A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder Test Bank

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A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 2: The Christian Church in the First Millenium

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in the year
a. 70 C.E. d. 395 C.E.
b. 313 C.E. e. 476 C.E.
c. 392 C.E.  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   23

TOP:   The Diffusion of Christianity         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The main practice shared by early Judaism and early Christianity was
a. the chanting of psalms d. sacrificing a lamb
b. dancing e. the singing of hymns
c. living in monasteries  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2324            TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Judaic system of chanting sacred texts according to a system of melodic formulas matching phrase divisions is called
a. cantillation d. reciting tone
b. echoi e. tonoi
c. psalmody  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   24                  TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The focal point of the Christian Mass is a symbolic reenactment of
a. the birth of Christ d. the Last Supper
b. the choir of Levites singing psalms e. the ritual sacrifice of a lamb
c. the crucifixion of Christ  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   24                  TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The group of influential Christian writers known as the Church Fathers includes all of the following except
a. St. Augustine d. St. John Chrysostom
b. St. Basil e. St. Paul
c. St. Jerome  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Church Fathers advocated the singing of psalms because
a. it distanced Christian worship from pagan rituals
b. it made it easier to remember the words
c. it provoked devout thoughts and ideas of divine beauty
d. it reminded worshippers of Jesus of Nazareths Jewish heritage
e. it was enjoyable and gave pleasure

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. When did the Roman Empire split into the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire, centered in Constantinople, and the Western Empire, centered in Rome and Milan?
a. 70 C.E. d. 395 C.E.
b. 313 C.E. e. 476 C.E.
c. 392 C.E.  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   25

TOP:   Divisions of the Church and Dialects of Chant               MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Who is likely to have written this: When the Holy Spirit saw that mankind was ill-inclined toward virtue and that we were heedless of the righteous life because of our inclination to pleasure, what did he do? He blended the delight of melody with doctrine on order that through the pleasantness and softness of sound we might unawares receive what was useful in the

words. . . . For this purpose these harmonious melodies of the Psalms have been designed for us.

a. St. Ambrose d. St. Gregory
b. St. Basil e. St. Peter
c. St. Benedict  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   26

TOP:   Music in the Early Church | St. Basil on Psalms              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The schedule of days commemorating special events in the lives of Christ and the saints or times of year is called the
a. Christian Rite d. Mass
b. church calendar e. service
c. liturgy  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   27

TOP:   Divisions of the Church and Dialects of Chant               MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Byzantine chant spread from the Eastern Empire to
a. France d. Russia
b. Germany e. Spain
c. Italy  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   28                  TOP:   Byzantine Chant

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Frankish kings Pippin the Short and Charlemagne (Charles the Great) reigned
a. ca. 675ca. 750 d. ca. 875ca. 950
b. ca. 750ca. 815 e. ca. 9501025
c. ca. 815ca. 875  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Popes and secular rulers from the eighth century on sought to standardize the Catholic liturgy in order to
a. centralize political and spiritual authority
b. create a sense of unity among congregants
c. identify and persecute non-believers
d. reunite the Eastern and Western Empires
e. revive the ideas of the Church Fathers

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   29                  TOP:   Western Dialects

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The Holy Roman Empire was established when
a. Emperor Theodosius declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
b. Frankish king Pippin the Short brought the Roman liturgy and chant to his domain
c. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, King of the Franks, emperor
d. the Roman Empire fell
e. the Roman Empire was partitioned into the Eastern and Western Empires

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which phrase best describes Old Roman chant?
a. a chant repertory preserved in twelfth and thirteenth centuries that may or may not be related to the original chant repertory of the Schola Cantorum
b. a chant repertory with origins in the early Christian church during the time of the Roman Empire
c. the fund of melodic formulas and conventions on which singers improvised chant during the era of oral transmission
d. modern editions of chant prepared by the monks of Solesmes in the early twentieth century adopted as the official chant by the Vatican in Rome
e. a term synonymous with Gregorian Chant

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   31

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The similarities and differences from phrase to phrase of this melody provide evidence that
a. chant melodies may have been composed using a pool of melodic contours and formulas
b. early notation was only an approximate way of preserving chant melodies
c. oral transmission was unreliable
d. the melody resulted from a blend of various chant dialects
e. the Schola Cantorum purposely taught the Franks incorrect melodies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   3132            TOP:   Oral Transmission

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why did church musicians develop a system for notating chant?
a. it helped advance the goal of disseminating a unified liturgy
b. the vast repertory was too difficult to learn by rote memorization
c. they wanted congregants to be able to join in the singing
d. they wanted it to be a secret repertory, available only to the literate
e. they wanted to preserve the music for posterity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   32                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. When did chant notation evolve from unheightened neumes to staff notation?
a. ca. 500600 d. ca. 8501025
b. ca. 600750 e. ca. 10251150
c. ca. 750850  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   3235            TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The idea of staff lines and clefs was suggested by
a. Boethius d. St. Gregory
b. Guido of Arezzo e. the Monks of Solesmes
c. Martianus Capella  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. F and C clefs were the most often used in chant notation because they are
a. a fifth apart
b. positioned just above the semitones in the diatonic scale
c. the finals of the most often used modes
d. the first notes of two of the hexachords
e. the reciting tones of the most often used modes

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is the correct transcription of this phrase?
a. d.
b. e.
c.  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   3638            TOP:   Solesmes Chant Notation

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. This writer was one of the first to articulate the concept of the seven liberal arts, which include music.
a. Guido of Arezzo d. St. Augustine
b. Martianus Capella e. St. Gregory
c. Pippin the Short, King of the Franks  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   38

TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which mode is recognizable by its distinctive semitone interval above the final?
a. Dorian d. Mixolydian
b. Hypodorian e. Phrygian
c. Lydian  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   40                  TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A melody that occupies a range from a fourth or fifth below the final to a sixth above the final is called
a. authentic d. plagal
b. hard e. soft
c. natural  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   4041            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is the mode of this chant?
a. Dorian
b. Phyrgian
c. Lydian
d. Mixolydian
e. the chant does not clearly conform to any mode

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   4042            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a reciting tone?
a. the first note of a chant
b. the highest note of a chant
c. the last note of a chant
d. the lowest note of a chant
e. the most frequent or prominent note of a chant

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   42                  TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The early church leaders discouraged the use of music for pleasure.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The system of classifying Gregorian chants into eight church modes had its origins in Byzantine chant.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   28                  TOP:   Byzantine Chant

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Schola Cantorum was the institution musicians attended in order to learn Gregorian chant.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most chant manuscripts from the Middle Ages were copied in monasteries.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   33

TOP:   Stages of Notation| Music In Context | In the Monastic Scriptorum

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Heightened neumes indicate the specific pitches of chant melodies.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Chant notation from the Middle Ages gives consistent indications of rhythmic values.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   3637            TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the Middle Ages, music was considered a verbal art, along with grammar and rhetoric.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   38

TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The eight church modes (Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, etc.) correspond to the ancient Greek modes.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   4243            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The Medieval solmization system had six notes.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   43                  TOP:   Solmization

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The three hexachord positions are called authentic, hard, and soft.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   4344            TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Who issued the Edict of Milan, making it legal to practice Christianity in the Roman Empire?

 

ANS:

Emperor Constantine

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   23                  TOP:   The Diffusion of Christianity

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why did the church fathers disapprove of using musical instruments in church?

 

ANS:

They believed that only music that delivered Christian teaching and holy thoughts was worthy of hearing in church and that music without words could not do this. It also distanced them from pagan spectacles involving large choruses, instruments, and dancing.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why did different dialects of chant develop in various regions of Western Europe in the fifth through ninth centuries?

 

ANS:

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was controlled by different groups of people in different regions, such as the Franks in Gaul (approximate modern-day France). They all had different local and regional rites with their own bodies of chants or dialects.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   28                  TOP:   Western Dialects

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. This painting illustrates what legend?

 

 

ANS:

It illustrates the legend that the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove to St. Gregory and dictated the repertory of Catholic chant to him.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   3031            TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is a neume?

 

ANS:

A neume is an early notation sign that indicates the melodic gesture for each syllable, including the number of notes, the melodic contour, and whether notes are repeated. It might indicate rhythm or manner of performance.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Today we think of music as an applied, practical, or performing art. Why did theorists in the Middle Ages consider it a liberal art, along with such disciplines as dialectic (logic) and arithmetic?

 

ANS:

Theorists in the Middle Ages thought more about the mathematical and philosophical aspects of music. They thought about how ratios and proportions create consonances, dissonances, and tuning. They also thought about how music can affect the body and soul, and would prepare the student for more advanced philosophical studies.  Music was an object of knowledge and inquiry.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   39                  TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. This music theorist divided music into three categories, musica mundana (music of the universe), musica humana (human music), and musica instrumentalis (instrumental music).

 

ANS:

Boethius

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   39                  TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Some chants do not conform to the rules of modal theory. Why is this?

 

ANS:

Modal theory was first described in the later Middle Ages, for example in Musica enchiriadis and in the writings of Guido dArezzo (ca. 102528). However, many chants were composed before the system was codified. Many of these do not conform to the rules. Chants composed after the tenth century often conform very clearly.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   42 | 4445     TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why are the hexachords on G and F known as the hard and soft hexachords, respectively?

 

ANS:

The hexachord on G includes the pitch B-natural, represented as a square or hard  b sign. The hexachord on F includes a b-flat, represented as a round or soft b sign that looks like our modern flat sign.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   4344            TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Identify this image. How was it used?

 

ANS:

This is the Guidonian Hand. It was used to teach music students how to find pitches of a melody on the system of hexachords. It shows the solmization syllables for each note.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   44                  TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Applied

 

MATCHING

 

Match the name of the chant dialect to the region in which it was cultivated.

a. Ambrosian d. Gallican
b. Beneventan e. Mozarabic
c. Byzantine  

 

 

  1. France

 

  1. Greece, Turkey, eastern Europe

 

  1. northern Italy

 

  1. southern Italy

 

  1. Spain

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

Match each author to the correct title.

a. Anonymous d. Martianus Capella
b. Boethius e. St. Augustine
c. Guido of Arezzo  

 

 

  1. Confessions

 

  1. De institutione musica (The Fundamentals of Music)

 

  1. The Marriage of Mercury and Philology

 

  1. Micrologus

 

  1. Musica enchiriadis (Music Handbook)

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

ESSAY

 

  1. In what ways is the history of Western music indebted to and intertwined with Christianity?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Discuss the role of memory and notation in the learning and performance of chant in the Middle Ages.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

CHAPTER 4: Song and Dance Music to 1300

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. From ca. 800 to ca. 1200, Europe experienced
a. aggregation of wealth among the nobility
b. economic, educational, and artistic growth
c. invasions by the Arabs
d. population decline due to disease and famine
e. territorial expansion

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   6769            TOP:   European Society, 8001300

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Charlemagne was a
a. Holy Roman Emperor d. pope
b. king of Spain e. trouvre
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   68                  TOP:   European Society, 8001300

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Goliard songs are in what language?
a. English d. Italian
b. French e. Latin
c. German  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   7071            TOP:   Latin and Vernacular Songss

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. An epic narrative poem describing the deeds of a heroic character is called a
a. carole d. pastourelle
b. chanson de geste e. rondeau
c. goliard song  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   71                  TOP:   Vernacular Song

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why do scholars believe that the surviving secular song and dance repertory represents mostly that of the upper classes of society?
a. music of the lower social classes was formulaic
b. music of the lower social classes was mostly improvised
c. only the music of the upper class was considered worthy of preserving
d. people in the lower social classes were not allowed to make music
e. the lower social classes were nonliterate and so they could not write down their music

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   72

TOP:   Vernacular Song| Minstrels and Other Professional Musicians

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The modern French language evolved from which Medieval vernacular language?
a. Frankish d. langue dol
b. Galician e. Roman
c. langue doc  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   7374

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Eleanor of Aquitaine was all of the following except
a. Countess of Dia d. Queen of England
b. Duchess of Aquitaine e. Queen of France
c. Duchess of Normandy  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Bernart de Ventadorn was a
a. goliard d. troubadour
b. jongleur e. trouvre
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Bernart de Ventadorn worked for
a. Adam de la Halle d. Hildegard of Bingen
b. Charlemagne e. King Alfonso el Sabio
c. Eleanor of Aquitaine  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Because the same troubadour or trouvre song may appear in several manuscripts with slight variations in the text and music, scholars believe that
a. later musicians adapted the old songs to appeal to more modern tastes
b. the scribes were unfamiliar with the music
c. the songs were transmitted orally and later written down
d. the troubadours and trouvres could not read or write music
e. the troubadours and trouvres were not concerned about creating a single authoritative version of the song

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   7475

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song      MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The theme of fin amors in trouvre songs concerns the topic of
a. the adoration of Mary
b. couples who cheat on each other
c. love of fine food and wine
d. respectful love toward an unattainable noble woman
e. sexually explicit love between peasants

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   75

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song | Poetry                          MSC:  Applied

 

  1. All of the following statements are true of troubadour and trouvre melodies except
a. the declamation is usually melismatic
b. the melodic range tends to be narrow
c. melodies move mostly by seconds and thirds
d. phrases are usually arch-shaped
e. they can often be analyzed according the Church modes

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   76

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvre Song | Melodies                                MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Pastoral songs take place in what kind of setting?
a. a church or monastery d. a rural setting
b. a city street e. a tavern
c. a court castle  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Adam de la Halle composed which piece?
a. A chantar d. Jeu de Robin et de Marion
b. Cantigas de Santa Maria e. Le Manuscrit du roi
c. Chanson de Rolande  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Adam de la Halles Robins maime is in
a. bar form d. strophic form
b. cantiga form e. versus form
c. rondeau form  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. After the Norman Conquest, this language was used by the nobility in England.
a. English d. Latin
b. French e. Norse
c. German  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   79                  TOP:   English Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Walther von der Vogelweide was a famous
a. Crusader d. music theorist
b. Holy Roman Emperor e. troubadour
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Stollen and Abgesang are parts of a song in
a. antiphonal form d. refrain form
b. bar form e. strophic form
c. conductus form  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Walther von der Vogelweides Palstinalied is a song about
a. Charlemagne d. penitence
b. the Crusades e. the rise of Islam
c. finamors  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most laude originated in
a. the French countryside d. Italian monasteries
b. German courts e. Spanish cities
c. Italian cities  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   80                  TOP:   Laude

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What kind of a song is this text from?

O que a Santa Mara mais despraz,

de quen ao su Fillo pesar faz.

 

E daquest un gran miragre, vos qur u ra contar,

que a Renna do Co, quis en Toledo mostrar

eno da que a Dus foi corar,

na sa fsta que no mes d Agosto jaz.

 

O que a Santa Mara mais despraz.

de quen ao su Fillo pesar faz.

a. cantiga d. Minnelied
b. carole e. troubadour song
c. laude  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   80                  TOP:   Cantigas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which form best represents the musical/poetic structure of a cantiga?
a. AAB d. AB AB AB
b. AA BB CC e. A bba A
c. AB aab AB  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   77 | 80            TOP:   Cantigas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a shawm?
a. a brass instrument without values that can play only the partial series
b. a double-reed instrument similar to an oboe
c. a fiddle-like bowed string instrument
d. a small drum
e. a string instrument that sounds a drone by cranking a wheel

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   81                  TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a carole?
a. a French instrumental dance d. an Italian penitential song
b. a French love song e. a Latin Christmas song
c. a French satirical song  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   82                  TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of medieval dance?
a. cantiga d. estampie
b. conductus e. Stollen
c. contrafactum  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   8283            TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The Arab world significantly influenced the development of European culture in the Middle Ages.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   6768  

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