to the adipose cells
  3. Fat storage is highly efficient due to the rapid uptake of the intact triglyceride molecule by adipose cells
  4. Triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol prior to uptake by the adipose cells


a      150(A)                 109.  What nutrient is used to form ketones?

  1. Fat
  2. Protein
  3. Simple carbohydrates
  4. Complex carbohydrates


c      150(K)                 110.  What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?

  1. Hydrolyzes hormones involved in fat breakdown
  2. Synthesizes new adipose cells from simple fatty acids
  3. Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
  4. Synthesizes long-chain fatty acids to provide precursors for other cells


d      150(K)                 111.  Approximately what percentage of the bodys energy needs at rest is supplied by fat?

  1. 5
  2. 25
  3. 40
  4. 60


Questions for Section 5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids


c      151(K)                 112.  What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?

  1. 50
  2. 101
  3. 199
  4. 299


b      151(A)                 113.  What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?

  1. 99
  2. 149
  3. 199
  4. 299


b      151(K)                 114.  Among the following dietary fatty acids, which has been found to raise blood cholesterol level by the least amount?

  1. Lauric
  2. Stearic
  3. Myristic
  4. Palmitic


a      151(K)                 115.  The results of blood tests that reveal a persons total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a

  1. lipid profile.
  2. circulating fat count.
  3. personal lipids count.
  4. degenerative disease assessment.


d      151(K)                 116.  Each of the following is known to be linked to excessive intake of fats except

  1. cancer.
  2. obesity.
  3. heart disease.
  4. lactose intolerance.


c      151-152(A)         117.  Important factors in the selection of a margarine product include all of the following except

  1. it should be trans fat free.
  2. it should be soft instead of hard.
  3. it should contain primarily omega-3 fatty acids.
  4. it should list liquid vegetable oil as the first ingredient.


b      151-152(A)         118.  Your roommate Bob has just come back from the doctor where he was subjected to a blood lipid profile analysis. The doctor provided him with dietary changes because the cholesterol results put him at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Which of the following results is consistent with the diagnosis?

  1. Low LDL and high HDL
  2. Low HDL and high LDL
  3. Low DLD and high DHD
  4. Low LDH and low HDL


b      151-152(A)         119.  Which of the following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?

  1. Butter
  2. Canola oil
  3. Coconut oil
  4. Stick margarine


c      152(K)                 120.  Which of the following is a characteristic of egg nutrition?

  1. Eggs are high in both cholesterol and saturated fat
  2. High omega-3 fat eggs are now available by prescription only
  3. Although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat
  4. Even in people with a healthy lipid profile, consumption of one egg/day is detrimental


b      152(A)                 121.  Your roommate Jeff wishes to switch from using corn oil to using one that is a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be recommended?

  1. Corn oil
  2. Canola oil
  3. Safflower oil
  4. Liquefied lard


a      152(K)                 122.  Which of the following is a feature of fat intake and health?

  1. Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
  2. High intakes of fish oil lower bleeding time and improve diabetes and wound healing
  3. High intakes of short- and medium-chain fatty acids raise high-density lipoprotein levels
  4. Trans-fatty acids contained in polyunsaturated fats but not in monounsaturated fats alter blood cholesterol levels


d      152(K)                 123.  Which of the following is a characteristic of the blood cholesterol level?

  1. The desirable upper range is 250 mg per 100 mL
  2. It can be reduced by increasing dietary intake of insoluble fiber
  3. It can be lowered by increasing dietary intake of trans-fat
  4. It can be lowered more effectively by reducing dietary intake of saturated fat than of cholesterol


c      152(K)                 124.  What is the approximate daily trans-fatty acid intake in the United States?

  1. 500 mg
  2. 2 g
  3. 6 g
  4. 12 g


b      152(A)                 125.  Which of the following contains the least cholesterol per serving?

  1. Steamed fish
  2. Steamed corn
  3. Broiled chicken
  4. Very lean grilled steak


c      152(K)                 126.  Major sources of cholesterol include all of the following except

  1. Meat
  2. Shrimp
  3. Avocados
  4. Hamburger


d      152(K)                 127.  When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?

  1. Oleic acid
  2. Stearic acid
  3. Arachidonic acid
  4. Eicosapentaenoic acid


b      152(K)                 128.  Approximately how many milligrams of cholesterol are found in an egg?

  1. 100
  2. 200
  3. 300
  4. 450


a      152(K)                 129.  Which of the following is a characteristic of eggs in nutrition?

  1. Consumption of one egg per day by most people is not considered detrimental
  2.      The omega-3 fatty acid content of eggs is increased by feeding hens more coconut oil
  3. The amount of cholesterol in one egg is about the same as in one serving of ice cream
  4. The cholesterol is found in approximately equal amounts in the yolk and the white (albumin)


b      152(K)                 130.  Which of the following vegetable oils is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids?

  1. Corn
  2. Canola
  3. Sesame
  4. Coconut


a      152(K)                 131.  All of the following statements are characteristics of lipid intake of U.S. adults except

  1. trans-fatty acid averages about 1 g per day.
  2. energy from fat provides about 34% of total energy intake.
  3. cholesterol intake averages just under 300 mg per day for men.
  4. saturated fat intake represents about onethird of total fat intake.


b      152(K)                 132.  Which of the following is a feature of butter and margarine?

  1. Butter is a major source of trans fatty acids
  2. Butter contains more saturated fat and cholesterol than margarine does
  3. Margarine contains approximately half as much cholesterol as butter does
  4. Stick margarine contains half as much trans-fatty acids as soft margarine does


b      152-153(A)         133.  Ronnie eats a fairly balanced diet, but wants to include a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be your recommendation?

  1. Eggs
  2. Salmon
  3. Low-fat cheeses
  4. Lean chicken breast


a      152;154(K)         134.  What percentage of the DV for saturated fats in the U.S. diet is provided by one egg?

  1. 5
  2. 20
  3. 45
  4. 75


a      152-153(K)         135.  Which of the following is a feature of the lipid content of foods?

  1. Omega-3 fats are found in fish
  2. Cholesterol is found in peanuts
  3. Essential fatty acids are found in olestra
  4. Low-density lipoproteins are found in coconut oil


c      153(A)                 136.  A meal contains the following amounts of long-chain fatty acids: 3 g EPA, 1 g DHA, 5 g stearic acid, 4 g linolenic acid, 10 g linoleic acid, and 3 g arachidonic acid. What is the approximate ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids?

  1.              0.4 : 1.0
  2. 1.0 : 1.0
  3. 1.6 : 1.0
  4. 2.4 : 1.0


b      153(A)                 137.  A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume

  1. eggs and milk.
  2. canola oil and walnuts.
  3. safflower oil margarine.
  4. corn oil and sunflower oil.


c      153(A)                 138.  A person who regularly consumes fish such as shark, king mackerel, and swordfish is at risk for ingesting potentially toxic amounts of

  1. EPA.
  2. DHA.
  3. mercury.
  4. cadmium.


b      153(K)                 139.  Which of the following is a characteristic of fish consumption?

  1. Fish is a good source of iron
  2. Fatty fish contain the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
  3. The minimum intake to gain any benefit is 3 servings per week
  4. Even fried fish from fast-food restaurants provide a favorable balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fats


d      153(K)                 140.  High intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to increase the risk for all of the following except

  1. poor wound healing.
  2. higher LDL cholesterol.
  3. suppressed immune function.
  4. inflammation of the pancreas.


a      153(A)                 141.  Which of the following is a good source of eicosapentaenoic acid?

  1. Tuna
  2. Butter
  3. Salad oil
  4. Shortening


d      153(A)                 142.  To achieve a dietary balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, what is the recommended intake (g) of omega-3 fats for a person who consumes 30 g of omega-6 fats?

  1. 5
  2. 10
  3. 20
  4. There is no specific recommendation based on omega-6 intake


b      153(A)                 143.  The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed

  1. eicosanoids.
  2. linolenic acid.
  3. docosahexaenoic acid.
  4. eicosapentaenoic acid.


d      153(K)                 144.  All of the following foods contain liberal amounts of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid except

  1. tuna.
  2. salmon.
  3. human milk.
  4. soybean oil.


a      153(A)                 145.  Which of the following is a likely explanation for the imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 lipids in the U.S. diet?

  1. High intakes of meat and low intakes of fish
  2. Low intakes of vegetable oils and high intakes of fish
  3. High intakes of beef fat and low intakes of vegetable oils
  4. Low intakes of beef fat and high intakes of vegetable oils


a      154(K)                 146.  Which of the following describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?

  1. Fat from milk does not increase risk for cancer
  2. Dietary fat initiates rather than promotes cancer formation
  3. High intakes of omega-3 fatty acids promote cancer development in animals
  4. The evidence linking fat intake with cancer is stronger than that linking it with heart disease


d      154(A)                 147.  According to the DRI, what is the upper limit of fat (g) that may be consumed by a healthy person requiring 3000 kcalories per day?

  1. 33
  2. 66
  3. 83
  4. 117


c      154(K)                 148.  According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?

  1. 10
  2. 20
  3. 35
  4. 50


d      154(A)                 149.  Jenny is trying to lose weight by decreasing the fat in her diet. At the grocery store she is overwhelmed by all the claims on the food product labels, and finally chooses an expensive fat-free frozen dessert. Which of the following would be an appropriate analysis of Jennys decision?

  1. Most frozen desserts are fat-free and she should not pay extra for one with a fat-free claim
  2. Since fats contribute 9 kcalories per gram, she can eat twice as many kcalories from this dessert and still lose weight
  3. As long as she makes sure to eat the dessert before 9 p.m. it should not contribute much to her daily kcaloric intake
  4. Fat-free products typically have so much added sugar that the kcalorie count can be as high as in the regular-fat product


c      154(K)                 150.  For most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intake?

  1. 5
  2. 15
  3. 20
  4. 35


b      154(K)                 151.  As a percentage of daily energy intake, what is the recommended range for the essential fatty acids?

  1. 2.5-5.5
  2. 5.6-11.2
  3. 12-19
  4. 20-35


c      154(K)                 152.  According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?

  1. 50 mg
  2. 150 mg
  3. 300 mg
  4. 1,000 mg


c      154(A)                 153.  Approximately how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800-kcalorie meal that provides 50% of the energy from carbohydrate, 20% from protein, and the remainder from fat?

  1. 15
  2. 22
  3. 27
  4. 35


b      154(A)                 154.  A meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10 g of saturated fats, 14 g of monounsaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. What is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?

  1. 22
  2. 33
  3. 44
  4. 55


c      154(K)                 155.  Surveys show that U.S. adults average intake of fat as a percentage of total energy intake is

  1. 20.
  2. 27.
  3. 34.
  4. 55.


b      155(K)                 156.  The average daily cholesterol intake (mg) of U.S. women is about

  1. 110.
  2. 235.
  3. 360.
  4. 925.


a      155(A)                 157.  Which of the following is a feature of fat in the diet of athletes?

  1. A minimum of 20% fat energy in the diet is needed
  2. Energy derived from fat has very little bearing on performance
  3. Optimal performance is found with a high-carbohydrate, 15% total fat kcalories, di

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