Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition Widmaier Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition Widmaier Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition Widmaier Test Bank

Chapter 02

Chemical Composition of the Body

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In an atom, the number of
    A.Protons always equals the number of neutrons
    B. Of protons always equals the number of electrons
    C. Of neutrons always equals the number of electrons
    D. Both protons always equals the number of neutrons and of protons always equals the number of electrons are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atoms identity is directly determined by
    A. The number of electrons it has
    B.  The number of neutrons it has
    C.  The number of protons it has
    D.  The number of bonds it can form
    E.  Its atomic weight

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes. They differ in the number of
    A.Protons
    B. Neutrons
    C. Electrons
    D. Chemical bonds they can form
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A covalent bond between two atoms is
    A. Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom
    B.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom
    C.  The strongest of the chemical bonds
    D.  Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds
    E.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Ions are
    A.Electrically neutral
    B. Electrically charged
    C. Formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    D. Electrically charged and formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. When magnesium loses electrons to become an ion it forms
    A.A covalent bond
    B. A cation
    C. An anion
    D. A new element

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a sports beverage advertises that it replaces the bodys electrolytes, it will replace
    A.Sugars that were broken down for energy
    B. Ionic forms of mineral elements
    C. Lipids that form the membranes of cells
    D. Oxygen and gases used by metabolism
    E. Vitamins

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Of the major ions in the body, the only one that carries a negative charge is
    A.Chloride
    B. Sodium
    C. Potassium
    D. Hydrogen
    E. Calcium

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Free radicals
    A.React rapidly with other atoms
    B. Include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide
    C. Contain two electrons in the outermost orbital
    D. React rapidly with other atoms and include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a free radical reacts with another molecule the free radical will
    A.Remove electrons from the other molecule
    B. Form an unbreakable bond with the other molecule
    C. Remove protons from the other molecule
    D. Stabilize the other molecule
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Electrolytes
    A.Are ions
    B. Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
    C. Are found in pure water
    D. Both are ions and conduct electricity when dissolved in water are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a polar chemical bond?
    A.It is covalent
    B. It is ionized
    C. It has opposite electrical charge at each end
    D. It has no net electrical charge
    E. None of the choices are false

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A polar molecule
    A.Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds
    B. May contain ionized groups
    C. Can form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules
    D. Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds and may contain ionized groups are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrolysis
    A.Involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules
    B. Involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules
    C. Results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body
    D. Both involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules and involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules are correct
    E. Both involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules and results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Consider the adage familiar to anyone who has observed oil spills in the ocean or has made a salad dressing: Oil and water do not mix. Which of the following helps explain this observation?
    A. Oil is hydrophobic
    B.  Oil is nonpolar
    C.  Oil is composed largely of carbon and hydrogen
    D.  Water is hydrophilic
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Molecules that have properties of both polar and nonpolar molecules are called
    A.Hydrophobic
    B. Hydrophilic
    C. Amphipathic
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Compounds A, B and C have molecular weights of 10, 50 and 100 respectively. If 5 grams of each compound were put into 1 liter of water, which compound will have the greatest molar concentration?
    A.Compound A
    B. Compound B
    C. Compound C
    D. All will have the same molar concentration

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The pH of a solution
    A. Is a measure of the concentration of H atoms in solution
    B.  Is a measure of the concentration of bound H+ ions in solution
    C.  Is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution
    D.  Increases as the acidity of the solution increases
    E.  Both is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution and increases as the acidity of the solution increases are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Most of the body weight of an average young adult male is
    A.Water
    B. Protein
    C. Minerals
    D. Lipids
    E. Carbohydrates

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Organic molecules
    A.Always contain oxygen
    B. Always contain carbon
    C. Are always macromolecules
    D. Both always contain oxygen and always contain carbon are correct
    E. Both always contain carbon and are always macromolecules are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are
    A.Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules
    B. The major organic molecules of the body
    C. Nonpolar
    D. Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules and the major organic molecules of the body
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Glucose is a
    A.Monosaccharide
    B. Disaccharide
    C. Polysaccharide
    D. Glycoprotein
    E. Phospholipid

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
    A.Cellulose
    B. Starch
    C. Triacylglycerol
    D. Glycogen
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Relative to carbohydrates, lipids
    A.Contain fewer carbon atoms per molecule
    B. Contain fewer oxygen atoms per molecule
    C. Are more hydrophilic
    D. Are less abundant in the body

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following lipids have regulatory roles in the body?
    A.Steroids
    B. Eicosanoids
    C. Triacylglycerols
    D. Both steroids and eicosanoids are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Proteins are
    A.Critically important for physiological processes
    B. Composed of fatty acids
    C. Composed of nucleic acids
    D. Macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds
    E. Critically important for physiological processes and macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein conformation is
    A.Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein
    B. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds
    C. Affected by interactions with water molecules
    D. Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein and affected by interactions with water molecules
    E. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds and affected by interactions with water molecules

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following correctly describes the strength of the chemical bonds important in protein conformation, from strongest to weakest?
    A.Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals
    B. Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals
    C. Van der Waals, hydrogen, ionic, covalent
    D. Covalent, hydrogen, ionic, van der Waals
    E. Covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The covalent bond formed between two amino acids is called a(n)
    A.Glycosidic bond
    B. Peptide bond
    C. Phosphodiester bond
    D. Ester bond
    E. Hydrolytic bond

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrogen bonding is very important in maintaining the structure of
    A.Lipids
    B. Nucleic acids
    C. Proteins
    D. Nucleic acids and proteins
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Nucleic acids are
    A.Macromolecules
    B. Composed of nucleotides
    C. Distinguished from each other in part by the composition of the sugar they contain
    D. Macromolecules and composed of nucleotides
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Adenosine triphosphate is a(n)
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Nucleotide
    E. Amino acid

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The function of adenosine triphosphate is
    A. To transfer energy in a cell
    B.  Catalyze chemical reactions
    C.  Store large amounts of energy within the cell
    D.  Act as a template for synthesizing lipids
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. An atom is electrically neutral.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The mass of an atom is the sum of its protons and electrons.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The atomic number of an element is given by the number of electrons in the atom.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atomic nucleus is electrically neutral.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The atomic number of an element refers to the number of particles in its atomic nucleus.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Twelve grams of C contains the same number of atoms as one gram of H.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The four most common elements in the body are hydrogen, carbon, calcium and oxygen.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Important mineral elements in the body include Na, Ca and K.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Trace elements such as zinc and manganese are found in minute quantities in the body but do not serve any known function.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The number of covalent bonds that can be formed by a given atom depends upon the number of electrons present in the outermost orbit.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Nitrogen atoms can form a maximum of four covalent bonds with other atoms.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The shape of a molecule may change as atoms rotate about their covalent bonds.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All of the physiologically important atoms of the body readily form ions.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Water molecules can form covalent bonds with other water molecules.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In a molecule of water, an oxygen atom forms a double bond with each of two hydrogen atoms.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The carboxyl ion is an anion.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. NaCl is a molecule formed by the covalent bonding of a sodium atom to a chlorine atom.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All covalent bonds are polar.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. During hydrolysis, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups are formed.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In general, polar molecules will dissolve in polar solvents, while nonpolar molecules cannot.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Solutes that do not dissolve in water are called hydrophilic.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Molecules with both polar and nonpolar regions are called ambidextrous.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The molarity of a solution is a measure of the concentration of the solute.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A solution with a pH of 8 is more acidic than one with a pH of 3.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Organic chemistry is the study of oxygen-containing compounds.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Polysaccharides are polymers of sugar molecules.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Sucrose is called blood sugar because it is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Triacylglycerol is one subclass of lipid molecules.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms linked by double bonds.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Cholesterol is a phospholipid.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Glycoproteins are protein molecules with molecules of glycogen attached to the amino acid side chains.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is known as the secondary structure.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein molecules may consist of more than one polypeptide chain.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Substitution of one amino acid for another in a given protein will inevitably alter the conformation of that protein to a significant degree.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In DNA, thymine binds with adenine and cytosine binds with uracil.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
Use this table to answer the question:

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of H?
    1

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of Na?
    23

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. What is the total (net) charge of an atom of K?
    0

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the gram atomic mass of C?
    12g

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

In the reaction R-COOH   R-COO + H+
COOH is the carboxyl group

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. COO is the ________  ________.
    carboxyl ion

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. H+ represents the ________  ________.
    hydrogen ion

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. R refers to the _____________________.
    remainder of the molecule

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The symbol  indicates that the process is (reversible/irreversible).
    reversible

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A neutral solution has a pH of ____________.
    7.0

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

Chapter 18

The Immune System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The immune system
    A.Must recognize the identity of a foreign cell or substance in order to inactivate it
    B. Must recognize a foreign cell or substance as foreign in order to inactivate it
    C. Can recognize and destroy self cells that have been changed or damaged
    D. Both must recognize the identity of a foreign cell or substance in order to inactivate it and can recognize and destroy self cells that have been changed or damaged are correct
    E. Both must recognize a foreign cell or substance as foreign in order to inactivate it and can recognize and destroy self cells that have been changed or damaged are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements about viruses is not correct? Viruses
    A.Consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by a carbohydrate shell
    B. Require a host cell in order to reproduce themselves
    C. May reside in a host cell for years without killing it
    D. May cause a host cell to become cancerous
    E. May have genetic information in the form of RNA

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The killing of virus-infected or cancerous cells by the immune system is called
    A.Immune oversight
    B. Immune surveillance
    C. Tissue immunity
    D. Phagocytosis
    E. Hemostasis

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Regarding the immune system cells,
    A. Plasma cells are derived from B cells
    B.  Macrophages are derived from basophils
    C.  Monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body
    D.  Both plasma cells are derived from B cells and monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body are correct
    E.  Both macrophages are derived from basophils and monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.01
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the immune system is true?
    A. All cells with important immune-system functions originate in the bone marrow or are derived from precursors or immature cells that originated in bone marrow
    B.  Natural killer cells have functions similar to macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body
    C.  Mast cells are derived from monocytes
    D.  Plasma cells are derived from T lymphocytes
    E.  Macrophages are derived from neutrophils

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.01
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the chemical mediators of inflammatory responses is not true?
    A.They may be secreted by cells residing in the area of injury
    B. They may be secreted by cells that enter the affected area
    C. They may be generated by enzymatic cleavage of proteins in plasma
    D. They are all peptides
    E. They may be chemotaxins

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. After initial entry of bacteria into a cut in the skin, vasodilation of local blood vessels and increased capillary permeability occur. These phenomena are
    A.Part of the specific immune response
    B. Accompanied by chemotaxis of B lymphocytes
    C. Initiated by antibody activation of complement
    D. Components of the inflammatory response
    E. Both part of the specific immune response and initiated by antibody activation of complement are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Chemotaxis
    A.Refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation
    B. Is important only for nonspecific immune responses
    C. Is important only for specific immune responses
    D. Both refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation and is important only for nonspecific immune responses are correct
    E. Both refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation and is important only for specific immune responses are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Chemotaxis
    A.Refers to the chemical attraction of erythrocytes to the site of inflammation
    B. Brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury
    C. Activates macrophages
    D. Both refers to the chemical attraction of erythrocytes to the site of inflammation and brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury are correct
    E. Both brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury and activates macrophages are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding phagocytes and phagocytosis is true?
    A.Macrophages, monocytes, and mast cells are phagocytes
    B. Contact of phagocytes with microbes stimulates the phagocytes to release chemicals that stimulate the inflammatory response
    C. Phagocytosis is stimulated by the presence of proteins called rhodopsins
    D. Both macrophages, monocytes, and mast cells are phagocytes and contact of phagocytes with microbes stimulates the phagocytes to release chemicals that stimulate the inflammatory response are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding phagocytosis is true?
    A.Macrophages are the only phagocytes in the tissues
    B. The microbe engulfed by the phagocyte is killed by lysosomal enzymes and hydrogen peroxide
    C. Phagocytosis is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism whereby phagocytes release chemicals that inhibit further phagocytosis
    D. The microbe engulfed by the phagocyte is killed by the membrane attack complex (MAC)
    E. None of these statements are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Cells in the immune system that can phagocytose or endocytose antigen include macrophages
    A. And NK cells
    B.  Neutrophils, and B cells
    C.  And cytotoxic T cells
    D.  And neutrophils
    E.  Only

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding complement is true?
    A. Complement refers to a protein that is present in blood in an inactive form
    B.  Activated complement can form a membrane attack complex, which causes lysis of microbes
    C.  Activated complement stimulates cells to secrete chemicals that cause vasoconstriction
    D.  Both complement refers to a protein that is present in blood in an inactive form and activated complement can form a membrane attack complex, which causes lysis of microbes are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding complement is true?
    A.It is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule
    B. It is activated by contact with collagen on the surface of microbes
    C. Activated complement proteins can function as opsonins
    D. Both it is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule and it is activated by contact with collagen on the surface of microbes are true
    E. Both it is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule and activated complement proteins can function as opsonins are true

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Complement
    A.Is the name of a specific family of proteins that interact in a defined, complex sequence
    B. Is secreted by lymphocytes
    C. Enhances antibody activity
    D. Both is the name of a specific family of proteins that interact in a defined, complex sequence and enhances antibody activity are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the activation of complement is true?
    A.Complement is activated only as a result of nonspecific immune responses
    B. Complement is activated only as a result of specific immune responses
    C. Complement is activated as a result of both nonspecific and specific immune responses, but the activation by specific immune responses is more robust
    D. Complement is activated as a result of both nonspecific and specific immune responses, but the activation by nonspecific immune responses is more robust
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Kinins are
    A.Part of the complement family
    B. Vasodilators
    C. Chemotaxins
    D. Part of the complement family and vasodilators
    E. Vasodilators and chemotaxins

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Interferon
    A.Is a family of protein mediators
    B. Interferes with viral replication in cells
    C. Enters cells and directly affects their protein-assembly functions
    D. Both is a family of protein mediators and interferes with viral replication in cells are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the lymphoid organs is not true?
    A.The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus
    B. The thymus secretes hormones
    C. Large numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes and spleen
    D. The tonsils act as a first line of defense against microbes in food
    E. Once a lymphocyte reaches a peripheral lymphoid organ, it remains there for its lifetime

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which if the following statements regarding major histocompatibility proteins (MHCs) is true?
    A.Class I MHCs are found on all nucleated cells in the body
    B. Class II MHCs are found on macrophages and B cells
    C. Cytotoxic T cells require class II MHCs to recognize foreign antigens
    D. Both class I MHCs are found on all nucleated cells in the body and class II MHCs are found on macrophages and B cells are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Helper T cells
    A.Are activated by antigen presented with MHC II proteins
    B. Secrete interferon-gamma when activated
    C. Secrete perforin when activated
    D. Both are activated by antigen presented with MHC II proteins and secrete interferon-gamma when activated are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Cytotoxic T cells
    A.Secrete perforin, which kills bacteria and viruses by perforating the membrane or coat that surrounds them
    B. Are activated by interleukin 1
    C. Require Class I MHC proteins to recognize foreign antigens
    D. Both secrete perforin, which kills bacteria and viruses by perforating the membrane or coat that surrounds them and are activated by interleukin 1 are correct
    E. Both are activated by interleukin 1 and require Class I MHC proteins to recognize foreign antigens are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the secretions of immune system cells is true?
    A. Interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells
    B.  Interleukin 2 is a paracrine secreted by helper T cells
    C.  Interleukin 1 is a cytokine
    D.  Both interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells and interleukin 1 is a cytokine are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the secretions of immune system cells is true?
    A. Interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by cytotoxic T cells
    B.  Interleukin 1 is a paracrine secreted by macrophages and B lymphocytes
    C.  Interleukin 1 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells
    D.  Both interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by cytotoxic T cells and interleukin 1 is a paracrine secreted by macrophages and B lymphocytes are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Natural killer cells
    A. Are activated by IL-2 and interferon-gamma
    B.  Have no MHC restriction
    C.  Can bind to the Fc portion of antibodies bound to antigen
    D.  Both are activated by IL-2 and interferon-gamma and can bind to the Fc portion of antibodies bound to antigen are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Activated macrophages
    A.Are activated by interferon-gamma
    B. Preferentially kill abnormal body cells
    C. Secrete tumor necrosis factor
    D. Both are activated by interferon-gamma and preferentially kill abnormal body cells are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Antibodies are
    A.Secreted by helper T cells
    B. Cytokines
    C. Immunoglobulins
    D. Composed of two polypeptide chains a heavy chain and a light chain
    E. Cytokines and immunoglobulins

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Antibodies
    A.Are secreted by plasma cells
    B. Protect against viruses by binding to them and presenting them to phagocytes
    C. Protect against viruses by binding to them and neutralizing them
    D. Activate complement
    E. Are described by all of these choices

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. When an antigen is bound to an antibody, it binds to
    A.The heavy immunoglobulin chain only
    B. The light immunoglobulin chain only
    C. A specific antigen-binding site formed by heavy and light chains
    D. A hypervariable region of immunoglobulin DNA
    E. Gamma immunoglobulin only

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Compared to undifferentiated B cells,
    A.Plasma cells are more effective antigen-presenting cells
    B. Plasma cells have increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum
    C. Memory cells respond faster to antigen
    D. Both plasma cells are more effective antigen-presenting cells and memory cells respond faster to antigen are correct
    E. Both plasma cells have increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum and memory cells respond faster to antigen are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Binding of IgG or IgM to an antigen
    A.Activates the complement system by the classical complement pathway
    B. Facilitates production of MAC
    C. Stimulates phagocytosis by enabling phagocytes to be bound to the antigen
    D. Is an example of allosteric protein modulation
    E. Is described by all of these choices

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Systemic responses to infection
    A.Are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor
    B. Include resetting the bodys thermostat, so that body temperature is maintained lower than normal
    C. Include secretion of iron and zinc into the blood by the liver
    D. Both are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor and include resetting the bodys thermostat, so that body temperature is maintained lower than normal are correct
    E. Both are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor and include secretion of iron and zinc into the blood by the liver are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.04
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following is not a systemic effect of IL-1 and other cytokines in response to infection or tissue injury?
    A.Increased plasma levels of amino acids
    B. Increased secretion of colony-stimulating factors
    C. Decreased appetite
    D. Secretion of acute-phase proteins by the liver
    E. Stimulation of helper T cells

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.04
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. AIDS is
    A.Caused by a retrovirus
    B. Caused by a virus that contains RNA
    C. Transmitted by intimate contact with infected blood, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, or by an infected mother to her fetus or breast-fed infant
    D. Both caused by a retrovirus and transmitted by intimate contact with infected blood, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, or by an infected mother to her fetus or breast-fed infant are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Graft rejection
    A.Occurs primarily because donor macrophages recognize the host tissue as foreign
    B. Can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation
    C. Can be combated by drugs that inhibit cytokine secretion
    D. Both occurs primarily because donor macrophages recognize the host tissue as foreign and can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation are correct
    E. Both can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and can be combated by drugs that inhibit cytokine secretion are correct

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A subject with type O blood has
    A.Erythrocytes carrying type A antigen
    B. Erythrocytes carrying type B antigen
    C. Antibodies to type A and type B antigen in his/her plasma
    D. Erythrocytes carrying type A antigen and erythrocytes carrying type B antigen
    E. None of these things

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding blood-type incompatibilities between a mother and her fetus is true?
    A.An Rh-negative fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-positive
    B. An Rh-positive fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-negative
    C. A fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood
    D. Both an Rh-negative fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-positive and a fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood are true
    E. Both an Rh-positive fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-negative and a fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood are true

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Allergic reactions are the result of
    A.Inappropriate responses by the immune system to stimuli that are not antigens
    B. Mast cells and IgE activity
    C. Parasite infestation
    D. Mast cells and IgE activity and parasite infestation
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Autoimmune diseases
    A.Include multiple sclerosis and AIDS
    B. Can be treated by drugs that suppress the immune system
    C. Are diseases in which the immune system is damaged by microbes that kill leukocytes
    D. Both include multiple sclerosis and AIDS and can be treated by drugs that suppress the immune system are correct
    E. Both include multiple sclerosis and AIDS and are diseases in which the immune system is damaged by microbes that kill leukocytes are correct

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Individuals who have been infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    A.May show no signs or symptoms of the disease
    B. Generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood
    C. Succumb to the disease in a relatively brief period of time after infection due to massive loss and failure to replace T lymphocytes
    D. Both may show no signs or symptoms of the disease and generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood are correct
    E. Both generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood and succumb to the disease in a relatively brief period of time after infection due to massive loss and failure to replace T lymphocytes

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Each of the following are typically associated with the transmission of HIV/AIDS, except:
    A.Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner
    B. Through kissing or contact with items contaminated by the saliva of an infected individual
    C. Transmission from an infected mother to her fetus across the placenta during pregnancy or delivery
    D. Transfer via breast milk during nursing
    E. Transfer of contaminated blood or blood products from one person to another

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The rationale behind the drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS, is to reduce the number of viruses present in the body to infect otherwise healthy cells, by all of the following methods, except:
    A.Inhibition of the reverse transcriptase enzyme
    B. Interference with the processes involved in expression of viral nucleic acid by the host cell
    C. Blocking an alpha protease enzyme associated with the assembly of the virus
    D. Chemical agents directed at interruption of mitosis in host cells for the virus
    E. Blocking the attachment and fusion of the HIV viruses with T lymphocyte host cells

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Immune surveillance refers to the search for and destruction of bacteria in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The bodys first line of defense against invasion by microbes is a physical and chemical barrier.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The local response to injury in the body is called infection.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Histamine is a mediator of inflammatory responses that is generated by enzymatic cleavage of a plasma precursor.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. A consequence of inflammation is increased capillary filtration and edema, which causes swelling and pain.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A chemical that causes binding of a phagocyte to a microbe is called a chemotaxin.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A phagocyte can kill a microbe only after phagocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Specific immune responses differ from nonspecific ones in that the former are mediated by lymphocytes.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Bone marrow and thymus are the primary sites of lymphocyte maturation.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. B and T cells are preprogrammed to recognize specific antigens.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The two broad categories of specific immune responses are antibody-mediated and humoral.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. In cell-mediated immune responses, immune cells directly kill antigen-bearing cells.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Cytotoxic T cells kill body cells by phagocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Helper T cells bind to antigen complexed with class II MHC proteins, while cytotoxic T cells bind to antigen complexed with class I MHC proteins.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Helper T cells are important only for cell-mediated immune responses.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember<

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