Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier Test Bank

Chapter 02

Chemical Composition of the Body

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In an atom, the number of
    A.Protons always equals the number of neutrons
    B. Of protons always equals the number of electrons
    C. Of neutrons always equals the number of electrons
    D. Both protons always equals the number of neutrons and of protons always equals the number of electrons are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atoms identity is directly determined by
    A. The number of electrons it has
    B.  The number of neutrons it has
    C.  The number of protons it has
    D.  The number of bonds it can form
    E.  Its atomic weight

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes. They differ in the number of
    A.Protons
    B. Neutrons
    C. Electrons
    D. Chemical bonds they can form
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A covalent bond between two atoms is
    A. Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom
    B.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom
    C.  The strongest of the chemical bonds
    D.  Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds
    E.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Ions are
    A.Electrically neutral
    B. Electrically charged
    C. Formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    D. Electrically charged and formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. When magnesium loses electrons to become an ion it forms
    A.A covalent bond
    B. A cation
    C. An anion
    D. A new element

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a sports beverage advertises that it replaces the bodys electrolytes, it will replace
    A.Sugars that were broken down for energy
    B. Ionic forms of mineral elements
    C. Lipids that form the membranes of cells
    D. Oxygen and gases used by metabolism
    E. Vitamins

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Of the major ions in the body, the only one that carries a negative charge is
    A.Chloride
    B. Sodium
    C. Potassium
    D. Hydrogen
    E. Calcium

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Free radicals
    A.React rapidly with other atoms
    B. Include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide
    C. Contain two electrons in the outermost orbital
    D. React rapidly with other atoms and include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a free radical reacts with another molecule the free radical will
    A.Remove electrons from the other molecule
    B. Form an unbreakable bond with the other molecule
    C. Remove protons from the other molecule
    D. Stabilize the other molecule
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Electrolytes
    A.Are ions
    B. Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
    C. Are found in pure water
    D. Both are ions and conduct electricity when dissolved in water are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a polar chemical bond?
    A.It is covalent
    B. It is ionized
    C. It has opposite electrical charge at each end
    D. It has no net electrical charge
    E. None of the choices are false

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A polar molecule
    A.Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds
    B. May contain ionized groups
    C. Can form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules
    D. Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds and may contain ionized groups are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrolysis
    A.Involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules
    B. Involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules
    C. Results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body
    D. Both involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules and involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules are correct
    E. Both involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules and results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Consider the adage familiar to anyone who has observed oil spills in the ocean or has made a salad dressing: Oil and water do not mix. Which of the following helps explain this observation?
    A. Oil is hydrophobic
    B.  Oil is nonpolar
    C.  Oil is composed largely of carbon and hydrogen
    D.  Water is hydrophilic
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Molecules that have properties of both polar and nonpolar molecules are called
    A.Hydrophobic
    B. Hydrophilic
    C. Amphipathic
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Compounds A, B and C have molecular weights of 10, 50 and 100 respectively. If 5 grams of each compound were put into 1 liter of water, which compound will have the greatest molar concentration?
    A.Compound A
    B. Compound B
    C. Compound C
    D. All will have the same molar concentration

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The pH of a solution
    A. Is a measure of the concentration of H atoms in solution
    B.  Is a measure of the concentration of bound H+ ions in solution
    C.  Is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution
    D.  Increases as the acidity of the solution increases
    E.  Both is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution and increases as the acidity of the solution increases are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Most of the body weight of an average young adult male is
    A.Water
    B. Protein
    C. Minerals
    D. Lipids
    E. Carbohydrates

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Organic molecules
    A.Always contain oxygen
    B. Always contain carbon
    C. Are always macromolecules
    D. Both always contain oxygen and always contain carbon are correct
    E. Both always contain carbon and are always macromolecules are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are
    A.Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules
    B. The major organic molecules of the body
    C. Nonpolar
    D. Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules and the major organic molecules of the body
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Glucose is a
    A.Monosaccharide
    B. Disaccharide
    C. Polysaccharide
    D. Glycoprotein
    E. Phospholipid

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
    A.Cellulose
    B. Starch
    C. Triacylglycerol
    D. Glycogen
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Relative to carbohydrates, lipids
    A.Contain fewer carbon atoms per molecule
    B. Contain fewer oxygen atoms per molecule
    C. Are more hydrophilic
    D. Are less abundant in the body

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following lipids have regulatory roles in the body?
    A.Steroids
    B. Eicosanoids
    C. Triacylglycerols
    D. Both steroids and eicosanoids are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Proteins are
    A.Critically important for physiological processes
    B. Composed of fatty acids
    C. Composed of nucleic acids
    D. Macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds
    E. Critically important for physiological processes and macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein conformation is
    A.Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein
    B. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds
    C. Affected by interactions with water molecules
    D. Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein and affected by interactions with water molecules
    E. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds and affected by interactions with water molecules

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following correctly describes the strength of the chemical bonds important in protein conformation, from strongest to weakest?
    A.Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals
    B. Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals
    C. Van der Waals, hydrogen, ionic, covalent
    D. Covalent, hydrogen, ionic, van der Waals
    E. Covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The covalent bond formed between two amino acids is called a(n)
    A.Glycosidic bond
    B. Peptide bond
    C. Phosphodiester bond
    D. Ester bond
    E. Hydrolytic bond

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrogen bonding is very important in maintaining the structure of
    A.Lipids
    B. Nucleic acids
    C. Proteins
    D. Nucleic acids and proteins
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Nucleic acids are
    A.Macromolecules
    B. Composed of nucleotides
    C. Distinguished from each other in part by the composition of the sugar they contain
    D. Macromolecules and composed of nucleotides
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Adenosine triphosphate is a(n)
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Nucleotide
    E. Amino acid

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The function of adenosine triphosphate is
    A. To transfer energy in a cell
    B.  Catalyze chemical reactions
    C.  Store large amounts of energy within the cell
    D.  Act as a template for synthesizing lipids
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. An atom is electrically neutral.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The mass of an atom is the sum of its protons and electrons.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The atomic number of an element is given by the number of electrons in the atom.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atomic nucleus is electrically neutral.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The atomic number of an element refers to the number of particles in its atomic nucleus.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Twelve grams of C contains the same number of atoms as one gram of H.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The four most common elements in the body are hydrogen, carbon, calcium and oxygen.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Important mineral elements in the body include Na, Ca and K.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Trace elements such as zinc and manganese are found in minute quantities in the body but do not serve any known function.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The number of covalent bonds that can be formed by a given atom depends upon the number of electrons present in the outermost orbit.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Nitrogen atoms can form a maximum of four covalent bonds with other atoms.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The shape of a molecule may change as atoms rotate about their covalent bonds.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All of the physiologically important atoms of the body readily form ions.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Water molecules can form covalent bonds with other water molecules.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In a molecule of water, an oxygen atom forms a double bond with each of two hydrogen atoms.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The carboxyl ion is an anion.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. NaCl is a molecule formed by the covalent bonding of a sodium atom to a chlorine atom.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All covalent bonds are polar.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. During hydrolysis, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups are formed.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In general, polar molecules will dissolve in polar solvents, while nonpolar molecules cannot.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Solutes that do not dissolve in water are called hydrophilic.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Molecules with both polar and nonpolar regions are called ambidextrous.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The molarity of a solution is a measure of the concentration of the solute.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A solution with a pH of 8 is more acidic than one with a pH of 3.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Organic chemistry is the study of oxygen-containing compounds.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Polysaccharides are polymers of sugar molecules.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Sucrose is called blood sugar because it is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Triacylglycerol is one subclass of lipid molecules.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms linked by double bonds.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Cholesterol is a phospholipid.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Glycoproteins are protein molecules with molecules of glycogen attached to the amino acid side chains.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is known as the secondary structure.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein molecules may consist of more than one polypeptide chain.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Substitution of one amino acid for another in a given protein will inevitably alter the conformation of that protein to a significant degree.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In DNA, thymine binds with adenine and cytosine binds with uracil.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
Use this table to answer the question:

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of H?
    1

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of Na?
    23

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. What is the total (net) charge of an atom of K?
    0

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the gram atomic mass of C?
    12g

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

In the reaction R-COOH   R-COO + H+
COOH is the carboxyl group

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. COO is the ________  ________.
    carboxyl ion

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. H+ represents the ________  ________.
    hydrogen ion

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. R refers to the _____________________.
    remainder of the molecule

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The symbol  indicates that the process is (reversible/irreversible).
    reversible

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A neutral solution has a pH of ____________.
    7.0

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

Chapter 08

Consciousness, the Brain, and Behavior

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. An electroencephalogram
    A.Is a record of action potentials in the brain
    B. Records the potential difference between two points on the scalps surface
    C. Is a pattern of complex waves with amplitudes similar to those of action potentials
    D. Is both is a record of action potentials in the brain and records the potential difference between two points on the scalps surface
    E. Both records the potential difference between two points on the scalps surface and is both is a record of action potentials in the brain and records the potential difference between two points on the scalps surface are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. It is believed that the rhythmic patterns of the EEG most likely originate from this structure in the brain
    A.Hypothalamus
    B. Thalamus
    C. Basal ganglia
    D. Cerebellum
    E. Hippocampus

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The alpha rhythm is the most prominent EEG pattern when an adult is
    A.In REM sleep
    B. In non-REM sleep
    C. Awake and relaxed with eyes open
    D. Awake and thinking hard about something

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. If you were to record your own EEG activity while concentrating very hard on this exam the most prominent EEG pattern would be
    A.Alpha rhythm
    B. Beta rhythm
    C. Delta rhythm
    D. Theta rhythm

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about sleep is correct?
    A.Sleep typically occurs in stages in which a subject goes through progressively deeper stages of sleep and then awakens
    B. Sleep typically occurs in cycles in which a subject will cycle through various stages of slow-wave sleep punctuated by paradoxical sleep several times during one bout of sleep
    C. During REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated
    D. Both sleep typically occurs in stages in which a subject goes through progressively deeper stages of sleep and then awakens and during REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated are correct
    E. Both sleep typically occurs in cycles in which a subject will cycle through various stages of slow-wave sleep punctuated by paradoxical sleep several times during one bout of sleep and during REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not descriptive of REM sleep?
    A.It is the period when dreaming occurs
    B. It normally occurs only once per night, usually just before waking up
    C. Postural muscles are virtually paralyzed during REM sleep
    D. EEG waves that resemble the awake state can be recorded during REM sleep
    E. Eyes move rapidly back and forth beneath closed lids

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. During paradoxical sleep,
    A.Brain neurotransmitter activity in the pathways regulating states of consciousness is similar to that in the awake state
    B. Brain oxygen consumption is lower than when awake
    C. Skeletal muscle tension is dramatically increased
    D. The person is easily aroused
    E. All of the choices occur

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following most accurately describes the state of consciousness known as REM sleep?
    A.EEG tracings show large amplitude, low frequency waves; subject has very low muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    B. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    C. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has very low muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    D. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will not usually report dreaming
    E. EEG tracings show large amplitude, low frequency waves; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Which of the descriptions is not descriptive of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep?
    A. Visible movements of the eyes resembling those of one tracking the movements of objects in space, watching TV, etc
    B.  Difficulty arousing the sleeper
    C.  Oxygen consumption decreases by comparison to NREM sleep and in an alert wakeful state
    D.  It represents 20-25% of a persons sleep time
    E.  Skeletal muscle activity is markedly reduced, except for the extraocular and respiratory muscles

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In sleep apnea
    A. A person with the disorder experiences symptoms of sleep deprivation
    B.  Periodic bouts of respiratory failure are experienced throughout the night
    C.  Slow-wave and REM sleep predominate in sleep cycling
    D.  Seriously low blood O2 and dangerously high CO2 levels result
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. This part of the brain is thought to control the various states of consciousness
    A. Cerebral cortex
    B.  Reticular activating system
    C.  Thalamus
    D.  Cerebellum
    E.  Hippocampus

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Habituation to a stimulus
    A.Is due to receptor fatigue
    B. Is a result of decreased neurotransmitter release secondary to decreased calcium influx at synaptic terminals
    C. Can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type
    D. Both is due to receptor fatigue and can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type are correct
    E. Both is a result of decreased neurotransmitter release secondary to decreased calcium influx at synaptic terminals and can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding its role as a neurotransmitter in the CNS, norepinephrine
    A.Is secreted by brain stem neurons in response to sensory stimulation
    B. Amplifies weak sensory signals and dampens strong ones so that more information can reach conscious levels
    C. Is important for maintaining directed attention
    D. Both is secreted by brain stem neurons in response to sensory stimulation and is important for maintaining directed attention are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A laboratory rat has an electrode implanted in its brain. By pressing a metal bar in its cage, the animal can activate the electrode. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
    A.If the animal presses the bar repeatedly, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with appetitive motivation
    B. If the animal presses the bar once, then never touches it again, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with aversive motivation
    C. Such an experiment has no relevance to emotional states in humans or human behavior
    D. Both if the animal presses the bar repeatedly, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with appetitive motivation and if the animal presses the bar once, then never touches it again, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with aversive motivation are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the brain areas that direct emotion is not true?
    A.The hypothalamus is the site of the conscious feeling of emotion
    B. The hypothalamus integrates emotional behaviors
    C. The limbic system delivers information about emotion from the cerebral cortex to the hypothalamus
    D. The cerebral cortex is responsible for control over emotions
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Damage to the septum of the limbic system causes a tame animal to become vicious, whereas destruction of the amygdala will make the same animal docile again. Which of the following statements may explain this result or correctly follow from it?
    A.The septum is required for the expression of rage
    B. In a normal animal, the septum may inhibit the amygdala
    C. Stimulation of the septum in a normal animal would be likely to provoke rage
    D. Both the septum is required for the expression of rage and in a normal animal, the septum may inhibit the amygdala are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding schizophrenia,
    A.It is a family of mental disorders that involves disturbances of thinking, perceiving and control of motor activity
    B. Its symptoms can include paranoid delusions and hallucinations
    C. It probably has a hereditary component
    D. Both it is a family of mental disorders that involves disturbances of thinking, perceiving and control of motor activity and its symptoms can include paranoid delusions and hallucinations are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding schizophrenia,
    A.People with schizophrenia frequently have disorders of sensory awareness
    B. Treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinsons disease
    C. Lithium carbonate is the most common drug prescribed for schizophrenia
    D. Both people with schizophrenia frequently have disorders of sensory awareness and treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinsons disease are correct
    E. Both treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinsons disease and lithium carbonate is the most common drug prescribed for schizophrenia are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Schizophrenia is most strongly associated with excessive production of or sensitivity to
    A.Dopamine
    B. Acetylcholine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Enkephalin
    E. Lithium carbonate

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Drugs that are used to treat depression increase the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain
    A.Glutamate
    B. Serotonin
    C. GABA
    D. Acetylcholine
    E. Dopamine

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Bipolar disorders
    A.Involve both mania and depression
    B. Are most effectively treated with drugs that increase availability of dopamine
    C. Are an exaggeration of normal changes in mood
    D. Both involve both mania and depression and are most effectively treated with drugs that increase availability of dopamine are correct
    E. Both involve both mania and depression and are an exaggeration of normal changes in mood are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Regarding psychoactive drugs,
    A.They can be taken to relieve altered states of consciousness
    B. They can be taken to experience altered states of consciousness
    C. They may stimulate neuronal activity in the reward areas of the brain
    D. Both they can be taken to experience altered states of consciousness and they may stimulate neuronal activity in the reward areas of the brain are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding psychoactive drugs,
    A.Both the phenomenon of tolerance to and the symptoms of withdrawal from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist
    B. Only drugs that bind to endorphin/enkephalin receptors are described as psychoactive.
    C. Use of psychoactive drugs may result in physical dependence upon them
    D. Both the phenomenon of tolerance to and the symptoms of withdrawal from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist and only drugs that bind to endorphin/enkephalin receptors are described as psychoactive are correct
    E. Both the phenomenon of tolerance to and the symptoms of withdrawal from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist and use of psychoactive drugs may result in physical dependence upon them are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Which of the following best explains how the phenomenon of tolerance develops with use of psychoactive drugs over time?
    A.Psychoactive drugs can alter blood flow to the brain
    B. Psychoactive drugs often produce euphoria
    C. Psychoactive drugs can cross the blood-brain barrier
    D. Psychoactive drugs can inhibit production of endogenous neurotransmitters
    E. Psychoactive drugs can up-regulate receptors for endogenous neurotransmitters

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Symptoms of withdrawal when drug use is stopped
    A.May result from lower-than-normal secretion of neurotransmitter
    B. Are psychological, not physical
    C. May be alleviated by taking a drug that interacts with the same receptor as the original drug
    D. Both may result from lower-than-normal secretion of neurotransmitter and may be alleviated by taking a drug that interacts with the same receptor as the original drug are correct
    E. Include all of the choices

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Of the following substances, which has the greatest potential to cause dependence if used regularly?
    A.Nicotine
    B. Marijuana
    C. Alcohol
    D. Cocaine
    E. Heroin

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Selective attention is facilitated, enhanced and improved by way of the _____ of the brain stem, which acts as the origin point of neurons which project to the cerebral cortex and release ________ neurotransmitter(s)
    A. Pons, acetylcholine
    B.  Basal nuclei, dopamine
    C.  Hypothalamus, serotonin
    D.  Locus coeruleus, norepinephrine
    E.  Thalamus, melatonin

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. About 3-5% of school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurobehavioral problem is anatomically linked, primarily to which area of dysfunction in the brain?
    A. Basal nuclei
    B.  Pituitary gland
    C.  Prefrontal cerebral cortex
    D.  Both basal nuclei and pituitary gland
    E.  Both basal nuclei and prefrontal cerebral cortex

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Unlike long-term memory, working memory
    A. Has unlimited capacity
    B.  Exists in the form of either graded or action potentials
    C.  Can be disrupted by drugs, electroconvulsive shock or a blow to the head
    D.  Both has unlimited capacity and exists in the form of either graded or action potentials are correct
    E.  Both exists in the form of either graded or action potentials and can be disrupted by drugs, electroconvulsive shock or a blow to the head are correct

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. The transfer of working memory into long-term memory is
    A.Called memory retrieval
    B. Inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin
    C. Thought to be caused by a relatively nonspecific fix signal
    D. Both called memory retrieval and inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin
    E. Both inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin and thought to be caused by a relatively nonspecific fix signal

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A person with bilateral damage to the hippocampus will probably
    A.Suffer from aphasia
    B. Develop symptoms of Parkinsons disease
    C. Suffer impairment of consolidation of declarative memory
    D. Have difficulty learning new physical skills
    E. Experience all of the choices

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Anterograde amnesia is associated with damage to all of the following structures of the brain, except
    A.Thalamus
    B. Hypothalamus
    C. Limbic system
    D. Corpus callosum
    E. Hippocampus

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A person with bilateral damage to the substantia nigra region of the brain will probably
    A.Be unable to speak
    B. Have difficulty understanding language
    C. Have difficulty consolidating declarative memories
    D. Develop resting tremors
    E. Develop complete amnesia

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Damage to which of the following brain structures is most likely to result in difficulty in being able to remember meeting new people?
    A.Thalamus
    B. Hippocampus
    C. Hypothalamus
    D. Corpus callosum
    E. Brocas area

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is an example of declarative memory?
    A.Recognition of a persons face and matching a name to it
    B. Remembering how to ride a bicycle
    C. Being able to recall a phone number for only a short period of time
    D. Being given a specific address and being able to recall it several days or weeks later
    E. Responding to the sight, smell, taste or thought of ones favorite food with salivation and hunger pangs

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. When a person loses consciousness, working memory is interrupted and memories are abolished for all that happened for a variable period of time before the blow that caused unconsciousness. Why?
    A.The traumatic blow to the head caused a concussion through violent displacement of the brain in the skull
    B. There was a deficiency of adequate blood flow to the brain
    C. There was an interruption in the constant stream of neuron potentials to memory facilitation brain areas
    D. Conflicting external interference prevents conversion of short-term to long-term memory
    E. This is an area of neurological research which has not achieved any satisfying conclusions at the present time

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In most people, all of the following functions are lateralized to the left hemisphere except
    A.Arithmetic ability
    B. The ability to read and write
    C. The ability to speak
    D. The ability to recognize faces and read maps
    E. None of these choices, all of these functions are lateralized to the left hemisphere

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Damage to that part of the brain known as Wernickes area is likely to
    A.Cause difficulty in recognizing faces
    B. Be associated with impairment of procedural memory
    C. Impair comprehension of language
    D. Impair ones ability to speak
    E. Cause blindness

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Damage to that part of the brain known as Brocas area is likely to
    A.Cause difficulty in recognizing faces
    B. Be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body
    C. Impair speech
    D. Both cause difficulty in recognizing faces and be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body are correct
    E. Both be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body and impair speech are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Conceptual aphasia is a result of damage to
    A.The mouth and vocal cords
    B. The cerebellum
    C. Brocas area
    D. Wernickes area
    E. The primary visual cortex

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding higher brain functions is true?
    A.A person with damage only to Brocas area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking
    B. A person with damage only to Wernickes area of the brain will have motor aphasia
    C. A person with damage only to Wernickes area of the brain will lose the ability to recognize faces
    D. Both a person with damage only to Brocas area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking and a person with damage only to Wernickes area of the brain will have motor aphasia are true
    E. Both a person with damage only to Brocas area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking and a person with damage only to Wernickes area of the brain will lose the ability to recognize faces are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. The most nearly correct sequence of activation of brain areas when one responds in writing to a verbal command is:
    A.Primary auditory cortex; Wernickes area; Brocas area; supplementary motor cortex; primary motor cortex
    B. Primary auditory cortex; Brocas area; supplementary motor cortex; Wernickes area; primary motor cortex
    C. Primary auditory cortex; Brocas area; Wernickes area; supplementary motor cortex; primary motor cortex
    D. Primary auditory cortex; Brocas area; Wernickes area; primary motor cortex; supplementary motor cortex
    E. Primary auditory cortex; Wernickes area; Brocas area; primary motor cortex; supplementary motor cortex

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. A high-amplitude, spike-wave EEG pattern is characteristic of someone in a coma.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The EEG tracing of a relaxed individual who has closed eyes and is not concentrating on anything in particular is mainly an alpha rhythm.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. EEG arousal is the recording of brain activity of someone who has just been awakened from sleep.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Dreaming occurs when one is in NREM sleep.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Sleep-wake cycles are produced by interactions of nuclei in the brain stem.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In paradoxical sleep an individual is easily aroused from a deep sleep although the EEG pattern which is observed is consistent with that of an individual in NREM sleep.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Lack of an adequate amount of sleep at its worst can cause death, as well as serious memory retention and learning difficulties.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A progressive decrease in an orienting response to a repeated stimulus is called adaptation.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A brain stem nucleus that is strongly implicated in the mechanism for directed attention is the locus coeruleus.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Primary motivated behavior is behavior that is based on changes or anticipated changes in the internal environment.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Aversive motivation leads one to avoid repeating a behavior.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Administration of chlorpromazine to a rat that has an electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus will cause an increase in rate of the rats self-stimulation.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathways include enkephalin, dopamine and epinephrine.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. By reducing the pain associated with some memorable events, enkephalins and endorphins may decrease the motivation for learning to occur.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The integrator of inner emotions and emotional behaviors is the thalamus.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The m

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