Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney Sharon Rady Rolfes test bank

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Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney Sharon Rady Rolfes test bank

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Chapter 1 An Overview of Nutrition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which characteristic is most typical of a chronic disease?
a. It has a rapid onset.
b. It rarely has noticeable symptoms.
c. It produces sharp pains
d. It progresses gradually.
e. It disrupts daily life, but is unlikely to be life-threatening.

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: Introduction
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

2. What is the chief reason most people choose the foods they eat?
a. cost
b. taste
c. convenience
d. nutritional value
e. habit

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

3. A child develops a strong dislike of noodle soup after she consumes a bowl while sick with the flu. Her reaction is an example of a food-related ____.
a. habit
b. social interaction
c. emotional turmoil
d. negative association
e. comfort eating

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

4. A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day is most likely making a food choice based on ____.
a. habit
b. availability
c. body image
d. environmental concerns
e. cultural values

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

5. Which individual is making a food choice based on negative association?
a. A tourist from China who rejects a hamburger due to unfamiliarity
b. A child who spits out his mashed potatoes because they taste too salty
c. A teenager who grudgingly accepts an offer for an ice cream cone to avoid offending a close friend
d. An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he considers it a childs food
e. An adult who refuses to eat foods that are not locally-sourced and organic

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

6. The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely related to his ____.
a. values
b. body image
c. ethnic heritage
d. functional association
e. comfort

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

7. Farah is viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness. Her food choice will most likely be based on ____.
a. regional cuisines
b. preferences
c. emotional comfort
d. positive association
e. functional value

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

8. What term describes foods that contain nonnutrient substances whose known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the foods nutrients?
a. fortified foods
b. enriched foods
c. functional foods
d. health-enhancing foods
e. bioavailable foods

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

9. Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that may demonstrate biological activity in the body are commonly known as
a. bioenhancements
b. inorganic fibers
c. phytochemicals
d. phytoactive chemicals
e. nonnutritive additives

ANS: C DIF: Blooms Remember REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

10. By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
a. fats
b. water
c. proteins
d. carbohydrates
e. vitamins and minerals

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

11. What type of nutrient is needed by the body and must be supplied by foods?
a. nutraceutical.
b. metabolic nutrient
c. organic nutrient
d. essential nutrient
e. phytonutrient.

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

12. Which nutrient is an example of a macronutrient?
a. proteins
b. minerals
c. water-soluble vitamins
d. fat-soluble vitamins
e. water

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

13. Which nutrient is classified as a micronutrient?
a. minerals
b. proteins
c. alcohols
d. carbohydrates
e. fats

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

14. Which nutrient is an organic compound?
a. salt
b. water
c. calcium
d. vitamin C
e. iron

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

15. An essential nutrient is one that ____.
a. must be made in large quantities by the body
b. can only by synthesized by the body
c. cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
d. is used to synthesize other compounds in the body
e. must be both consumed and synthesized to be complete

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

16. The term organic, as related to compounds, would be best defined as ____.
a. products sold at health food stores
b. products grown without use of pesticides
c. foods having superior nutrient qualities
d. substances with carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
e. substances that contain water

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

17. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (liter) of water 1C?
a. 10 calories
b. 100 calories
c. 1 kilocalorie
d. 10 kilocalories
e. 100 kilocalories

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

18. Gram for gram, which class of nutrient provides the most energy?
a. fats
b. alcohols
c. proteins
d. carbohydrates
e. vitamins and minerals

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

19. Food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in ____.
a. kilojoules
b. kilograms
c. kilometers
d. kilonewtons
e. kiloliters

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

20. Units of energy used by most scientists and nutritionists, aside from those in the United States, are expressed in ____.
a. newtons
b. liters
c. kilojoules
d. kilocalories
e. grams

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

21. Approximately how many milliliters are contained in a half-cup of milk?
a. 50
b. 85
c. 120
d. 170
e. 200

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

22. A normal half-cup vegetable portion weighs approximately how many grams?
a. 5
b. 50
c. 100
d. 150
e. 200

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

23. A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories, which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
a. 8.5%
b. 15.0%
c. 19.0%
d. 25.5%
e. 32.0%

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

24. Which nutrient source will yields more than 4 kcalories per gram?
a. plant fats
b. plant proteins
c. animal proteins
d. plant carbohydrates
e. animal carbohydrates

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

25. What results from the metabolism of energy nutrients?
a. Energy is released.
b. Body fat increases.
c. Energy is destroyed.
d. Body water decreases.
e. Body mass increases.

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

26. Which statement best describes the composition of most foods?
a. Most contain only one of the three energy nutrients, although a few contain all of them.
b. They contain equal amounts of the three energy nutrients.
c. They contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate.
d. They contain only two of the three energy nutrients, and those two are contained in equal amounts.
e. They contain only two of the three energy nutrients, and one is present in far greater amounts than the other.

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

27. How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
a. 5
b. 8
c. 10
d. 13
e. 17

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

28. Which statement is true of minerals in their role as nutrients?
a. They are organic.
b. They yield 4 kcalories per gram.
c. Some become dissolved in body fluids.
d. Some may be destroyed during cooking.
e. They are more fragile than vitamins.

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Analyze REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

29. How many minerals are known to be essential for human nutrition?
a. 8
b. 12
c. 16
d. 20
e. 24

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

30. Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and tells you that she feels a lot better. Her statement to you is best described as a(n) ____.
a. anecdote
b. theory.
c. interpretation
d. conclusion.
e. hypothesis

ANS: A DIF: Apply REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

31. What is the study of how a persons genes interact with nutrients?
a. genetic counseling
b. nutritional genomics
c. genetic metabolomics
d. nutritional genetics
e. biogenetic nutrition

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

32. How does a double-blind experiment work?
a. Both subject groups take turns getting each treatment.
b. Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
c. Neither group of subjects knows whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers do know.
d. Both subject groups know whether they are in the control or experimental group, but the researchers do not know.
e. Neither the subjects nor the persons having contact with the subjects know the true purpose of the experiment.

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

33. In the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called a ____.
a. theory
b. prediction
c. hypothesis
d. correlation
e. deduction

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

34. What is one major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
a. The costs are typically prohibitive.
b. Findings are difficult to replicate.
c. Results from animal testing cannot be applied to human beings.
d. Experimental variables cannot be easily controlled.
e. Causality cannot be inferred.

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Analyze REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

35. What is one benefit of using controls in an experiment?
a. The size of the groups can be very large.
b. The subjects do not know anything about the experiment.
c. The subjects who are treated are balanced against the placebos.
d. The subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being tested.
e. The costs associated with the study are usually much lower.

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

36. What is one benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?
a. Chance variation is less likely to affect the results.
b. The possibility of a placebo effect is eliminated.
c. The experiment will be double-blind.
d. The control group will be similar to the experimental group.
e. Experimenter bias is less likely to have an effect.

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

37. You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have taken to conduct your experiment correctly?
a. Giving all the boys the vitamin C and the girls the placebo, and telling them what they were getting
b. Distributing the bottles randomly, randomizing the subjects, and telling them what they were getting
c. Telling the subjects which group they were in, but preventing yourself from knowing the contents of the pill bottles
d. Preventing yourself from knowing what is in the pill bottles, and distributing the bottles randomly to the subjects
e. Allowing the subjects to decide whether they take Vitamin C or the placebo, and then giving them the opposite of what they requested

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

38. An increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a ____.
a. variable effect
b. positive correlation
c. negative correlation
d. randomization effect
e. placebo effect

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

39. Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field in a process known as ____.
a. peer review
b. cohort review
c. research intervention
d. double-blind examination
e. peer replication

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

40. What is the smallest amount of a nutrient that, when consumed over a prolonged period, maintains a specific function?
a. nutrient allowance
b. nutrient requirement
c. nutrient tolerable limit
d. nutrient adequate intake
e. nutrient recommendation

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

41. A group of people consumes an amount of protein equal to the estimated average requirement for their population group. What percentage of people will receive insufficient amounts?
a. 10
b. 25
c. 33
d. 40
e. 50

ANS: E DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

42. A health magazine contacts you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. How should you reply?
a. The Dietary Reference Intakes, because they are a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the United States and Canada
b. The Tolerable Upper Intake levels, because they are the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people
c. The Estimated Average Requirements, because they reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific function in half of the healthy people of a population
d. The Recommended Dietary Allowances, because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
e. The Estimated Energy Requirement, because it represents what will maintain energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

43. Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to ____.
a. measure nutrient balance of population groups
b. assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals
c. treat persons with diet-related illnesses
d. calculate exact food requirements for most individuals
e. recommend amounts of nutrients when there is insufficient evidence to determine the EAR

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

44. Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the ____.
a. Lower Tolerable Limit
b. Upper Tolerable Limit
c. Subclinical Deficiency Value
d. Estimated Average Requirement
e. Adequate Intake

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

45. The amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of about 98% of a population is known as the
a. Adequate Intake.
b. Daily Recommended Value.
c. Tolerable Upper Intake Level.
d. Recommended Dietary Allowance.
e. Necessary and Sufficient Intake

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

46. The RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally ____.
a. more than twice as high as anyone needs
b. the minimum amounts that average people need
c. designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people
d. designed to prevent deficiency diseases in half the population
e. reflective of current dietary preferences

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

47. What is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
a. Setting nutrient goals for individuals
b. Identifying toxic intakes of nutrients
c. Restoring health of malnourished individuals
d. Developing nutrition programs for schoolchildren
e. Improving population-level health

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

48. Which statement is true of nutrient intakes?
a. Higher intakes are always safer than lower intakes.
b. Intakes below the EAR decrease risk of deficiency.
c. A typical intake falling between the RDA and the EAR is almost always adequate.
d. Intakes above the RDA are required to be safe.
e. Intakes above the UL put an individual at risk of toxicity.

ANS: E DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

49. What does the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of a nutrient represent?
a. The maximum amount allowed for fortifying a food
b. A number calculated by taking twice the RDA or three times the AI
c. The maximum allowable amount available in supplement form
d. The maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people
e. The amount that can be absorbed from a typical diet.

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

50. What set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance?
a. Estimated Energy Requirement
b. Adequate Average Requirement
c. Recommended Dietary Allowance
d. Acceptable Energy Distribution Range
e. Tolerable Upper Energy Limit

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

51. The percentages of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are known as the ____.
a. Estimated Energy Requirements
b. Tolerable Range of Kilocalorie Intakes
c. Estimated Energy Nutrient Recommendations
d. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
e. Healthy People Recommendations

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

52. What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
a. 5-10%
b. 15-25%
c. 30-40%
d. 45-65%
e. 70-80%

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

53. What is the AMDR for protein?
a. 10-35%
b. 40-45%
c. 50-60%
d. 65-75%
e. 80-80%

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

54. What is the AMDR for fat?
a. 10-30%
b. 20-35%
c. 40-50%
d. 55-65%
e. 70-80%

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

55. The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to ____.
a. treat people with diet-related disorders
b. assess adequacy of all required nutrients
c. plan and evaluate diets for healthy people
d. assess adequacy of only vitamins and minerals
e. diagnose diet-related disorders

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Apply REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

56. Which method is used to detect nutrient deficiencies?
a. Nutrition assessment
b. Nutrient stages identification
c. Overt symptoms identification
d. Outward manifestations assessment
e. Nutritional diagnostic programs

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

57. As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which parameters would be most useful for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
a. Diet recall, food likes and dislikes, allergies, and favorite family recipes
b. Anthropometric data, physical examinations, food likes and dislikes, and family tree
c. Diet records that include what the patient usually eats will provide sufficient information
d. Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, and laboratory tests
e. Diet records that take the average of what the patient reports and what an objective observer reports

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Evaluate REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

58. Which measure is anthropometric?
a. body weight
b. blood pressure
c. blood iron level
d. food intake information
e. serum electrolytes

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

59. Which sequence of stages is most typical in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?
a. Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs
b. Abnormal functions within the body, declining nutrient stores, and overt signs
c. Abnormal functions within the body, overt signs, and declining nutrient stores
d. Declining nutrient stores, overt signs, and abnormal functions within the body
e. Overt signs, abnormal functions, and declining nutrient stores

ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

60. What type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient?
a. primary
b. clinical
c. secondary
d. subclinical
e. chronic

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

61. A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that ____.
a. shows overt signs
b. is in the early stages
c. shows resistance to treatment
d. is similar to a secondary deficiency
e. is of acute onset

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

62. The overall objective of the Healthy People program is to ____.
a. establish the DRI
b. identify national trends in food consumption
c. identify leading causes of death in the United States
d. set goals for the nations health over the next 10 years
e. decrease health care costs

ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

63. Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
a. one
b. four
c. six
d. eight
e. nine

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.6 Diet and Health
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.6 Identify several risk factors and explain their relationships to chronic diseases.

64. Which statement explains the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
a. All people with the risk factor will develop the disease.
b. The absence of a risk factor guarantees freedom from the disease.
c. The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease.
d. The presence of a factor such as heredity can be modified to lower the risk of degenerative diseases.
e. Risk factors tend to be short-lived, so their presence does not predict long-term risk of disease.

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.6 Diet and Health
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.6 Identify several risk factors and explain their relationships to chronic diseases.

65. What single behavior contributes to the most deaths in the United States?
a. poor diet
b. tobacco use
c. alcohol intake
d. risky sexual activity
e. unsafe driving

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.6 Diet and Health
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.6 Identify several risk factors and explain their relationships to chronic diseases.

66. Who would be the most appropriate person to consult for nutrition information?
a. chiropractor
b. medical doctor
c. registered dietitian
d. health food store manager
e. nutrition consultant

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Evaluate
REF: H-1 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-1 Recognize misinformation and describe how to identify reliable nutrition information.

67. Which statement best describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advice to the public?
a. The title dietitian can be used by anyone in all states.
b. The title nutritionist can be used by anyone in all states.
c. A license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states.
d. A license to practice as a nutritionist is mandatory in all states but very few license dieticians.
e. Nutrition consultants are subject to more stringent licensure than are dietitians.

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Evaluate
REF: H-1 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-1 Recognize misinformation and describe how to identify reliable nutrition information.

68. Which individuals is likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training and to have gotten his or her agree from an alternative educational program?
a. dietetic technician
b. registered dietician
c. certified nutritionist
d. dietetic technician, registered
e. public health nutritionist

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Evaluate
REF: H-1 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-1 Recognize misinformation and describe how to identify reliable nutrition information.

69. For which of the following titles, by definition, require the individual to be college educated and pass a national examination administered by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics?
a. medical doctor
b. registered dietician
c. certified nutritionist
d. certified nutrition therapist
e. registered nutritional consultant

ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Understand
REF: H-1 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-1 Recognize misinformation and describe how to identify reliable nutrition information.

70. A person who assists registered dietitians has the formal title of ____.
a. dietetic assistant
b. nutrition assistant
c. dietetic technician
d. nutrition technician
e. dietetic aide

ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember
REF: H-1 Nutrition Information and Misinformation
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-1 Recognize misinformation and describe how to identify reliable nutrition information.

COMPLETION

1. Risk factors for chronic disease tend to ____________________ and tend to ____________________.

ANS:
persist; cluster
cluster; persist

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.6 Diet and Health
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.6 Identify several risk factors and explain their relationships to chronic diseases.

2. Foods associated with a particular culture are called ____________________ foods.

ANS: ethnic

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

3. Foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions are called ____________________ foods.

ANS: functional

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

4. Nonnutrient compounds found in plants, some of which have biological activity in the body, are called ____________________.

ANS: phytochemicals

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

5. The normal range for ____________________ is 18 to 21% for young men and 23 to 26% for young women.

ANS: body fat composition

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

6. The three energy-yielding nutrients are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

ANS:
carbohydrate; fat; protein
carbohydrate; protein; fat

fat; protein; carbohydrate

fat; carbohydrate; protein

protein; carbohydrate; fat

protein; fat; carbohydrate

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

7. Although ____________________ provides energy, it is not considered a nutrient because it does not sustain life.

ANS: alcohol

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

MATCHING
Match the correct answer with the appropriate term.

a. 7 k. Placebo
b. 16 l. Inorganic
c. 20 m. Validity
d. 40 n. Hypothesis
e. 100 o. Healthy People
f. Fat p. National nutrition surveys
g. Water q. Anthropometrics
h. Energy r. Overt deficiency
i. Protein s. Physical examination
j. Organic t. Subclinical deficiency

1. Nutrient with the highest body concentration

2. Substance containing no carbon or not pertaining to living things

3. Number of indispensable nutrients for human beings

4. Most substances containing carbon-hydrogen bonds

5. Substance containing nitrogen

6. Energy (kcal) required to increase temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 C to 100 C

7. Nutrient with the highest energy density

8. Energy (kcal) yield of five grams of sugar

9. Energy (kcal) yield of one gram of alcohol

10. Number of indispensable minerals for human beings

11. An unproven statement

12. An inert medication

13. Possessing the quality of being evidence based

14. The recommended intake is set at the population mean

15. Gather information about dietary, nutritional, and health status

16. Program that sets goals to increase the quality and years of healthy life

17. Measurement of physical characteristics

18. Inspection of skin, tongue, eyes, hair, and fingernails

19. A nutrient deficiency showing outward signs

20. A nutrient deficiency in the early stages

1. ANS: G DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

2. ANS: L DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

3. ANS: D DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

4. ANS: J DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

5. ANS: I DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

6. ANS: E DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

7. ANS: F DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

8. ANS: C DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

9. ANS: A DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

10. ANS: B DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

11. ANS: N DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

12. ANS: K DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

13. ANS: M DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

14. ANS: H DIF: Blooms: Remember
REF: Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

15. ANS: P DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

16. ANS: O DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

17. ANS: Q DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

18. ANS: S DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

19. ANS: R DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

20. ANS: T DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

ESSAY

1. Describe six behavioral or social motives governing peoples food choices.

ANS:
Preferences: As you might expect, the number one reason most people choose certain foods is tastethey like the flavor. Two widely shared preferences are for the sweetness of sugar and the savoriness of salt. High-fat foods also appear to be a universally common preference.

Habit: People sometimes select foods out of habit. They eat cereal every morning, for example, simply because they have always eaten cereal for breakfast. Eating a familiar food and not having to make any decisions can be comforting.

Ethnic Heritage and Regional Cuisines: Among the strongest influences on food choices are ethnic heritage and regional cuisines. People tend to prefer the foods they grew up eating. Every country, and in fact every region of a country, has its own typical foods and ways of combining them into meals. These cuisines reflect a unique combination of local ingredients and cooking styles.

Social Interactions: Most people enjoy companionship while eating. Its fun to go out with friends for a meal or share a snack when watching a movie together. Meals are often social events, and sharing food is part of hospitality. Social customs invite people to accept food or drink offered by a host or shared by a groupregardless of hunger signals.

Availability, Convenience, and Economy: People often eat foods that are accessible, quick and easy to prepare, and within their financial means. Consumers who value convenience frequently eat out, bring home ready-to-eat meals, or have food delivered.

Positive and Negative Associations: People tend to like particular foods associated with happy occasionssuch as hot dogs at ball games or cake and ice cream at birthday parties. By the same token, people can develop aversions and dislike foods that they ate when they felt sick or that they were forced to eat in negative situations. Similarly, children learn to like and dislike certain foods when their parents use foods as rewards or punishments.

Emotions: Emotions guide food choices and eating behaviors. Some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset. Others may eat in response to a variety of emotional stimulifor example, to relieve boredom or depression or to calm anxiety.

Values: Food choices may reflect peoples religious beliefs, political views, or environmental concerns.

Body Weight and Image: Sometimes people select certain foods and supplements that they believe will improve their physical appearance and avoid those they believe might be detrimental. Such decisions can be beneficial when based on sound nutrition and fitness knowledge, but decisions based on fads or carried to extremes undermine good health.

Nutrition and Health Benefits: Many consumers make food choices they believe will improve their health.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

2. Explain how food choices are influenced by habits, emotions, physical appearance, and ethnic background.

ANS:
Habit: People sometimes select foods out of habit. They eat cereal every morning, for example, simply because they have always eaten cereal for breakfast. Eating a familiar food and not having to make any decisions can be comforting.

Ethnic Heritage and Regional Cuisines: Among the strongest influences on food choices are ethnic heritage and regional cuisines. People tend to prefer the foods they grew up eating. Every country, and in fact every region of a country, has its own typical foods and ways of combining them into meals. These cuisines reflect a unique combination of local ingredients and cooking styles.

Emotions: Emotions guide food choices and eating behaviors. Some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset. Others may eat in response to a variety of emotional stimulifor example, to relieve boredom or depression or to calm anxiety.

Body Weight and Image: Sometimes people select certain foods and supplements that they believe will improve their physical appearance and avoid those they believe might be detrimental. Such decisions can be beneficial when based on sound nutrition and fitness knowledge, but decisions based on fads or carried to extremes undermine good health.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

3. Discuss some of the consequences of eating in response to emotions.

ANS:
Emotions guide food choices and eating behaviors. Some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset. Others may eat in response to a variety of emotional stimulifor example, to relieve boredom or depression or to calm anxiety. A depressed person may choose to eat rather than to call a friend. A person who has returned home from an exciting evening out may unwind with a late-night snack. These people may find emotional comfort, in part, because foods can influence the brains chemistry and the minds response. Carbohydrates and alcohol, for example, tend to calm, whereas proteins and caffeine are more likely to stimulate. Eating in response to emotions and stress can easily lead to overeating and obesity, but it may be helpful at times. For example, sharing food at times of bereavement serves both the givers need to provide comfort and the receivers need to be cared for and to interact with others as well as to take nourishment.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.1 Food Choices
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.1 Describe how various factors influence personal food choices.

4. Define the term organic. How do the properties of vitamins relate to their organic nature? Contrast these points with the properties of inorganic compounds such as minerals.

ANS:
In chemistry, organic refers to substances or molecules containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds that are characteristic of living organisms. The four classes of nutrients that are organic are carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, and vitamins.

Inorganic compounds or substances are those not containing carbon or pertaining to living organisms. The two classes of nutrients that are inorganic are minerals and water.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.2 The Nutrients
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.2 Name the six major classes of nutrients and identify which are organic and which yield energy.

5. List the strengths and weaknesses of epidemiological studies and experimental studies.

ANS:
Epidemiological studies research the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population. Epidemiological studies include cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies.
Strengths:
Can narrow down the list of possible causes
Can raise questions to pursue through other research
Weaknesses:
Cannot control variables that may influence the development or the prevention of a disease
Cannot prove cause and effect

Experimental studies test cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Experimental studies include laboratory-based studieson animals or in test tubes (in vitro)and human intervention (or clinical) trials.
Strengths:
Can control conditions (for the most part)
Can determine effects of a variable
Can apply some findings on human beings to some groups of human beings
Weaknesses:
Cannot apply results from test tubes or animals to human beings
Cannot generalize findings on human beings to all human beings
Cannot use certain treatments for clinical or ethical reasons

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

6. Explain the importance of the placebo and the double-blind technique in carrying out research studies.

ANS:
Placebos: If people who take vitamin C for colds believe it will cure them, their chances of recovery may improve. Taking pills believed to be beneficial may shorten the duration and lessen the severity of illness regardless of whether the pills contain active ingredients. This phenomenon, the result of expectations, is known as the placebo effect. In experiments designed to determine vitamin Cs effect on colds, this mind-body effect must be rigorously controlled. Severity of symptoms is often a subjective measure, and people who believe they are receiving treatment may report less severe symptoms. One way experimenters control for the placebo effect is to give pills to all participants. Those in the experimental group, for example, receive pills containing vitamin C, and those in the control group receive a placebopills of similar appearance and taste containing an inactive ingredient. This way, the expectations of both groups will be equal. It is not necessary to convince all subjects that they are receiving vitamin C, but the extent of belief or unbelief must be the same in both groups. A study conducted under these conditions is called a blind experimentthat is, the subjects do not know (are blind to) whether they are members of the experimental group (receiving treatment) or the control group (receiving the placebo).

Double Blind: When both the subjects and the researchers do not know which subjects are in which group, the study is called a double-blind experiment. Being fallible human beings and having an emotional and sometimes financial investment in a successful outcome, researchers might record and interpret results with a bias in the expected direction. To prevent such bias, the pills are coded by a third party, who does not reveal to the experimenters which subjects are in which group until all results have been recorded.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.3 The Science of Nutrition
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.3 Explain the scientific method and how scientists use various types of research studies and methods to acquire nutrition information.

7. Describe the steps involved in establishing nutrient values that make up the Dietary Reference Intakes.

ANS:
The DRI Committee consists of highly qualified scientists who base their estimates of nutrient needs on careful examination and interpretation of scientific evidence. These recommendations apply to healthy people and may not be appropriate for people with diseases that increase or decrease nutrient needs.

Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): The committee reviews hundreds of research studies to determine the requirement for a nutrienthow much is needed in the diet. The committee selects a different criterion for each nutrient based on its roles in supporting various activities in the body and in reducing disease risks.

An examination of all the available data reveals that each persons body is unique and has its own set of requirements. Men differ from women, and needs change as people grow from infancy through old age. For this reason, the commit- tee clusters its recommendations for people into groups based on gender and age. Even so, the exact requirements for people of the same gender and age are likely to be different. Using this information, the committee determines an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for each nutrientthe average amount that appears sufficient for half of the population.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): Once a nutrient requirement is established, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for everybodythe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The EAR is probably closest to everyones need. If people consumed exactly the average requirement of a given nutrient each day, however, approximately half of the population would develop deficiencies of that nutrient. Recommendations are therefore set greater than the EAR to meet the needs of most healthy people.

Adequate Intakes (AI): For some nutrients, such as vitamin K, there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine an EAR (which is needed to set an RDA). In these cases, the committee establishes an Adequate Intake (AI) instead of an RDA. An AI reflects the average amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumes. Like the RDA, the AI may be used as nutrient goals for individuals.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): The recommended intakes for nutrients are generous, yet they may not be sufficient for every individual for every nutrient. Nevertheless, it is probably best not to exceed these recommendations by very much or very often. Individual tolerances for high doses of nutrients vary, and somewhere beyond the recommended intake is a point beyond which a nutrient is likely to become toxic. This point is known as the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

8. Compare and contrast the meaning of Adequate Intakes, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Estimated Average Requirements, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for nutrients.

ANS:
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): The committee reviews hundreds of research studies to determine the requirement for a nutrienthow much is needed in the diet. The committee selects a different criterion for each nutrient based on its roles in supporting various activities in the body and in reducing disease risks.
An examination of all the available data reveals that each persons body is unique and has its own set of requirements. Men differ from women, and needs change as people grow from infancy through old age. For this reason, the commit- tee clusters its recommendations for people into groups based on gender and age. Even so, the exact requirements for people of the same gender and age are likely to be different. Using this information, the committee determines an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for each nutrientthe average amount that appears sufficient for half of the population.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): Once a nutrient requirement is established, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for everybodythe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The EAR is probably closest to everyones need. If people consumed exactly the average requirement of a given nutrient each day, however, approximately half of the population would develop deficiencies of that nutrient. Recommendations are therefore set greater than the EAR to meet the needs of most healthy people.

Adequate Intakes (AI): For some nutrients, such as vitamin K, there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine an EAR (which is needed to set an RDA). In these cases, the committee establishes an Adequate Intake (AI) instead of an RDA. An AI reflects the average amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumes. Like the RDA, the AI may be used as nutrient goals for individuals.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): The recommended intakes for nutrients are generous, yet they may not be sufficient for every individual for every nutrient. Nevertheless, it is probably best not to exceed these recommendations by very much or very often. Individual tolerances for high doses of nutrients vary, and somewhere beyond the recommended intake is a point beyond which a nutrient is likely to become toxic. This point is known as the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

9. What approach is taken in setting recommendations for energy intakes and why? How does this approach differ from that taken for other nutrients?

ANS:
In contrast to the RDA and AI values for nutrients, the recommendation for energy is not generous. Excess energy cannot be readily excreted and is eventually stored as body fat. These reserves may be beneficial when food is scarce, but they can also lead to obesity and its associated health consequences.

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): The energy recommendationcalled the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)represents the average dietary energy intake (kcalories per day) that will maintain energy balance in a person who has a healthy body weight and level of physical activity. Balance is key to the energy recommendation. Enough food energy is needed to sustain a healthy and active life, but too much can lead to weight gain and obesity. Because any amount in excess of energy needs will result in weight gain, no upper level for energy has been determined.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

People dont eat energy directly; they derive energy from foods containing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Each of these three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to the total energy intake, and those contributions vary in relation to one another. The DRI committee has determined that the composition of a diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients and reduces the risk of chronic diseases is:
45 to 65 percent kcalories from carbohydrate
20 to 35 percent kcalories from fat
10 to 35 percent kcalories from protein.

DIF: Blooms: Understand REF: 1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.4 Define the four categories of the DRI and explain their purposes.

10. List and discuss four methods commonly used to assess nutritional status of individuals.

ANS:
To prepare a nutrition assessment, a registered dietitian (or registered dietitian nutritionist), dietetic technician registered, or other trained health-care professional uses:
Historical information
Anthropometric measurements
Physical examinations
Laboratory tests

One step in evaluating nutrition status is to obtain information about a persons history with respect to health status, socioeconomic status, drug use, and diet. The health history reflects a persons medical record and may reveal a disease that interferes with the persons ability to eat or the bodys use of nutrients. The persons family history of major diseases is also noteworthy, especially for conditions such as heart disease that have a genetic tendency to run in families. Economic circumstances may show a financial inability to buy foods or inadequate kitchen facilities in which to prepare them. Social factors such as marital status, ethnic background, and educational level also influence food choices and nutrition status. A drug history, including all prescribed and over-the-counter medications, may highlight possible interactions that lead to nutrient deficiencies.

A second technique that may help to reveal nutrition problems is taking anthropometric measures such as height and weight. The assessor compares a persons measurements with standards specific for gender and age or with previous measures on the same individual.

A third nutrition assessment technique is a physical examination looking for clues to poor nutrition status. Visual inspection of the hair, eyes, skin, posture, tongue, and fingernails can provide such clues. In addition, information gathered from an interview can help identify symptoms. The examination requires skill because many physical signs and symptoms reflect more than one nutrient deficiency or toxicityor even nonnutrition conditions. Like the other assessment techniques, a physical examination alone does not yield firm conclusions. Instead, physical examinations reveal possible imbalances that must be confirmed by other assessment techniques, or they confirm results from other assessment measures.

A fourth way to detect a developing deficiency, imbalance, or toxicity is to take samples of blood or urine, analyze them in the laboratory, and compare the results with normal values for a similar population. Laboratory tests are most useful in uncovering early signs of malnutrition before symptoms appear. In addition, they can confirm suspicions raised by other assessment methods.

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

11. Discuss how the results from national nutrition surveys are used by private and government agencies and groups.

ANS:
National nutrition surveys gather information about the populations dietary, nutritional, and related health status. One survey collects data on the kinds and amounts of foods people eat. Another survey examines the people themselves, using anthropometric measurements, physical examinations, and laboratory tests. The data provide valuable information on several nutrition-related conditions, such as growth retardation, heart disease, and nutrient deficiencies. National nutrition surveys often oversample high-risk groups (low-income families, pregnant women, adolescents, the elderly, African Americans, and Mexican Americans) to glean an accurate estimate of their health and nutrition status. The resulting wealth of information from the national nutrition surveys is used for a variety of purposes. For example, Congress uses this information to establish public policy on nutrition education, food assistance programs, and the regulation of the food supply. Scientists use the information to establish research priorities. The food industry uses these data to guide decisions in public relations and product development. The Dietary Reference Intakes and other major reports that examine the relationships between diet and health depend on information collected from these nutrition surveys. These data also provide the basis for developing and monitoring national health goals.

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

12. Describe the national trends of food consumption over the past 40 years.

ANS:
We eat more meals away from home, particularly at fast-food restaurants. We eat larger portions. We drink more sweetened beverages and eat more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods such as candy and chips. We snack frequently. As a result of these dietary habits, our energy intake has risen and, consequently, so has the incidence of overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity, in turn, profoundly influence our health.

DIF: Blooms: Remember REF: 1.5 Nutrition Assessment
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.1.5 Explain how the four assessment methods are used to detect energy and nutrient deficiencies and excesses.

13. List 10 goals of the Healthy People program. How successful is the program thus far?

ANS:
Increase the proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight
Reduce the proportion of adults who are obese
Reduce iron deficiency among young children and females of childbearing age
Reduce iron deficiency among pregnant females
Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese
Increase the contribution of fruits to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older
Increase the variety and contribution of vegetables to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older
Increase the contribution of whole grains to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older
Reduce consumption of saturated fat in the population aged 2 years and older
Reduce consumption of sodium in the popu

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