Vander Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank

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Vander Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank

Chapter 06

Neuronal Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is/are functions of the human nervous system?
    A. receiving, storing, and processing information on the internal and external environments
    B.  bringing about changes in physiology and/or behavior to ensure optimal functions of homeostatic mechanisms
    C.  secretion of hormones
    D.  coordination of movement
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H01.01 Describe the major functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H01 General functions of the nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.15
Topic: General functions of the nervous system
Topic: Neural integration in the CNS

 

 

  1. Which is NOT true of myelin?
    A. It is a fatty membranous sheath.
    B.  It is formed by glial cells.
    C.  It influences the velocity of conduction of an electrical signal down an axon.
    D.  It covers all parts of the neuron, including the axon, cell body, and dendrites.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03b Describe functions for each of the glial cells found in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.03c Explain how the anatomy of each CNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H03.04b Describe functions for each type of glial cell found in the PNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.04c Explain how the anatomy of each PNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.07
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of glial cells
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about axon transport?
    A. It refers to the passage of materials from the cell body of a neuron to the axon terminals.
    B.  It refers to the passage of materials from axon terminals to the cell body of a neuron.
    C.  It refers to the transport of materials from the inside to the outside across the axonal membrane.
    D.  It is especially important for maintaining the integrity of neurons with long axons.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of neurons

 

 

  1. Which is FALSE about neurons?
    A. A given neuron can be either a presynaptic neuron or a postsynaptic neuron.
    B.  An individual  neuron can receive information from multiple other neurons.
    C.  An individual neuron can transmit information to multiple other neurons.
    D.  A neuron can simultaneously release more than one type of neurotransmitter.
    E.  A neuron receives information on its axons and delivers it to other neurons through its dendrites.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.01 Identify the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells at a synapse.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.02
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.02
Section: 06.08
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of glial cells?
    A. They form the myelin for axons.
    B.  Neurons outnumber glial cells 10 to 1 in the nervous system.
    C.  They deliver fuel molecules to neurons and remove the waste products of metabolism.
    D.  They are important for the growth and development of the nervous system.
    E.  They regulate the composition of the extracellular fluid in the CNS.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03b Describe functions for each of the glial cells found in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.04b Describe functions for each type of glial cell found in the PNS.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
Learning Outcome: 06.03
Section: 06.03
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of glial cells

 

 

  1. The difference in electrical charge between two points:
    A. is called the potential difference between those points.
    B.  is called the diffusion potential between those points.
    C.  is called the current, and is expressed in the units of millimoles.
    D.  is the same for all ions.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.05
Section: 06.05
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. According to the equation expressed as Ohms law, which of these would cause the greatest increase in current?
    A. doubling both voltage and resistance
    B.  reducing both voltage and resistance by half
    C.  doubling voltage and reducing resistance by half
    D.  reducing voltage by half and doubling resistance
    E.  quadrupling both voltage and resistance

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.05
Section: 06.05
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Compartments A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to K+ but not to Na+ or Cl. At time zero, a solution of KCl is poured into compartment A and an equally concentrated solution of NaCl is poured into compartment B. Which would be true once equilibrium is reached?
    A. The concentration of Na+ in A will be higher than it was at time zero.
    B.  Diffusion of K+ from A to B will be greater than the diffusion of K+ from B to A.
    C.  There will be a potential difference across the membrane, with side B negative relative to side A.
    D.  The electrical potential difference and diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for K+ will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
    E.  The concentration of Cl will be higher in B than it was at time zero.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is TRUE about the resting membrane potential?
    A. It requires very few ions to be distributed unevenly.
    B.  It has the same value in all cells.
    C.  It is oriented so that the cells interior is positive with respect to the extracellular fluid.
    D.  Only nerve and muscle cells have a potential difference across the membrane at rest.
    E.  It is not altered by changing concentration gradients of permeating ions.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about typical, resting neurons?
    A. The plasma membrane is most permeable to sodium ions.
    B.  The concentration of sodium ion is greater inside the cell than outside.
    C.  The permeability of the plasma membrane to potassium ions is much greater than its permeability to sodium ions.
    D.  The plasma membrane is completely impermeable to sodium ions.
    E.  The plasma membrane is completely impermeable to potassium ions.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The membrane potential of most neurons at rest is:
    A. equal to the equilibrium potential for potassium.
    B.  equal to the equilibrium potential for sodium.
    C.  slightly more negative than the equilibrium potential of potassium ion.
    D.  more positive than the equilibrium potential for potassium.
    E.  more positive than the equilibrium potential for sodium.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for Na+ across a nerve cell membrane:
    A. favors its movement into the cell at the resting membrane potential.
    B.  favors its movement out of the cell at the resting membrane potential.
    C.  is equal and opposite to the electrical potential acting on Na+ at the resting membrane potential.
    D.  Is in the same direction as the diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for K+.
    E.  favors movement of Na+ in the opposite direction as the electrical potential acting on Na+ at the resting membrane potential.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which would result from an increase in the extracellular concentration of K+ above normal?
    A. depolarization of resting nerve cells
    B.  hyperpolarization of resting nerve cells
    C.  The potassium equilibrium potential of nerve cells would become more negative.
    D.  The sodium equilibrium potential would become less positive.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about the Na+, K+ ATPase pump in neurons?
    A. It generates a small electrical potential such that the inside is made negative with respect to the outside.
    B.  It maintains a concentration gradient for K+ such that diffusion forces favor movement of K+ into the cell.
    C.  It maintains an electrical gradient at the equilibrium potential of K+.
    D.  It transports equal numbers of sodium and potassium ions with each pump cycle.
    E.  It pumps 3 Na+ ions into the cell for every 2 K+ ions it pumps out.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of these would occur if the concentration of ATP were depleted in a typical nerve cell?
    A. Resting membrane potential would become more negative.
    B.  Resting membrane potential would become less negative.
    C.  The concentration gradient for Na+ would remain the same.
    D.  The resting membrane potential would eventually become positive inside with respect to outside.
    E.  There would be no change in the resting membrane potential.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is FALSE about the equilibrium potential of a given ion across a membrane?
    A. It is a function of the concentration of that ion on both sides of the membrane.
    B.  It is the potential at which there is no net movement of that ion across the membrane.
    C.  It is the potential difference across the membrane at which an electric force favoring movement of the ion in one direction is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the diffusion force provided by the concentration difference of the ion across the membrane.
    D.  A permeable ion will move in the direction that will tend to bring the membrane potential toward that ions equilibrium potential.
    E.  An anion that is in higher concentration inside the cell than outside the cell will have a negative eqilibrium potential.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The equilibrium potential of K+ ions in nerve cells is about -90 mV. The membrane potential of typical nerve cells at rest is -70 mV. Therefore
    A. Increasing the permeability of a resting neuronal membrane to K+ will make the membrane potential more negative inside with respect to outside.
    B.  In resting neurons, there is a net diffusion of K+ into the cell.
    C.  changing the resting membrane potential of a neuron to -80 mV would increase K+ diffusion rate out of the cell.
    D.  potassium is the only permanent ion at rest.
    E.  there must be another permanent ion with an equilibrium potential more negative than -90 mV.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the permeability of a typical neuron membrane at rest is TRUE?
    A. The permeability to Na+ is much greater than the permeability to K+.
    B.  All of the K+ channels in the membrane are open.
    C.  The voltage-gated Na+ channels are in the inactivated state.
    D.  Most of the voltage-gated Na+ channels are in the closed state.
    E.  There is equal permeability to Na+ and K+.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.02 Explain how ion channels affect neuron selective permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is NOT an example of a graded potential?
    A. a receptor potential in a sensory receptor cell
    B.  a depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    C.  a hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    D.  a depolarizing pacemaker potential
    E.  a depolarizing action potential

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. An action potential in a neuronal membrane differs from a graded potential in that:
    A. an action potential requires the opening of Ca2+ channels, whereas a graded potential does not.
    B.  an action potential is propagated without decrement, whereas a graded potential decrements with distance.
    C.  an action potential has a threshold, whereas a graded potential is an all-or-none phenomenon.
    D.  movement of Na+ and K+ across cell membranes mediate action potentials, while graded potentials do not involve movement of Na+ and K+.
    E.  action potentials vary in size with the size of a stimulus, while graded potentials do not.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.13a Describe how local circuit currents cause impulse conduction in an unmyelinated axon.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. A threshold stimulus applied to an excitable membrane is one that is just sufficient to:
    A. trigger an excitatory postsynaptic potential.
    B.  cause a change in membrane potential.
    C.  trigger an action potential.
    D.  be conducted to the axon hillock.
    E.  depolarize a dendrite.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which must happen in order for an action potential to begin?
    A. The membrane potential must be at the Na+ equilibrium potential.
    B.  Na+ influx must exceed K+ efflux.
    C.  The membrane must be out of the relative refractory period.
    D.  Na+ channels must all be inactivated.
    E.  Multiple inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) must summate.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which describes the response of the voltage-gated channels when an axon is stimulated to threshold?
    A. K+ channels open before the Na+ channels.
    B.  Na+ channels are activated and then inactivated.
    C.  K+ channels open at the same time as the Na+ channels.
    D.  K+ channels are opened when Na+ binds to the channel.
    E.  K+ influx causes Na+ channels to inactivate.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. During the rising (depolarizing) phase of a neuronal action potential,
    A. PK+ becomes much greater than PNa+.
    B.  PNa+ becomes much greater than PK+.
    C.  PK+ is the same as PNa+.
    D.  Na+ efflux (flow out of the cell) occurs.
    E.  K+ flows rapidly into the cell.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is TRUE about neuronal membrane electrical and concentration gradients at the peak of the action potential?
    A. The electrical gradient is in a direction that would tend to move K+ out of the cell.
    B.  The concentration gradient for K+ is in a direction that would tend to move it into the cell.
    C.  The concentration gradient for K+ greatly increases compared to at rest.
    D.  The concentration gradient for Na+ is in a direction that would tend to move it out of the cell.
    E.  The electrical gradient for  Na+ is in a direction that would tend to move it into the cell.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is most directly responsible for the falling (repolarizing) phase of the action potential?
    A. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are opened.
    B.  The Na+, K+ pump restores the ions to their original locations inside and outside of the cell.
    C.  The permeability to Na+ increases greatly.
    D.  ATPase destroys the energy supply that was maintaining the action potential at its peak.
    E.  The permeability to K+ increases greatly while that to Na+ decreases.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Why are action potentials sometimes described as being all-or-none in character?
    A. The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength.
    B.  They are associated with an absolute refractory period.
    C.  A supra-threshold stimulus is required to stimulate an action potential during the relative refractory period.
    D.  An action potential occurs whenever a suprathreshold stimulus occurs, and its amplitude does not vary with the size of a stimulus, as long as the membrane is not in the refractory period.
    E.  Action potentials are always the same size, even when ion gradients vary in size.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the phases of a neuronal action potential is TRUE?
    A. During the after-hyperpolarization phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions is greater than its permeability to potassium ions.
    B.  During the after-hyperpolarization phase, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ions is greater than its permeability at rest.
    C.  During the repolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions is greater than its permeability to potassium ions.
    D.  Potassium channels inactivate during the depolarization phase.
    E.  Repolarizing to negative membrane potentials causes the sodium channels to inactivate.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of the following statements about the refractory period of a membrane is TRUE?
    A. The absolute refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential cannot be initiated in that part of the membrane that is undergoing an action potential, no matter how great the strength of the stimulus.
    B.  The relative refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential can be initiated in that part of the membrane that has just undergone an action potential if a stronger than normal stimulus is applied.
    C.  The refractory period prevents the action potential from spreading back over the part of the membrane that just underwent an action potential.
    D.  The refractory period places an upper limit on the frequency with which a nerve cell can conduct action potentials.
    E.  All of the above choices are correct.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The relative refractory period of an axon coincides with the period of
    A. activation and inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels.
    B.  Na+ permeability that is greater than that during the depolarization phase.
    C.  increased K+ flux into the cell.
    D.  increased K+ permeability of the cell.
    E.  Increased Na+ flux through K+ channels.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.12b Explain the physiological basis of the absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Neuronal axons typically have abundant
    A. voltage-gated channels for Na+ that open in response to depolarization.
    B.  voltage-gated channels for K+ that open in response to hyperpolarization.
    C.  ligand-gated channels for Na+.
    D.  ligand-gated channels for K+.
    E.  voltage-gated channels for Ca2+.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.06c Differentiate between voltage-gated and chemically-gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding action potentials generated in a neuronal membrane is FALSE?
    A. Action potentials travel decrementally down the membrane.
    B.  An action potential generates a new action potential in an adjacent area of membrane.
    C.  An action potential generates a local current that depolarizes adjacent membrane to threshold potential.
    D.  Action potentials are usually initiated at the initial segment of a neuron.
    E.  An action potential generated by a threshold stimulus is the same size as one generated by a supra-threshold stimulus.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.13a Describe how local circuit currents cause impulse conduction in an unmyelinated axon.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the properties of action potentials is TRUE?
    A. The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength.
    B.  Action potentials can undergo summation.
    C.  A supra-threshold stimulus can stimulate an action potential during the absolute refractory period.
    D.  Action potentials generally propagate from the axon terminal toward the initial segment.
    E.  Increasing the size of a stimulus will increase the amplitude of an action potential.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. How is the strength of a stimulus encoded by neurons?
    A. by the size of action potentials
    B.  by the frequency of action potentials
    C.  by the duration of action potentials
    D.  by whether the action potential peak is positive or negative

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the rate of action potential propagation is TRUE?
    A. It is faster in small-diameter axons than in large-diameter axons.
    B.  It is faster for a strong stimulus than for a weak one.
    C.  It is faster in myelinated axons than in nonmyelinated axons.
    D.  It is faster in the dendrites than in the axon.
    E.  It occurs at the same rate in all axons, regardless of their diameter.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. An action potential does not re-stimulate the adjacent membrane that was previously depolarized because
    A. stimulation is inhibited by the myelin sheath.
    B.  it is impossible for an action potential to be propagated along an axon toward the nerve cell body.
    C.  the resting membrane potential of the axon is too positive.
    D.  the resting membrane potential of the axon is too negative.
    E.  that area of the membrane is in the absolutely refractory period.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12b Explain the physiological basis of the absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The regions of axon membrane that lie between regions of myelin are the
    A. ganglia.
    B.  nodes of Ranvier.
    C.  synaptic membranes.
    D.  glial cells.
    E.  pia mater.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03c Explain how the anatomy of each CNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H03.04c Explain how the anatomy of each PNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.02 List the structures that comprise a chemical synapse.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is FALSE about interneurons?
    A. They receive synaptic input from other neurons in the CNS.
    B.  They sum excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs.
    C.  They deliver synaptic input on other neurons.
    D.  They make synapses on effector organs in the PNS.
    E.  They can transmit information between afferent neurons and efferent neurons.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
Learning Outcome: 06.02
Section: 06.02
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system

 

 

  1. Exocytosis of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is triggered by an influx of ______ in response to the arrival of an action potential in the axon terminal.
    A. K+
    B.  Na+
    C.  Ca2+
    D.  ATP
    E.  Cl

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.09
Section: 06.09
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. The main role of calcium ions at chemical synapses is to
    A. depolarize the axon terminal of the presynaptic cell.
    B.  bind to neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic cell.
    C.  cause fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane of the axon terminal.
    D.  interfere with IPSPs in the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  diffuse across the synaptic space and enter the postsynaptic cell.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.09
Section: 06.09
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. At an excitatory chemical synapse between two neurons,
    A. there is increased permeability of the postsynaptic cell to both Na+ and K+.
    B.  a small hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane occurs when the synapse is activated.
    C.  an action potential in the presynaptic neuron always causes an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron.
    D.  excitation occurs because K+ enters the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  action potentials spread through gap junctions between cells.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.17 Compare and contrast chemical and electrical synapses.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential:
    A. is produced by simultaneous increases in permeability to both Na+ and K+.
    B.  occurs when a ligand-gated ion channel increases its permeability to K+.
    C.  is a small depolarization in a postsynaptic cell.
    D.  can be summed with other IPSPs to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  is produced by an increase in permeability to only Na+.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about EPSPs is FALSE?
    A. They are produced by the opening of ligand-gated sodium channels.
    B.  They transmit signals over relatively short distances.
    C.  They depolarize postsynaptic cell membranes.
    D.  They are able to summate.
    E.  They are always the same amplitude.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.06 Explain how the receptors for neurotransmitters are related to chemically- gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. An EPSP:
    A. is a direct result of the opening of ligand-gated channels permeable to both Na+ and K+ ions.
    B.  is a direct result of the opening of voltage-gated channels permeable to both Na+ and K+ ions.
    C.  stabilizes the membrane to remain at its resting potential.
    D.  opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic membrane.
    E.  occurs when voltage-gated Cl channels  open in a postsynaptic cell membrane.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Objective: H05.06 Explain how the receptors for neurotransmitters are related to chemically- gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Section: 06.10
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which best describes temporal summation?
    A. A synapse is stimulated a second time before the effect of a first stimulus at the synapse has terminated.
    B.  It only refers to addition of EPSPs.
    C.  Two synapses on different regions of a cell are stimulated at the same time.
    D.  It always brings a postsynaptic cell to threshold.
    E.  The size of an EPSP depends on the size of the stimulus.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs from neurons X, Y, and Z. Stimulation of neuron X causes the postsynaptic neuron to depolarize by 0.5 mV.  When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously, the postsynaptic neuron depolarizes by 1 mV.  When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. What is most likely true about presynaptic neurons Y and Z?
    A. They are both excitatory.
    B.  They are both inhibitory.
    C.  Y is excitatory and Z is inhibitory.
    D.  Z is excitatory and Y is inhibitory.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs from neurons X, Y, and Z. When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously and repeatedly, the postsynaptic neuron reaches threshold and undergoes an action potential. When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. The simultaneous stimulation of X and Y is an example of
    A. temporal summation.
    B.  presynaptic inhibition.
    C.  spatial summation.
    D.  neuronal divergence.
    E.  presynaptic facilitation.

 

Blooms: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Learning Outcome: 06.12
Section: 06.08
Section: 06.11
Section: 06.12
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about the initial segment of an axon?
    A. Its membrane potential at threshold is more positive than that of the cell body and dendrites.
    B.  Its membrane potential at threshold is more negative than that of the cell body and dendrites.
    C.  Synapses far from the initial segment are more effective in influencing whether an action potential will be generated in the axon than are synapses close to the initial segment.
    D.  It is the region where neurotransmitter vesicles are docked and ready to be released by exocytosis.
    E.  It can only conduct graded potentials because it lacks voltage-gated Na+ channels.

 

Blooms: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.03 Describe the synaptic (axon) terminal.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.07
Section: 06.08
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. A presynaptic synapse:
    A. is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite that can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
    B.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and another axons terminal that can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
    C.  is any synapse onto a cell body, and they can be either stimulatory or inhibitory.
    D.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite of the same cell, which is always inhibitory.
    E.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and another axons terminal that is always inhibitory.

 

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